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  • Article: Client Alerts The Top 10 Things U.S. Employers Need to Know about President Obama’s Executive Actions on Immigration By Maura K. Travers, Angelo A. Paparelli, Jason E. Burritt, Michelle Gergerian, Gabriel Mozes

    The Top 10 Things U.S. Employers Need to Know about President Obama’s Executive Actions on Immigration

    by


    In a live address to the nation on Thursday, November 20, 2014, President Obama laid out his plan to use executive actions to alter the U.S. immigration system. These actions may allow up to five million unauthorized immigrants to stay in the U.S. and obtain work permits.  In his address, the President stated that he intends to “make it easier and faster for high-skilled immigrants, graduates, and entrepreneurs to stay and contribute to our economy, as so many business leaders have proposed.”

    Soon after the President finished speaking, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Jeh Charles Johnson, published a memorandum addressed to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) directing the agencies to enact new policies and regulations to support  high-skilled businesses and workers by better enabling U.S. businesses to hire and retain highly skilled foreign-born workers, while providing these workers with increased flexibility to make career decisions.  This Management Alert is intended to inform employers of possible changes to the U.S. immigration system that will impact the hiring and retention of high-skilled foreign born workers.

    1.) Clarification of the Meaning of “Specialized Knowledge” in the L-1B Visa Context:

    To date, the L-1B visa program has suffered from unclear guidance and erratic interpretation of the term “specialized knowledge by USCIS adjudicators and U.S. consular officers”.  A lack of clear guidance has created uncertainty for companies seeking to temporarily transfer essential personnel from foreign operations to the U.S.  USCIS is expected to issue a long-awaited policy memorandum by January 2015 to provide guidance on the meaning of “specialized knowledge” and clarify L-1B eligibility standards for adjudicating officers. Secretary Johnson’s memorandum suggests that this L-1B policy guidance “will bring greater coherence and integrity to the L-1B program, improve consistency in adjudications, and enhance companies’ confidence in the program.”

    2.) Accelerated Filing of Adjustment of Status Applications:

    Currently, many individuals with approved employment-based immigrant petitions (I-140) are unable to file Adjustment of Status (I-485) applications for green card status due to immigrant visa quota backlogs.  Changes in the content and format of the Department of State’s Visa Bulletin and changes to the USCIS regulations may permit tens of thousands of individuals to file their Adjustment of Status applications earlier and obtain the benefits of a pending green card application. These benefits will enable affected employees to obtain employment authorization and advance parole, and to take advantage of green card portability. Because this new approach will require formal rulemaking, the change will not likely take effect until 2016.

    3.) Increased Worker Portability:

    Current law allows employees whose Adjustment of Status have been pending with USCIS for 180 days to change jobs or employers without jeopardizing their application if the new job is in the “same or a similar” occupational classification as their old job. To help eliminate uncertainty in applying these terms, and offer clear guidelines for career promotion and worker mobility, USCIS will issue a policy memorandum to clarify what constitutes a “same or similar” job under current law.

    4.) Visa Modernization:

    In prior fiscal years, administrative delays caused the loss of many employment-based immigrant visa quota numbers and thus delayed the grant of green card status to eligible individuals. USCIS will work with the Department of State (DOS) to ensure that all immigrant visas authorized by Congress are issued to qualified beneficiaries.  DOS has agreed to modify its visa bulletin to more simply and reliably determine when immigrant visas are available to applicants during the fiscal year.

    5.) H-4 Spousal Work Authorization:

    Current law does not allow spouses of H-1B visa holders (H-4 dependent spouses) to apply for work authorization.  On May 12, 2014, DHS proposed a rule to extend work authorization to certain H-4 dependent spouses of H-1B visa holders who are in the green card process. The proposed rule reportedly will be finalized by January 2015.

    6.) Extension of Optional Practical Training (OPT) for Certain Foreign Students:

    Through a rulemaking process, the OPT period for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) graduates will be expanded and the relationship between the student and the school will be strengthened during the OPT period.  Other changes also under consideration include allowing STEM OPT after the attainment of a master’s degree where only the first degree is in a STEM field.  ICE and USCIS will clarify and implement these changes through regulations.  In addition, through the promulgation of regulations, ICE and USCIS will take steps to ensure that OPT employment is consistent with U.S. labor market protections to safeguard the interests of U.S. workers in related fields.  This may include a prevailing wage requirement for OPT employment. Because these changes will require formal rulemaking, the change will not likely take effect until late 2015 at the earliest.

    7.) Enhancement of Opportunities for Foreign Inventors, Researchers, and Entrepreneurs:

    To date, the “national interest waiver” for non-citizens with advanced degrees or exceptional ability has been underutilized and guidance is limited.  USCIS will issue guidance or regulations to clarify the standard to make it clear that this waiver is not only for self-employed entrepreneurs.  These new agency interpretations will help employers engaged in research and development to bypass the PERM Labor Certification process by filing national interest waivers for certain employees if the employer can demonstrate that the U.S. economy will benefit and jobs will be created through the permanent presence of an immigrant with exceptional ability. 

    8.) Department of Labor Review of PERM Program:

    Before employers may petition for immigrant visas on behalf of most foreign-born workers, the Department of Labor (DOL) must certify that the employer conducted a test of the U.S. labor market and that, based on the results of a prescribed recruitment effort, no U.S. workers are qualified and/or available to perform the proffered job at the requisite wage.  DOL will initiate a review of the PERM program and relevant regulations in an effort to speed up processing.  Revised PERM rules are set to be finalized by spring 2016. Meantime, the DOL will seek input on the following:

    • Options for identifying labor force occupational shortages and surpluses and methods for aligning domestic worker recruitment requirements with demonstrated shortages and surpluses;
       
    • Methods and practices designed to modernize U.S. worker recruitment requirements;
       
    • Processes to clarify employer obligations to insure PERM positions are fully open to U.S. workers;
       
    • Ranges of case processing timeframes and possibilities for premium processing, and;
       
    • Application submission and review process and feasibility for efficiently addressing nonmaterial errors.


    9.) New Interagency Worksite Enforcement Group:

    As the DOL explains in a web-posted posted Fact Sheet, in order to promote effective enforcement of federal labor, employment, and immigration laws, the Administration has announced the creation of an interagency working group to identify policies and procedures that promote the consistent enforcement of those laws and protect all workers in the U.S.  This group will consist of members of the DOL, DHS, the Department of Justice, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and the National Labor Relations Board.  Employers should therefore arrange to review its immigration and employment law compliance practices with legal counsel.  (Please consult your Seyfarth attorney if you have questions.)

    10.) New Work Permits and I-9 Issues:

    Through the implementation of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), USCIS issued guidance to employers on the treatment of Employment Authorization Documents (EADs) issued by USCIS to deferred action recipients and how employers should process Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, in these cases.  USCIS will issue further I-9 guidance to employers as the volume of these documents will now increase due to the expansion of DACA and the new Deferred Action for Parents (DAP) program.  Unfortunately, USCIS has announced that it will not be able to act on all requests of DACA and DAP applicants for immigration benefits (including employment authorization) until the end of 2016.  Meanwhile, employers have been given no deferral of enforcement if employers become aware that a worker has applied for DACA/DAP benefits, and thus, by definition, is not authorized to work and thus must face employment termination.

    We will monitor these proposed changes closely and provide additional details on implementation procedures and timelines as the information becomes available.

    This post originally appeared on Seyfarth Shaw. Reprinted with permission


    About The Author

    Maura K. Travers Maura K. Travers is an attorney in the Immigration practice group of Seyfarth Shaw LLP's Boston office. Ms. Travers focuses her practice on the preparation and filing of temporary nonimmigrant visa petitions and permanent employment immigrant visa "green card" applications.  Ms. Travers' core practice areas include the processing of H and L non-immigrant visa petitions and adjustment of status applications.   During law school, Ms. Travers worked part time as a Law Clerk with Seyfarth’s Immigration practice group.  In addition, she served as a Summer Judicial Law Clerk at the Executive Office for Immigration Review (Immigration Court) in Boston.  Ms. Travers has volunteered with the Irish International Immigrant Center (IIIC) since September 2008.


    Jason Burritt Jason Burritt is a partner in the Business Immigration group in the Washington, D.C. and New York offices of Seyfarth Shaw LLP. Mr. Burritt handles all aspects of immigration and nationality law, including processing of B, E, H, J, L, O, and TN non-immigrant visa petitions, applications for labor certification, Extraordinary Ability petitions, adjustment of status, consular processing, and naturalization.  He represents clients across numerous industries, including financial services, information technology, pharmaceutical, insurance, and specialty retailers as well as colleges and universities.  He also regularly presents on immigration-related issues and he has authored several articles on business immigration topics.  In addition, Mr. Burritt has extensive training and experience in the workforce authorization compliance area, including advising clients with regard to I-9 and E-Verify compliance and managing voluntary I-9 audits. Mr. Burritt is a member of the American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA) and served as the immediate past President of the Associate’s Advisory Board of the Lawyers Alliance for New York.

    Gabriel Mozes Gabriel Mozes is an associate in the Atlanta office of Seyfarth Shaw LLP. He has over eight years of experience in Immigration and Nationality Law, specializing in both temporary nonimmigrant visa petitions and permanent employment and family-based immigrant visa "green card" applications.  Mr. Mozes has also worked extensively on applications for United States citizenship.Mr. Mozes received his J.D. from Suffolk Law School where he graduated magna cum laude. He is an active member of the American Immigration Lawyers Association and teaches various business immigration seminars as part of the faculty of Massachusetts Continuing Legal Education.  Prior to law school, Mr. Mozes worked as a legal assistant and case manager for a prominent business immigration law firm in Boston. Mr. Mozes holds a B.A. in Economics from Tufts University and, upon graduation, was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to perform economic development research in Romania.

    Michelle Gergerian Michelle Gergerian is an associate in the Boston office of Seyfarth Shaw LLP and has over fourteen years of experience in Immigration and Nationality Law, specializing in both temporary nonimmigrant visa petitions and permanent employment and family-based immigrant visa "green card" applications. She has also worked extensively on applications for United States citizenship. Ms. Gergerian is a senior member of Seyfarth's Canadian Immigration and Global Mobility Teams and has extensive experience drafting applications for temporary and permanent Canadian immigration for employees of multinational corporations. In addition, she administers the preparation of work permit extensions through the Case Processing Center in Vegreville, Alberta, as well as Consular work permits filed through various Canadian Embassies and High Commissions. Prior to joining Seyfarth, Ms. Gergerian served as the National Director of Education for the American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA) in Washington, D.C., managing the field of immigration education for more than 11,000 immigration lawyers in the nation.  She has served as the Managing Editor of numerous AILA publications and as a presenter on nonprofit association management issues.  Additionally, she has over six years of experience at a prominent immigration law firm in Boston, Massachusetts.  Ms. Gergerian was also an adjunct professor of history at North Shore College, where she taught a course on State and Local Politics. Ms. Gergerian has earned her Juris Doctorate from Suffolk University Law School and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Political Science with a concentration in law, politics and the courts from Suffolk University. She is an active member of the American Immigration Lawyers Association at the national and local chapter levels.

    Angelo A. Paparelli Angelo A. Paparelli is a partner in the Business Immigration Practice Group of Seyfarth Shaw LLP. A Certified Immigration Law Specialist (CA), he is known among clients and peers for providing creative solutions to complex immigration law problems, especially those involving mergers and acquisitions. He also serves as an expert witness and consultant on immigration issues arising in litigation. Mr. Paparelli’s immigration practice areas include compliance audits; counsel and due diligence in mergers, acquisitions and corporate restructuring; immigration-related corporation policy formulation; permanent residence and citizenship; visas for executives, managers, scientists, scholars, investigators, professionals, students and visitors; PERM labor certifications; employment-based immigrant visa petitions; global visas and consular practice; family-based immigration; legislative advocacy and immigration messaging; federal court litigation under the Administrative Procedures Act; waivers, white-collar immigration, asylum and removal defense. Mr. Paparelli writes a blog, Nation of Immigrators, on America's dysfunctional immigration system. To access the blog, click here. For links to Mr. Paparelli's numerous published articles on immigration click here


    The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the opinion of ILW.COM.

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