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  • AMERICAN MATHEMATICS IN A FLAT WORLD



    Devlin's Angle

    The Mathematical Association of America
    MAA online
    January 2008

    American Mathematics in a Flat World

    If you thought this column was going to be about A. A. Abbott's classic novella, then you probably haven't been keeping up with your "required" reading. The flat world I am talking about is the one Thomas Friedman wrote about in his bestselling clarion-call book The World is Flat.
    Why do I say this is "required" of all mathematics teachers at all levels? Read on. Then, please, please read Friedman's book.

    Then (my final request), get hold of the documentary film Two Million Minutes.

    I received an invitation to see a private screening of this film in Palo Alto late last year, where its conceiver, financier, and executive producer Bob Compton talked about why he made the film and answered (many) questions from the audience. Compton is a highly successful venture capitalist, whose work takes him frequently to India and China, as well as all over the USA, giving him an opportunity to see up close the educational systems of all three nations, and how suited they are (or are not) to producing the kinds of people who will be successful in Friedman's flat world.

    The film's title refers to the length of time a student spends in school from the 8th grade to graduation from high school. It follows three pairs of high school students, one in the USA, one in India, and one pair in China, as they go through a typical day, at school and at home.

    Compton freely admits he did not set out to make a dispassionate documentary. He has an angle and he has made sufficient money in his career to be able to put out his views as a one-hour movie. So he gets to choose what is in the film. But he leaves it to the audience to reach whatever conclusion they may after seeing it.

    I suspect that the "intended" readers of this column - college math professors - will reach the same conclusion as I did after seeing the film, and in fact will not need the movie to tell them what they already know. When it comes to mathematics education, the USA became an also ran to India and China long ago, and in the future we will have to commoditize and outsource most of our mathematics and engineering just as we already do with manufacturing, customer support, financial services, and software development.

    Of course, the familiar comparison I just alluded to is not as simple as that. In the USA we took the tack of structuring and providing education for all students. China and India have vast populations, most in considerable poverty (though China, in particular, is changing rapidly in that regard), and only a small percentage are getting the math-rich education you see in Compton's film. But a small percentage of such huge populations still generates a large number of young people mathematically superior to the average American college graduate.

    A simplistic response to the mathematical divide portrayed in Two Million Minutes (a divide that, on the aggregate, national level, we are on the underdog side of) might be to try to revamp our education system to compete with India and China, but I don't see that as feasible on several counts.

    First, while the current US President may well mark an all-time low in math and science ignorance and illiteracy among our nation's leaders, the entire Congress is hardly awash with scientific and technologically knowledgeable individuals. The government won't and can't fix our education system because they don't know how and, since the 1960s, have demonstrated over and over again that they are not prepared to listen to those who do and follow their advice.

    Second, whatever we do at a national level, there is no way we can create the huge personal need and family support it takes to motivate a young person to spend the enormous amount of time and effort required to master math and science. (That doesn't mean that we should not try to provide the support and resources to meet the needs of those American children who do have that drive; but government won't do that either - "No Child Left Behind" cashes out as "All Children Kept Behind".)

    China and India are going to capture the market in doing the world's mathematics just as they already have in other spheres. But that does not necessarily mean that the USA will lose the one lead it clearly does possess: innovation and risk taking. Silicon Valley, where I live, is largely fueled by Asian-born engineers, and the main change being brought about by the global communications of Friedman's flat world is that many of them will no longer have to uproot themselves and their families and go through the hostile procedures of the US Immigration Service in order to carry out that work. But the bulk of the work that will go overseas in that way is the stuff the can be commoditized. In the case of mathematics, that means "Do the (routine) math required to make X possible." We can still hold on to the crucial first step of dreaming up the X (and its uses) in the first place.

    Or can we? Is my scenario realistic? Can we commoditize and outsource math the same we do manufacturing or financial services. I don't know. For some mathematical tasks, for sure. Indeed, for some it has already happened. But the outsourcing issue is never as simple as it is often portrayed. If the outsourcer does not understand, at a deep level, what is being outsourced, then it's only a matter of time before the entire enterprise moves overseas.

    Outsourcing mathematics strikes me as particularly tricky, since "understanding at a deep level" seems tightly interweaved with being able to do math (i.e., solve mathematical problems). But I don't think we have any choice. In terms of sheer numbers, India and China already dwarf the USA in terms of young people who can solve difficult mathematical problems. The only thing we have left as a nation is coming up with those problems (and the applications for their solutions) in the first place and making good use of the answers when we get them back.

    The good news is that, because our society provides great individual freedom and we have a cultural tendency to innovate, entrepreneurial individuals can always sidestep government inadequacies and obstructions. As a result, we have an enviable track record on the innovation front. I believe the time has come to look at innovating the way mathematics is used in the real world and, correspondingly, how it is taught.

    I gave up on the country of my birth (the UK) twenty years ago when it told me it no longer had need for people such as myself (not far from an exact quote from the Vice Chancellor ("President") of the university where I taught, acting under government pressure to reduce its mathematics department by 50%). Having lived through the decline of my home country as a world powerhouse in innovation and economics, I am not about to give up on the country that welcomed me with open arms. Perhaps that is why I care so passionately that we re-conceptualize the way we use and teach mathematics to ensure that the USA remains a world intellectual and economic leader.

    What form will such re-conceptualization take? At the K-12 level, I have opinions and ideas, but little expertise or experience, so I'll leave that to others. But I do have a lifetime experience teaching math at the college level, indeed, experience in teaching the kinds of mathematics courses I think will be essential to our survival as a major player on the world stage. I'll write about that in my next column, a month from now.

    But here is a clue. When we teach English, the primary goal is to make people literate, able to read critically, and to use language effectively. We do not set out to produce novelists.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Devlin's Angle is updated at the beginning of each month.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Mathematician Keith Devlin (email: devlin@csli.stanford.edu) is the Executive Director of the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University and The Math Guy on NPR's Weekend Edition. Devlin's most recent book, Solving Crimes with Mathematics: THE NUMBERS BEHIND NUMB3RS, is the companion book to the hit television crime series NUMB3RS, and is co-written with Professor Gary Lorden of Caltech, the lead mathematics adviser on the series. It was published in September by Plume.

    Copyright ©2007 The Mathematical Association of America
    Please send comments, suggestions, or corrections for this page to webmaster@maa.org.

  • #2


    Devlin's Angle

    The Mathematical Association of America
    MAA online
    January 2008

    American Mathematics in a Flat World

    If you thought this column was going to be about A. A. Abbott's classic novella, then you probably haven't been keeping up with your "required" reading. The flat world I am talking about is the one Thomas Friedman wrote about in his bestselling clarion-call book The World is Flat.
    Why do I say this is "required" of all mathematics teachers at all levels? Read on. Then, please, please read Friedman's book.

    Then (my final request), get hold of the documentary film Two Million Minutes.

    I received an invitation to see a private screening of this film in Palo Alto late last year, where its conceiver, financier, and executive producer Bob Compton talked about why he made the film and answered (many) questions from the audience. Compton is a highly successful venture capitalist, whose work takes him frequently to India and China, as well as all over the USA, giving him an opportunity to see up close the educational systems of all three nations, and how suited they are (or are not) to producing the kinds of people who will be successful in Friedman's flat world.

    The film's title refers to the length of time a student spends in school from the 8th grade to graduation from high school. It follows three pairs of high school students, one in the USA, one in India, and one pair in China, as they go through a typical day, at school and at home.

    Compton freely admits he did not set out to make a dispassionate documentary. He has an angle and he has made sufficient money in his career to be able to put out his views as a one-hour movie. So he gets to choose what is in the film. But he leaves it to the audience to reach whatever conclusion they may after seeing it.

    I suspect that the "intended" readers of this column - college math professors - will reach the same conclusion as I did after seeing the film, and in fact will not need the movie to tell them what they already know. When it comes to mathematics education, the USA became an also ran to India and China long ago, and in the future we will have to commoditize and outsource most of our mathematics and engineering just as we already do with manufacturing, customer support, financial services, and software development.

    Of course, the familiar comparison I just alluded to is not as simple as that. In the USA we took the tack of structuring and providing education for all students. China and India have vast populations, most in considerable poverty (though China, in particular, is changing rapidly in that regard), and only a small percentage are getting the math-rich education you see in Compton's film. But a small percentage of such huge populations still generates a large number of young people mathematically superior to the average American college graduate.

    A simplistic response to the mathematical divide portrayed in Two Million Minutes (a divide that, on the aggregate, national level, we are on the underdog side of) might be to try to revamp our education system to compete with India and China, but I don't see that as feasible on several counts.

    First, while the current US President may well mark an all-time low in math and science ignorance and illiteracy among our nation's leaders, the entire Congress is hardly awash with scientific and technologically knowledgeable individuals. The government won't and can't fix our education system because they don't know how and, since the 1960s, have demonstrated over and over again that they are not prepared to listen to those who do and follow their advice.

    Second, whatever we do at a national level, there is no way we can create the huge personal need and family support it takes to motivate a young person to spend the enormous amount of time and effort required to master math and science. (That doesn't mean that we should not try to provide the support and resources to meet the needs of those American children who do have that drive; but government won't do that either - "No Child Left Behind" cashes out as "All Children Kept Behind".)

    China and India are going to capture the market in doing the world's mathematics just as they already have in other spheres. But that does not necessarily mean that the USA will lose the one lead it clearly does possess: innovation and risk taking. Silicon Valley, where I live, is largely fueled by Asian-born engineers, and the main change being brought about by the global communications of Friedman's flat world is that many of them will no longer have to uproot themselves and their families and go through the hostile procedures of the US Immigration Service in order to carry out that work. But the bulk of the work that will go overseas in that way is the stuff the can be commoditized. In the case of mathematics, that means "Do the (routine) math required to make X possible." We can still hold on to the crucial first step of dreaming up the X (and its uses) in the first place.

    Or can we? Is my scenario realistic? Can we commoditize and outsource math the same we do manufacturing or financial services. I don't know. For some mathematical tasks, for sure. Indeed, for some it has already happened. But the outsourcing issue is never as simple as it is often portrayed. If the outsourcer does not understand, at a deep level, what is being outsourced, then it's only a matter of time before the entire enterprise moves overseas.

    Outsourcing mathematics strikes me as particularly tricky, since "understanding at a deep level" seems tightly interweaved with being able to do math (i.e., solve mathematical problems). But I don't think we have any choice. In terms of sheer numbers, India and China already dwarf the USA in terms of young people who can solve difficult mathematical problems. The only thing we have left as a nation is coming up with those problems (and the applications for their solutions) in the first place and making good use of the answers when we get them back.

    The good news is that, because our society provides great individual freedom and we have a cultural tendency to innovate, entrepreneurial individuals can always sidestep government inadequacies and obstructions. As a result, we have an enviable track record on the innovation front. I believe the time has come to look at innovating the way mathematics is used in the real world and, correspondingly, how it is taught.

    I gave up on the country of my birth (the UK) twenty years ago when it told me it no longer had need for people such as myself (not far from an exact quote from the Vice Chancellor ("President") of the university where I taught, acting under government pressure to reduce its mathematics department by 50%). Having lived through the decline of my home country as a world powerhouse in innovation and economics, I am not about to give up on the country that welcomed me with open arms. Perhaps that is why I care so passionately that we re-conceptualize the way we use and teach mathematics to ensure that the USA remains a world intellectual and economic leader.

    What form will such re-conceptualization take? At the K-12 level, I have opinions and ideas, but little expertise or experience, so I'll leave that to others. But I do have a lifetime experience teaching math at the college level, indeed, experience in teaching the kinds of mathematics courses I think will be essential to our survival as a major player on the world stage. I'll write about that in my next column, a month from now.

    But here is a clue. When we teach English, the primary goal is to make people literate, able to read critically, and to use language effectively. We do not set out to produce novelists.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Devlin's Angle is updated at the beginning of each month.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Mathematician Keith Devlin (email: devlin@csli.stanford.edu) is the Executive Director of the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University and The Math Guy on NPR's Weekend Edition. Devlin's most recent book, Solving Crimes with Mathematics: THE NUMBERS BEHIND NUMB3RS, is the companion book to the hit television crime series NUMB3RS, and is co-written with Professor Gary Lorden of Caltech, the lead mathematics adviser on the series. It was published in September by Plume.

    Copyright ©2007 The Mathematical Association of America
    Please send comments, suggestions, or corrections for this page to webmaster@maa.org.

    Comment


    • #3
      Now here is an example of hypocrisy at its finest....this EET (sorry, CET) lied during her student visa interview so she could attend a university in the US of A !!!! Yet here she is, once again, castigating the very country that she refuses to leave, and continues to insult....well iperson, if the US of A is so bass-ackwards in your view, why not (a) rip up your fraudulently obtained green card and (b) haul your sorry self back to Poland, the country that is leading the world......????well?

      Comment


      • #4
        Last time I checked, polish soldiers were fighting on two fronts with US, the world leader.

        Comment


        • #5
          Irving schools offer transitional classes in majority-Spanish district

          07:02 AM CST on Thursday, December 20, 2007

          By KATHERINE LEAL UNMUTH / The Dallas Morning News
          kunmuth@dallasnews.com

          Walk through the doors of Keyes Elementary School, and a "Bienvenidos" sign greets you first, followed by the English translation, "Welcome."

          REX C. CURRY/Special Contributor

          Veronica Luna, a kindergarten teacher at Keyes Elementary School in Irving, quizzes Lizeth Garcia in a dual-language program's Spanish class. After lunch, the students switch to an English class next door.

          Bilingual signs are everywhere in this Irving school. Children learning English as a second language fill seven of eight kindergarten classrooms.

          Keyes Elementary is living proof of a new milestone that Irving ISD reached this fall: More than half of the district's students come from Spanish-speaking homes. Students who speak only English are a minority.


          Irving now joins Dallas ISD, which crossed the same line three years ago, on the front lines of demographic change in North Texas.

          "As our population changed, our programs evolved," said Keyes principal Irma Vega-Zadeh, who grew up in South Texas and is bilingual. "Our job is to build up their vocabulary."

          Other districts in which more than half the students grew up speaking Spanish at home are clustered along the Texas-Mexico border in communities with a long history of biculturalism. They are very different from Irving, where recent and rapid demographic shifts are fueling immigration tensions.

          "What we've seen in terms of the growth of Latino students and the loss of white students has been going on for a while now," said the district's director of planning, Whit Johnstone. "And that change continues."

          School officials in Texas ask parents two language questions when they enroll their children in school: What language is spoken in your home most of the time? What language does your child speak most of the time?

          If a parent answers either question with a language other than English, that language is recorded as the child's "home language." Then, district officials test the child's English proficiency. If the child tests out as deficient in English skills, school officials recommend placement in bilingual or ESL classes.

          "Just because they speak another language in the home doesn't mean they don't speak English well," said bilingual education director Dora Morón. "That's why we test them."


          Last year, an estimated 1.1 million Texas school students spoke Spanish in the home, according to Texas Education Agency statistics. An estimated 3.4 million spoke only English.

          The next closest language was Vietnamese, with about 28,000 children, followed by Urdu, Korean, Mandarin (Chinese) and Arabic.

          A big challenge

          Assimilating so many children poses a tremendous challenge, and Irving ISD is working to improve bilingual education programs designed to transition students from Spanish to English.

          This year, Irving ISD added a $500 stipend for non-bilingual-education teachers who show they can speak Spanish. This includes principals, office staff and science teachers. Officials also added a bilingual parent coordinator in the central office.

          "We have many parents and other community members who do not speak English well," said assistant superintendent for personnel Neil Dugger. "If you speak Spanish, that gives you an edge."

          Irving for the most part sticks to the traditional transitional bilingual education model – where students are taught mostly in Spanish as young children and then learn mostly in English by fifth grade.

          But the district is slowly expanding the number of dual-language classes – where children learn half the time in each language. That's because of recent research showing better performance on tests than the older program the district has long been using.

          Keyes Elementary does not have enough children who speak English as a first language to offer dual classes that mix children of both language backgrounds together – something the principal said she wishes were possible.
          chart

          Kindergartners in a dual-language class's Spanish room joke amongst themselves in Spanish. Some stare when asked questions in English. They play word games, write in their journals and learn about patterns from their teacher.

          In the English room, they're already writing basic sentences on the wall – "The cat is mad," reads one written by Guadalupe.

          Belinda Olvera says she likes "learning the ABCs" best.

          "First I was in Spanish and then I learned English," said kindergartner Edwin Gonza***.

          The children's teacher for the English portion, Miriam Camacho, was 10 when she arrived in the U.S. from Mexico. She remembers how much she struggled in school because she couldn't understand her teachers.

          Her background makes her more sensitive to her students.

          "After Thanksgiving they started talking to me in English and asking questions," she said. "Their self-esteem goes up because they can speak with other students and teachers who don't speak Spanish."

          For many of these children, their exposure to English is limited to school, or older siblings.

          Carmen Contreras, a mother of three from Mexico, has just a few years of primary school education herself, but recently signed up for English classes at a church. Her children speak to each other in English, but to her in Spanish.

          "There's a lot I'm lacking," she said in Spanish. "I can't help them with homework. They ask 'Mom, can you help?' But I can't. Sometimes they try to translate it for me, but that's more work for them."

          Alma Castillo, an Irving mother, came to the U.S. at age 14 and became a migrant worker. Today, she uses both languages as a secretary.

          In elementary school, her son became confused in bilingual classes and began using Spanish accents with English words. So, she began speaking more English at home with her children. Her husband speaks to them in Spanish.

          "To me, the priority is English," she said.

          Segregated group

          Patricia Gandara, co-director of The Civil Rights Project, said Hispanic children are one of the most segregated groups in American schools today – both in the inner city and in the suburbs.

          Lack of interaction with children who speak English as their first language can have an impact on how children learn, said University of Colorado education professor Kathy Escamilla.

          "It doesn't give them as many opportunities to practice their English in social situations," she said. "When you're outside on the playground, it's more comfortable to speak Spanish. You have no reason to switch if everyone else speaks your native language."

          That doesn't mean the children don't learn over time. A recent survey by the Pew Hispanic Center said U.S.-born adult children of Latino immigrants overwhelmingly report they are strong in English.

          The report also found that the Mexico-born parents have among the lowest English-speaking ability of any country, and much of that is tied to lack of education.

          "Most Latino immigrants are not fluent in English, but their U.S.-born children are," said researcher D'Vera Cohn. "They're holding onto Spanish but they're using it much less than their parents do at home."

          By high school, most of the students chattering in Spanish came to the U.S. in their *****. Other Latino students tend to speak more in English or Spanglish – easily mixing the two.

          So far, community efforts to teach English to adult immigrants have been minimal. Just 300 adults, many of them parents, are currently enrolled in free English classes offered in part by the school district.

          Coordinator Delia Watley said one of the main goals is tear down the language barrier that makes many parents afraid to go into the schools. But a lack of funding prevents further expansion.

          "That only puts a dent into the people who need our services," she said. "There are thousands of folks in Irving who need to learn English. We get calls all day, every day." EMERGING TREND

          The Irving ISD has recently become a district that serves a majority of students who come from homes where Spanish is spoken.
          Wolves Travel In Packs
          ____________________

          Comment


          • #6
            A little off, eh Bev?

            Comment


            • #7
              <BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by Beverly:
              Irving schools offer transitional classes in majority-Spanish district

              07:02 AM CST on Thursday, December 20, 2007

              By KATHERINE LEAL UNMUTH / The Dallas Morning News
              kunmuth@dallasnews.com

              Walk through the doors of Keyes Elementary School, and a "Bienvenidos" sign greets you first, followed by the English translation, "Welcome."

              REX C. CURRY/Special Contributor

              Veronica Luna, a kindergarten teacher at Keyes Elementary School in Irving, quizzes Lizeth Garcia in a dual-language program's Spanish class. After lunch, the students switch to an English class next door.

              Bilingual signs are everywhere in this Irving school. Children learning English as a second language fill seven of eight kindergarten classrooms.

              Keyes Elementary is living proof of a new milestone that Irving ISD reached this fall: More than half of the district's students come from Spanish-speaking homes. Students who speak only English are a minority.


              Irving now joins Dallas ISD, which crossed the same line three years ago, on the front lines of demographic change in North Texas.

              "As our population changed, our programs evolved," said Keyes principal Irma Vega-Zadeh, who grew up in South Texas and is bilingual. "Our job is to build up their vocabulary."

              Other districts in which more than half the students grew up speaking Spanish at home are clustered along the Texas-Mexico border in communities with a long history of biculturalism. They are very different from Irving, where recent and rapid demographic shifts are fueling immigration tensions.

              "What we've seen in terms of the growth of Latino students and the loss of white students has been going on for a while now," said the district's director of planning, Whit Johnstone. "And that change continues."

              School officials in Texas ask parents two language questions when they enroll their children in school: What language is spoken in your home most of the time? What language does your child speak most of the time?

              If a parent answers either question with a language other than English, that language is recorded as the child's "home language." Then, district officials test the child's English proficiency. If the child tests out as deficient in English skills, school officials recommend placement in bilingual or ESL classes.

              "Just because they speak another language in the home doesn't mean they don't speak English well," said bilingual education director Dora Morón. "That's why we test them."


              Last year, an estimated 1.1 million Texas school students spoke Spanish in the home, according to Texas Education Agency statistics. An estimated 3.4 million spoke only English.

              The next closest language was Vietnamese, with about 28,000 children, followed by Urdu, Korean, Mandarin (Chinese) and Arabic.

              A big challenge

              Assimilating so many children poses a tremendous challenge, and Irving ISD is working to improve bilingual education programs designed to transition students from Spanish to English.

              This year, Irving ISD added a $500 stipend for non-bilingual-education teachers who show they can speak Spanish. This includes principals, office staff and science teachers. Officials also added a bilingual parent coordinator in the central office.

              "We have many parents and other community members who do not speak English well," said assistant superintendent for personnel Neil Dugger. "If you speak Spanish, that gives you an edge."

              Irving for the most part sticks to the traditional transitional bilingual education model – where students are taught mostly in Spanish as young children and then learn mostly in English by fifth grade.

              But the district is slowly expanding the number of dual-language classes – where children learn half the time in each language. That's because of recent research showing better performance on tests than the older program the district has long been using.

              Keyes Elementary does not have enough children who speak English as a first language to offer dual classes that mix children of both language backgrounds together – something the principal said she wishes were possible.
              chart

              Kindergartners in a dual-language class's Spanish room joke amongst themselves in Spanish. Some stare when asked questions in English. They play word games, write in their journals and learn about patterns from their teacher.

              In the English room, they're already writing basic sentences on the wall – "The cat is mad," reads one written by Guadalupe.

              Belinda Olvera says she likes "learning the ABCs" best.

              "First I was in Spanish and then I learned English," said kindergartner Edwin Gonza***.

              The children's teacher for the English portion, Miriam Camacho, was 10 when she arrived in the U.S. from Mexico. She remembers how much she struggled in school because she couldn't understand her teachers.

              Her background makes her more sensitive to her students.

              "After Thanksgiving they started talking to me in English and asking questions," she said. "Their self-esteem goes up because they can speak with other students and teachers who don't speak Spanish."

              For many of these children, their exposure to English is limited to school, or older siblings.

              Carmen Contreras, a mother of three from Mexico, has just a few years of primary school education herself, but recently signed up for English classes at a church. Her children speak to each other in English, but to her in Spanish.

              "There's a lot I'm lacking," she said in Spanish. "I can't help them with homework. They ask 'Mom, can you help?' But I can't. Sometimes they try to translate it for me, but that's more work for them."

              Alma Castillo, an Irving mother, came to the U.S. at age 14 and became a migrant worker. Today, she uses both languages as a secretary.

              In elementary school, her son became confused in bilingual classes and began using Spanish accents with English words. So, she began speaking more English at home with her children. Her husband speaks to them in Spanish.

              "To me, the priority is English," she said.

              Segregated group

              Patricia Gandara, co-director of The Civil Rights Project, said Hispanic children are one of the most segregated groups in American schools today – both in the inner city and in the suburbs.

              Lack of interaction with children who speak English as their first language can have an impact on how children learn, said University of Colorado education professor Kathy Escamilla.

              "It doesn't give them as many opportunities to practice their English in social situations," she said. "When you're outside on the playground, it's more comfortable to speak Spanish. You have no reason to switch if everyone else speaks your native language."

              That doesn't mean the children don't learn over time. A recent survey by the Pew Hispanic Center said U.S.-born adult children of Latino immigrants overwhelmingly report they are strong in English.

              The report also found that the Mexico-born parents have among the lowest English-speaking ability of any country, and much of that is tied to lack of education.

              "Most Latino immigrants are not fluent in English, but their U.S.-born children are," said researcher D'Vera Cohn. "They're holding onto Spanish but they're using it much less than their parents do at home."

              By high school, most of the students chattering in Spanish came to the U.S. in their *****. Other Latino students tend to speak more in English or Spanglish – easily mixing the two.

              So far, community efforts to teach English to adult immigrants have been minimal. Just 300 adults, many of them parents, are currently enrolled in free English classes offered in part by the school district.

              Coordinator Delia Watley said one of the main goals is tear down the language barrier that makes many parents afraid to go into the schools. But a lack of funding prevents further expansion.

              "That only puts a dent into the people who need our services," she said. "There are thousands of folks in Irving who need to learn English. We get calls all day, every day." EMERGING TREND

              The Irving ISD has recently become a district that serves a majority of students who come from homes where Spanish is spoken. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

              Comment


              • #8
                Exclusive: The Truth About 'La Raza'
                by Rep. Charlie Norwood


                The nation's television screens many days recently have been filled with scenes of huge crowds carrying the colorful green and red flag of Mexico viewers could well have thought it was a national holiday in Mexico City.

                It was instead, downtown Los Angeles, Calif., although the scene was recreated in numerous other cities around the country with substantial Mexican populations. Hordes of Mexican expatriates, many here illegally, were protesting the very U.S. immigration laws they were violating with impunity. They found it offensive and a violation of their rights that the U.S. dared to have immigration laws to begin with.

                Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa mounted the podium, but any hopes that he would quiet the crowds and defend the law were soon dashed. Villaraigosa, himself, has spent a lifetime opposing U.S. immigration law.Continued


                For law-abiding Americans without knowledge of the dark side of our current illegal immigration crisis, all this is unfathomable. For those who know the truth about the "La Raza" movement, these demonstrations were a prophecy fulfilled.

                It is past time for all Americans to know what is at the root of this outrageous behavior, and the extent to which the nation is at risk because of "La Raza" -- The Race.

                There are many immigrant groups joined in the overall "La Raza" movement. The most prominent and mainstream organization is the National Council de La Raza -- the Council of "The Race".


                To most of the mainstream media, most members of Congress, and even many of their own members, the National Council of La Raza is no more than a Hispanic Rotary Club.

                But the National Council of La Raza succeeded in raking in over $15.2 million in federal grants last year alone, of which $7.9 million was in U.S. Department of Education grants for Charter Schools, and undisclosed amounts were for get-out-the-vote efforts supporting La Raza political positions.

                The Council of La Raza succeeded in having itself added to congressional hearings by Republican House and Senate leaders. And an anonymous senator even gave the Council of La Raza an extra $4 million in earmarked taxpayer money, supposedly for "housing reform," while La Raza continues to lobby the Senate for virtual open borders and amnesty for illegal aliens.



                The Mexican flag flew over a crowd of pro-amnesty marchers in New York. Marches like this across the U.S. have been supported by the "La Raza" movement. (Reuters/Seth Wenig)

                Radical 'Reconquista' Agenda

                Behind the respectable front of the National Council of La Raza lies the real agenda of the La Raza movement, the agenda that led to those thousands of illegal immigrants in the streets of American cities, waving Mexican flags, brazenly defying our laws, and demanding concessions.

                Key among the secondary organizations is the radical racist group Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan, or Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan (MEChA), one of the most anti-American groups in the country, which has permeated U.S. campuses since the 1960s, and continues its push to carve a racist nation out of the American West.

                One of America's greatest strengths has always been taking in immigrants from cultures around the world, and assimilating them into our country as Americans. By being citizens of the U.S. we are Americans first, and only, in our national loyalties.

                This is totally opposed by MEChA for the hordes of illegal immigrants pouring across our borders, to whom they say:

                "Chicano is our identity; it defines who we are as people. It rejects the notion that we...should assimilate into the Anglo-American melting pot...Aztlan was the legendary homeland of the Aztecas ... It became synonymous with the vast territories of the Southwest, brutally stolen from a Mexican people marginalized and betrayed by the hostile custodians of the Manifest Destiny." (Statement on University of Oregon MEChA Website, Jan. 3, 2006)

                MEChA isn't at all shy about their goals, or their views of other races. Their founding principles are contained in these words in "El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan" (The Spiritual Plan for Aztlan):

                "In the spirit of a new people that is conscious not only of its proud historical heritage but also of the brutal gringo invasion of our territories, we, the Chicano inhabitants and civilizers of the northern land of Aztlan from whence came our forefathers, reclaiming the land of their birth and consecrating the determination of our people of the sun, declare that the call of our blood is our power, our responsibility, and our inevitable destiny. ... Aztlan belongs to those who plant the seeds, water the fields, and gather the crops and not to the foreign Europeans. ... We are a bronze people with a bronze culture. Before the world, before all of North America, before all our brothers in the bronze continent, we are a nation, we are a union of free pueblos, we are Aztlan. For La Raza todo. Fuera de La Raza nada."

                That closing two-sentence motto is chilling to everyone who values equal rights for all. It says: "For The Race everything. Outside The Race, nothing."


                If these morally sickening MEChA quotes were coming from some fringe website, Americans could at least console themselves that it was just a small group of nuts behind it. Nearly every racial and ethnic group has some shady characters and positions in its past and some unbalanced individuals today claiming racial superiority and demanding separatism. But this is coming straight from the official MEChA sites at Georgetown University, the University of Texas, UCLA, University of Michigan, University of Colorado, University of Oregon, and many other colleges and universities around the country.

                MEChA was in fact reported to be one of the main organizers of those street demonstrations we witnessed over the past weeks. That helps explain why those hordes of illegal immigrants weren't asking for amnesty -- they were demanding an end to U.S. law, period. Unlike past waves of immigrants who sought to become responsible members of American society, these protesters reject American society altogether, because they have been taught that America rightfully belongs to them.

                MEChA and the La Raza movement teach that Colorado, California, Arizona, Texas, Utah, New Mexico, Oregon and parts of Washington State make up an area known as "Aztlan" -- a fictional ancestral homeland of the Aztecs before Europeans arrived in North America. As such, it belongs to the followers of MEChA. These are all areas America should surrender to "La Raza" once enough immigrants, legal or illegal, enter to claim a majority, as in Los Angeles. The current borders of the United States will simply be extinguished.

                This plan is what is referred to as the "Reconquista" or reconquest, of the Western U.S.

                But it won't end with territorial occupation and secession. The final plan for the La Raza movement includes the ethnic cleansing of Americans of European, African, and Asian descent out of "Aztlan."

                As Miguel Perez of Cal State-Northridge's MEChA chapter has been quoted as saying: "The ultimate ideology is the liberation of Aztlan. Communism would be closest [to it]. Once Aztlan is established, ethnic cleansing would commence: Non-Chicanos would have to be expelled -- opposition groups would be quashed because you have to keep power."

                MEChA Plants

                Members of these radical, anti-American, racist organizations are frequently smoothly polished into public respectability by the National Council of La Raza.

                Former MEChA members include Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, who was officially endorsed by La Raza for mayor and was awarded La Raza's Graciela Olivarez Award. Now we know why he refuses to condemn a sea of foreign flags in his city. California Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante is also a former MEChA member. He delivered the keynote address at La Raza's 2002 Annual Convention.

                The National Council of La Raza and its allies in public office make no repudiation of the radical MEChA and its positions. In fact, as recently as 2003, La Raza was actively funding MEChA, according to federal tax records.

                Imagine Robert Byrd's refusing to disavow the views of the KKK, or if Strom Thurmond had failed to admit segregation was wrong. Imagine Heritage or Brookings Foundation making grants to the American Nazi Party.

                Is the National Council of La Raza itself a racist organization? Regardless of the organization's suspect ties, the majority of its members are not. When one examines all the organization's activities, they are commendable non-profit projects, such as education and housing programs.

                But even these defensible efforts raise the question of whether education and housing programs funded with federal tax dollars should be used in programs specifically targeted to benefit just one ethnic group.

                La Raza defenders usually respond by calling anyone making these allegations "a racist" for having called attention to La Raza's racist links. All the groups and public officials with ties to the La Raza movement can take a big step towards disproving these allegations by simply following the examples of Senators Byrd and Thurmond and repenting of their past ways.

                If they are unwilling to admit past misdeeds, they can at least state -- unequivocally -- that they officially oppose the racist and anti-American positions of MEChA, and any other groups that espouse similar views.

                Through public appearances, written statements, and on their respective websites, La Raza groups and allies must:

                1. Denounce the motto "For La Raza todo. Fuera de La Raza nada," as repugnant, racist, and totally incompatible with American society or citizenship.

                2. Acknowledge the right of all Americans to live wherever they choose in the U.S. without segregation.

                3. Commit to sponsorship of nationwide educational programs to combat racism and anti-Semitism in the Hispanic community.

                4. Denounce and sever all ties with MEChA and any other organizations with which they have ever been associated which held to the racist doctrines held by MEChA.

                5. Acknowledge the internationally recognized borders of the U.S., the right of the citizens of the U.S. to determine immigration policy through the democratic process, and the right of the U.S. to undertake any and all necessary steps to effectively enforce immigration law and defend its border against unauthorized entry.

                6. Repudiate all claims that current American territory rightfully belongs to Mexico.

                If the National Council of La Raza, other La Raza groups, and local and national political leaders with past ties and associations with the radical elements of the La Raza movement can publicly issue such a statement and live by every one of these principles, they should be welcomed into the American public policy arena, with past sins -- real or imaginary -- forgiven.

                If they cannot publicly and fully support these principles, Congress needs to take appropriate steps and immediately bar any group refusing to comply from receiving any future federal funds. Both the House and Senate should strike these groups from testifying before any committees, and the White House should sever all ties. Both political parties should disengage from any further contact with these groups and individuals.

                There are plenty of decent, patriotic Hispanic organizations and elected officials to provide Congress with necessary feedback on specific issues confronting Americans of Latino heritage. Any group or individual who can agree with the simple six points should be welcomed into that fold.

                If not, the American people will know there's a wolf in their midst, and take the necessary precautions to defend our Republic against an enemy.



                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                Mr. Norwood, a Republican, represents the 9th District of Georgia.


                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                Wolves Travel In Packs
                ____________________

                Comment


                • #9
                  [B]History Learning Site &gt; Civil Rights &gt; NAACP
                  The NAACP have played a very important part in the civil rights movement. The initials stand for the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People.

                  Brief early history 1909 to 1945

                  The NAACP was founded in 1909 by a group of multi-racial activists. It was originally called the National Negro Committee.

                  The NAACP started to fight injustices in 1910 with the Pink Franklin case. Though they failed in this case, the organisation resolved to use the law and the law courts to fight its campaign lead by the brothers Joel and Arthur Spingarn.

                  In 1913, the NAACP publically criticised the president - Woodrow Wilson - who officially introduced segregation into federal government and in 1918, after intense pressure by the NAACP, Wilson finally publically condemned lynching - something the man who wanted a "just" peace settlement in Europe had failed to do throughout his presidency. During the war, the NAACP successfully campaigned for African Americans to be commissioned as officers in the army. 600 were commissioned and 700,000 African Americans registered for the army.

                  In 1920, the NAACP deliberately selected Atlanta for its annual conference; the city was known as an active KKK area and this was a sign that violence and general intimidation would have no impact on the organisation.

                  In 1930, the NAACP successfully protested about the nomination of John Parker to be a Supreme Court judge. Parker wanted laws that discriminated against African Americans.

                  During the war, the NAACP pressured Roosevelt into ordering a non-discriminatory policy in war-related industries and federal employment.

                  1945 to 1968

                  Landmark events in the NAACP's post-war history

                  In 1945, the NAACP condemned Congress when it refused to fund an investigation into fair employment practices.

                  In 1946, the NAACP won the Morgan v Virginia case where the Supreme Court banned states from having segregated facilities on busses and trains that crossed state borders.

                  In 1948, the NAACP pressured President Truman into signing the Executive Order that banned discrimination by the Federal government.

                  In 1950, the head of the NAACP's legal department, Thurgood Marshall, won his case in the Supreme Court for state universities to provide equal facilities for all students.

                  In 1954, the NAACP won its landmark legal case - Brown v the Board of Education. This case was lead by Special Counsel Thurgood Marshall. The organisation had spent years fighting segregation in schools which existed in thirteen southern states. The Supreme Court declared that schools could be "separate and equal". The NAACP found it easy to prove that children at white-only schools in the south had nearly $38 spent on each one of them per year. For children at black-only schools, the figure was just over $13. The Supreme Court deemed that this was not "equal" and declared schools that were segregated were unconstitutional.

                  In 1955, NAACP member Rosa Parks was arrested and fined for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. This sparked off the famous Montgomery bus boycott which lead to all the major civil rights groups combining their efforts. This protest was organised by Martin Luther King. The loss of revenue from the 17,000 African Americans in Montgomery who refused to use buses, lead the Montgomery Bus Company withdrawing its segregation policy.

                  In 1960, members of the NAACP Youth Council started a series of non-violent sit-ins at a segregated lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greenboro, North Carolina. Such was the success of this protest, that 26 southern cities officially desegregated their lunch counters. Student sit-ins were also organised in segregated parks, swimming pools, libraries, churches and museums. All of this was done using King's policy of non-violence. Any assaults on the protesters was met with passivity.

                  In 1963, the NAACP's first Field Director, Medgar Evars, was assassinated.

                  In 1964, the Supreme Court ended the eight year campaign by Alabama officials to ban the activities of the NAACP. In this year, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act.

                  Also in 1964, the NAACP, along with CORE and SNCC, established 30 Freedom Schools throughout Mississippi. These taught about the history of civil rights and African Americans. These schools were staffed by volunteers. Over 80 of these volunteers were beaten up and in June, 1964, three were murdered by the KKK. Though tragic, the murders received massive national media coverage and did much to educate the nation's population about what was going on in the Deep South

                  In 1965, the Voting Rights Act was passed. The NAACP persuaded more than 80,000 African Americans in Mississippi to register their right to vote. Up to that time, 42% of Mississippi's population was African American but only 7% had registered to vote. Now if any state or local authority tried to obstruct anyone from voting at an election, they would face federal prosecution if charged.
                  Wolves Travel In Packs
                  ____________________

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    <BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by iperson:
                    You know guys, nobody reads those articles anyway, so why don't you stop posting them instead of having a conversation, with key quotes in the middle from articles. That would clarify your point you want to make by posting those articles. But that takes more effort right?

                    As for the attacks from you two trolls, I have education from both, Poland and the US colleges, so I can compare the two and the amount of effort it took to graduate.
                    Here in the US the premise is not to overwhelm the student and not to expect too much. In Europe, quite on the contrary, if the student is unable to cope with the material covered (and it's usually overwhelming), he/she ends up dropping school. In the US somehow lots of mediocre students get college education because nothing's expected from them. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

                    As much as you would like to PRETEND that I AM A TROLL OR perpetrated any of this, the TRUTH OF THE MATTER IS THE VAST MAJORITY OF ILLEGAL ALIENS AND THEIR SUPPORTERS ESPECIALLY ON THIS BOARD ARE IGNORANT, VIOLENT, VICIOUS IMMATURE LOSERS WHO CAN'T STAND TO SEE THE TRUTH IN PRINT. EVERY TIME I POST AN ARTICLE I AM PERPETUALLY ATTACKED ON A PERSONAL LEVEL, (SO OBVIOUSLY THEY ARE BEING READ) CALLED RACIST VILE NAMES AND JUVENILE RACIST PICTURES ARE BLOWN UP AND PLACED IN A THREAD IN ORDER TO CONCEAL THE TRUTH BECAUSE THAT'S HOW IMMATURE, IGNORANT CRIMINALS REACT, IT'S EASIER TO PRETEND THAT THE TRUTH DOESN'T MATTER. ILLEGAL ALIENS AND THEIR SUPPORTERS HAVE NO LEGITIMATE REASON OR JUSTIFICATION FOR THEIR SUPPORT OF ONE ANOTHER OTHER THAN SHARING A RACE, A CRIMINAL HISTORY OR HAVING A FAMILY MEMBER IN THE US ILLEGALLY.

                    The point that you make is a moot one as exhibited by ALL OF THE SPAM THAT NOW OCCUPIES ANY THREAD I POST IN, as if such a juvenile act changes any of the TRUTHS AND FACTS surrounding the illegal alien crisis in America. THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS CIVILITY OR COMMON SENSE AMONGST THIEVES, LIARS, FRAUD, CON ARTISTS, COMMON CRIMINALS AND MENTALLY DEFICIT MORONS, AMONGST THOSE HERE ILLEGALLY OR FROM CULTURALLY EMBEDDED CRIMINAL SUPPORTERS FROM VARIOUS 3rd WORLD CESSPOOLS.[/QUOTE]


                    NOW IF DORA THE STALKING L-ES-BO, 3RD GRADE EDUCATED C-UN-T EXPLORER COULD JUST FIGURE OUT HOW TO BLOW UP THE INTERNET OR AT THE VERY LEAST DESTROY THE TRUTH BY BLOCKING IT WITH CHILDISH RACIST PICTURES STRATEGICALLY PLACED ALL OVER THE INTERNET, THE CHILDISH BULL-S-H-IT THAT OCCURS ON THIS BOARD WOULD END SINCE SHE IS THE AUTHOR AND ORIGINATOR OF IT .

                    Since that will be when hell freezes over, I will continue to print every f-ucking article I please that disputes all the warm and fuzzy BU-LLS-HIT ON THIS LAME AS-S ILLEGAL ALIEN CRIMINAL ENABL-ING BOARD.

                    Translation: You are preaching to the choir.
                    Wolves Travel In Packs
                    ____________________

                    Comment

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