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  • Article: Additional Cautions About New EB-5 Policy Changes -- Part II: More Missing Pieces by Joseph Whalen

    Additional Cautions About New EB-5 Policy Changes -- Part II: More Missing Pieces

    by Joseph Whalen

    The new EB-5 Policy Memo of May 30, 2013 includes the following:

    “II. The Preponderance of the Evidence Standard

    As a preliminary matter, it is critical that our adjudication of EB-5 petitions and applications adhere to the correct standard of proof. In the EB-5 program, the petitioner or applicant must establish each element by a preponderance of the evidence. See Matter of Chawathe, 25 I&N Dec. 369, 375-376 (AAO 2010). That means that the petitioner or applicant must show that what he or she claims is more likely so than not so. This is a lower standard of proof than both the standard of “clear and convincing,” and the standard “beyond a reasonable doubt” that typically applies to criminal cases. The petitioner or applicant does not need to remove all doubt from our adjudication. Even if an adjudicator has some doubt as to the truth, if the petitioner or applicant submits relevant, probative, and credible evidence that leads to the conclusion that the claim is “more likely than not” or “probably true”, the petitioner or applicant has satisfied the standard of proof.

    While Chawathe does indeed say that the proper standard of proof is by a preponderance, this should not be confused with the burden of proof. The burden of proof when seeking any benefit is on the one seeking that benefit (petitioner, self-petitioner, and certain beneficiaries). Please do not overlook the significance of footnote 7 from Chawathe, which reads:

    7 The standard of proof should not be confused with the burden of proof. The burden of proving eligibility for the benefit sought remains entirely with the applicant. Section 316(b)(2) of the Act; see also section 291 of the Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1361 (2006). Additionally, the “preponderance of the evidence” standard does not relieve the petitioner or applicant from satisfying the basic evidentiary requirements set by regulation. There are no regulations relating to a corporation’s eligibility as an “American firm or corporation” under section 316(b) of the Act. Had the regulations required specific evidence, the applicant would have been required to submit that evidence. Cf. 8 C.F.R. § 204.5(h)(3) (2006) (requiring that specific objective evidence be submitted to demonstrate eligibility as an alien of extraordinary ability).

    When specific evidence is spelled out in the regulations, then that is what is expected and rightfully demanded. True EB-5 direct jobs require payroll records of one sort or another. See 8 CFR § 216.6(a)(4)(iv) and (c)(1)(iv); as well as 8 CFR § 204.6(j)(4)(i)-(iii).

    That’s my two-cents, for now.


    About The Author

    Joseph Whalen is not an attorney. He is a former government employee who is familiar with the INA. His education is in Anthroplogy with a concentration in Archaeology and has both a BA (from SUNY Buffalo) and an MA (from San Francisco State University) in Anthroplogogy. He previously worked as an Archaeologist for the U.S. Forest Service before becoming an Adjudicator with INS which became USCIS.


    The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author(s) alone and should not be imputed to ILW.COM.
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