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iperson
08-07-2009, 10:48 AM
...

SonofMichael
08-07-2009, 11:05 AM
WOW !!!

Who the h e l l cares???

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 01:36 PM
H olly Smokes!!!!

federale86
08-07-2009, 01:59 PM
What about Brit? Was she involved? Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned.

Hudson
08-07-2009, 02:47 PM
Hate to break this to you IP, buy you just proved absolutely nothing. May make a ggod fictional book that maybe on the Times best seller list, but that is all.

I still want my court IP. All you have to do is file the paperwork and have me show up, with attorney in hand. no one will help you, not your family, not the President, not one soul on earth.

Sprint_girl07
08-07-2009, 04:31 PM
Let us look back at a few things from the past here on ILW...

Houston talking frankly about being a cowboy and what the culture is really like: (note prior to talking to IP).
Cowboy and culture (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/31710374341/p/569)


As much as he has openly told people on this board or even in private, he has told it how it really is, not some JR Ewing from Dallas, like IP kept having in her head, no matter how many times she was told.

Houston = I am who I am, not some TV or movie
IP = No, he is too intelligent, he must be like JR Ewing and have $$$ :eek: and a way to get a Green card! My hero! :)


Iperson gets jealous of Sprint and Houston's friendship, feels that Sprint is keeping Houston from falling for her, so she posts a video on the song thread and dedicates it to Sprint: She confesses to Sprint later that she got angry and jealous because she couldn't get him to like her or be as close as the friendship that Houston and Sprint had. It was eating her up inside, she couldn't sleep and she was getting mad. She wanted to hurt Sprint to hurt Houston. (her confession)


Shooting video (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/77310781541?r=60110448641#60110448641)


When things didn't turn out the way IP wanted it to go, and Sprint and Houston caught her out and told her to leave them alone, IP couldnt' stand it, she tried several times to contact each of us to say sorry and to say the other was the bad one and no good for them.
She couldn't get our attention or succeed in breaking our friendship so she sent a message to say if we did not leave ILW, that she will discredit Sprint with the help of A9, MIR and SOM as they had arguments with her in past, and then destroy Houston. If she could discredit me somehow, no one would believe us if we told the truth and about her being illegal.

So as we did not leave, she came back and the story began.. (how she saw it)

Cowboys, witches and knights (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/82410115641?r=41110524#41110524)

Remember this part:
The Witch of the North led the Cowboy into the universe and they flew together on her magical horse driven carriage. They've had a lot of fun, and the Cowboy felt free of the Witch of the West at long last.
Or so he thought...

Fact or fantasy? (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/82410115641/p/67)


Her story was pretty much like that, IPerson being the savior on her magical horse and so forth.

Several times Iperson had denied claims that she liked Houston, and this was not what it was about. Yet I think from the post above, clearly proves that this is all about a woman scorned, a woman obsessed and a woman seeing, reading and translating things into whatever is in her head. What she wants to believe or how she puts pieces of the puzzle together.

This has gone on now for almost a year! She cannot let it go, she cannot prove fraud, scamming, blackmail, threats, and all the other things she so claims.

Some ILW members have seen the so called evidence, yet do not see anything that shows any scamming what so ever. All her allegations have been denied and instead of anyone coming forward saying there is some truth in what she says, the opposite happened where members came forward saying there has never been any evidence of the like and also gave their opinions on the characters who she so accused.
Remember some of those members have met in person, not just online chat. Members knowing each other for years, not just 2 weeks of chat like Iperson had.

So there we go in a nutshell for those that don't know and think what the he-ll is this about.

If you even care that much, read back in history, there is a trail and there sure is the proof of someone's real character here..the OP :)

There has been allegations and multi stories from IP, but apart from trying to embarrass, hurt and blackmail members into leaving otherwise she will carry on revealing private information (if true), there is nothing that any ILW member is interested in. If IP could only prove her allegations of scamming for money etc, then she needs to show that proof after all this time.

There is no proof, that is why she keeps this game up, to keep harrassing, stalking, defaming and obsessing over and over again, because she couldn't have Houston and her real status is out.
She can't hurt Houston off the board as she doesn't know his location and so on, so she uses me to get to him. She is manipulating my fears of abuse to get to me and now it seems to try and get to my friends with this BS in hoping they would try and talk me around into walking away from a friend.

She can't stand the fact we are friends, it's killing her. She can't get close to him, it is eating her up inside.

This whole thing is all about not getting something she wants.

Anyone that rejects her, argues with her, doesn't agree with her, will be her targets.

As you can see, rejection really has its consquences with her. Good thing he or I don't have a bunny rabbit, or we might find that in a pan on the stove cooking soon.

This will never stop, she keeps hurting people, but hopefully guys, this will come to an end very soon. Then we can all go back to normality :) Well normal as it was prior to all this.

And no, won't be a fantasy jail in a castle :D

Oh and one last thing, I am just fine thank you, no one needs to rescue me :D

Brit4064
08-07-2009, 04:35 PM
Makes a good read IP. When's the movie coming out? LOL I'd like to see how I'm supposed to have damaged Houston? (Houston any ideas??). BTW fedNUT-E86, it's HE not she :rolleyes:

Talking of a narcissistic personality...that's YOU IP!

Sprint_girl07
08-07-2009, 04:38 PM
Originally posted by Brit4064:
Makes a good read IP. When's the movie coming out? LOL I'd like to see how I'm supposed to have damaged Houston? (Houston any ideas??). BTW fedNUT-E86, it's HE not she :rolleyes:

Talking of a narcissistic personality...that's YOU IP!

All in the head Brit lol

Houston
08-07-2009, 05:10 PM
You all need to look out for yourselves. That's what I wanted to post. You never know what that crazed woman is doing next. No job, nothing to lose, a nobody with a criminal mind and a deluded head. She claims to be an artist, I guess creativity needs an outlet, even if it's a criminal one.

This is tempting, but you all need to be aware of who she is. Not worth it. If she has a claim, she'll be able to make that in court very, very soon, and we all know that.

Do you remember when, a long time ago, I made an argument that rendering illegals as felons would be dangerous because they'd be left with nothing to lose and crime as their only option? Proven.

If iPerson had something to report, she'd report it to the police. Even a crazy, demented illegal alien on the run with a trashed brain and no life sure has the common sense to know that.

Oh, and begging Sprint to get me to drop the charges ain't working this time! :D You apologize to save your own behind. Did that before and returned to threat Sprint with her ex. Did that again and returned to post a direct threat to her by using the "people you know". Not going to work this time, you shoved a fire cracker up your own and the District Attorney will lit it up! You're a psycho, and you belong in prison.

Want attention? Join the circus, you do belong there! lmao

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 05:12 PM
Originally posted by davdah:
Is this a script!? Hey, I get a part don't I? This is perfect since I'm supposed to be the secret agent. I look good in dark sunglasses and a trench coat. When is the casting call?

The script needs some development though. Chasing after one guy isn't good enough to hold an audience's attention. There needs to be more to it. Some international intrigue with alien smuggling might be just the ticket.

Hold the phone!!! thats Mine!!! LOLOL!!!
I Had a Producer, But she was a Sl ut!!! Had to let her go!!! LOL!! Really!!!

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 05:46 PM
Originally posted by Houston:
You all need to look out for yourselves. That's what I wanted to post. You never know what that crazed woman is doing next. No job, nothing to lose, a nobody with a criminal mind and a deluded head. She claims to be an artist, I guess creativity needs an outlet, even if it's a criminal one.

This is tempting, but you all need to be aware of who she is. Not worth it. If she has a claim, she'll be able to make that in court very, very soon, and we all know that.

Do you remember when, a long time ago, I made an argument that rendering illegals as felons would be dangerous because they'd be left with nothing to lose and crime as their only option? Proven.

If iPerson had something to report, she'd report it to the police. Even a crazy, demented illegal alien on the run with a trashed brain and no life sure has the common sense to know that.

Oh, and begging Sprint to get me to drop the charges ain't working this time! :D You apologize to save your own behind. Did that before and returned to threat Sprint with her ex. Did that again and returned to post a direct threat to her by using the "people you know". Not going to work this time, you shoved a fire cracker up your own and the District Attorney will lit it up! You're a psycho, and you belong in prison.

Want attention? Join the circus, you do belong there! lmao

I Am outside the "as The World turns" episodes.
Yet, I Constantly get fre aked Out by These things and Inability for Human beings to create a sepperation when In WWW!! Judicial Actions within the Digital World? http://www.ilw.com/corporate/ack2.gif Never met the physical Person and Lawsuit Because Human beings spent to much time Inside the BOX!!! WWW 24 - 7!!! WWW = worldwide!!! 80 Billion people??? Yet Those S U cked In, Live their Lives Within WWW. Cyber se x????? What the F u **!!! no!!! and He ll No!!! Answer = People lost Their fck ing minds!!! :rolleyes:

ProudUSC
08-07-2009, 05:46 PM
I held back on posting in this thread because I wanted it to drop down the list, but if anyone cares to know the truth of what I know, feel free to PM me. I will not discuss private stuff on a public forum. I will not lower myself to this c.rap anymore.

Houston
08-07-2009, 05:57 PM
Oh, you don't know anything MIR.... People go to prison for way less than what she's done!

She's dragged everybody into her misery looking for attention and it'll stop very soon!

I know of the threats made not only to me, no, but to lots of others. I know about the blackmail, the "do as I say or else".... She's cut her own throat here and this time she is going down!

But I do have a confession to make, it's hard for me to say this but I hope you all listen... And this includes others, so the truth will come out now: I do have a secret identity, and so does Sprint, Proud and Davdah. I'm Santa Claus, Sprint is the Tooth F.airy, Proud is Mother Nature and Davdah is Father Time! And we're all in this, a conspiracy to get IP in the naughty list! And I have evidence MIR is an Elf! Lou Dobbs told me! lol Headline, corruption in FANTASY land! lmao

Merry Christmas to everyone!

ProudUSC
08-07-2009, 06:13 PM
People lost Their fck ing minds!!!

Exactly! And I will second that motion and hold back the cuss words in my head right now - lol!

ProudUSC
08-07-2009, 06:19 PM
Which witch is that? LOL! North, East or West - lmao. I forgot the story!!!

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 06:23 PM
Originally posted by Houston:
Oh, you don't know anything MIR.... People go to prison for way less than what she's done!

She's dragged everybody into her misery looking for attention and it'll stop very soon!

I know of the threats made not only to me, no, but to lots of others. I know about the blackmail, the "do as I say or else".... She's cut her own throat here and this time she is going down!

But I do have a confession to make, it's hard for me to say this but I hope you all listen... And this includes others, so the truth will come out now: I do have a secret identity, and so does Sprint, Proud and Davdah. I'm Santa Claus, Sprint is the Tooth F.airy, Proud is Mother Nature and Davdah is Father Time! And we're all in this, a conspiracy to get IP in the naughty list! And I have evidence MIR is an Elf! Lou Dobbs told me! lol Headline, corruption in FANTASY land! lmao

Merry Christmas to everyone!

I am EXTREME technology!! I Do not approve of those That seek Legal actions based on Being Technology!!! transitional period this world!!
Many Crazy M Fers out there!!! when you Log on, One must accept anything goes!!! Actually I am an ELF. But I got I really BIG UNICORN!!! ;)

On a discussion board created by those in the Industry of law!! I Am Amazed at the Level of Personal Insanity, And The Extended Time It continues!!

Excuse Please! LOL!! I Could care less!!!! LMAO!!! it is Fun!!! ;)

The only legal ramifications I approve Are Those under 18!!! Online!!! Adults of maturity should Know better!!! enter at your own Risk!!! Disclaimers??? When the majority can barely log onto their own e-mail Acct!!! Protect the children!!! If Over 18?? You should know where you are!!!

P.S. the one attempting Access Here, ME!! I see you!!! ;). I use Computers "EMPTY"!!! LOLOL!!!
Knock yourself Out!!! LOLOLOLOL!!!! Thanks for Your Initiative, Makes Me Laugh!!! LOL. thank You!!! LMAO!!! Do Not forget your parting gifts!!! ;). LOL!!!! Du Mb Mfers!!! Me ROTFLMAO!!! You are more than Welcome to see All In its entirety!!! Help your self! Got some good stuff!!! D ;) Do Not miss anything! take your time!! Let me know?? I Will gladly dedicate a "PORT!!" To your curiousity!!! :D.

ProudUSC
08-07-2009, 06:24 PM
You're always good to lighten up the situation, Davdah. ;)

ProudUSC
08-07-2009, 06:28 PM
Originally posted by davdah:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by ProudUSC:
You're always good to lighten up the situation, Davdah. ;)

This might be a case for...Batman! </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

. . . or chickens - lol! ;)

Houston
08-07-2009, 06:42 PM
Holy ICE Batman! lol

Kollerkrot
08-07-2009, 06:57 PM
Originally posted by SonofMichael:
WOW !!!

Who the h e l l cares???

I have to say, for once I am in agreement with SOM!

Baby
08-07-2009, 07:03 PM
HEHEHE

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 07:06 PM
For Those special People, you know who you are. Bob barker sais COME ON DOWN!!! ;).

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 07:13 PM
Originally posted by davdah:
Robin: Looks like there is trouble brewing in ILW.

Batman: Yes Robin. A Polsh blemish on the a$$ of decency needs removed.

Robin: Batman!, this is still a G rated program.

Batman: Sorry, just got done watching Fantasy Island and those dancers got me all worked up.



http://www.ncta.com/images/cache/633791113105200000CableProgram5868batman300.jpg

The plane!!! the Plane!!! please Lord Let there be a Suculent Babe On board that appreciates the unicorn!!! LOL!!

Kollerkrot
08-07-2009, 07:23 PM
Cybersex is good! And don't you guys come storming my inbox now, I am already in a relationship on another site. Got that!

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 07:35 PM
Originally posted by Kollerkrot:
Cybersex is good! And don't you guys come storming my inbox now, I am already in a relationship on another site. Got that!

TEASE!!! ;). people always playing! :rolleyes:

LOL! Around the world = One of my favs!!!
Cyber Se x??? you gotta Be kidding??? Self love By imagination, petting your Own kitty, Jackin Your Own rod? actually a Whole lot better When it is REAL!!! ;). People Have lost their f ck ing minds!!! LOL!!!

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 09:12 PM
Ho lly Ben wa Ba lls Batman!!! Let Me show Them What Crime fighting Is all about!!!
Thats right, I Am crime Fighter super hero!!!
Cooter fixer, cyber hero, KY and yippi kayaaaaa!!!
:D

MakeItRight!
08-07-2009, 09:52 PM
Originally posted by Kollerkrot:
Cybersex is good! And don't you guys come storming my inbox now, I am already in a relationship on another site. Got that!

I Knew It!!! You Are Cyber scr ewing someone Else!!!

mike_2007
08-07-2009, 10:50 PM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbN0g8-zbdY

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:15 AM
Insect Repellent Information
Bug Spray Reviews For Mosquitoes, Flies, Bees, Wasps, Chiggers, Gnats, and More!



[ Home ] [ Ease of Use ] [ Efficacy ] [ Overall Score ] [ Price ] [ Safety ] [ Solution Type ] [ About Deet ] [ West Nile Virus ] [ More Info ]



Welcome to Bug-Spray Info, your number one source for comprehensive information on the insect repellent products available online. Through painstaking research and testing, we have arranged all of our data from our research in one easy-to-use format based upon variables that we feel best capture each products overall capability. Taking a product's safety in addition its effectiveness along with a myriad of other factors may seem a daunting task when deciding upon the right repellent product for your family, but rest assured, Bug Repellent Info is here to put your mind at ease. Want to know which is the Best Product? Which ranks the best for Overall Safety? How about whether the product is going to leave a greasy residue through its Ease of Use or Application? What about Price? It is extremely important to remember that these results are based on our research and ARE ONLY OUR OPINION (please see disclaimer).

Here are our results, in alphabetical order:



0=Worst
100=Best
Overall Score out of 400


Ease of Use or Application1


Solution Type1


% Deet


Price 1


Efficacy 1


Safety 1


Overall Score

10-Hour Insect Repellent


Pump Spray (90)


Liquid (60)


100%


2oz. bottle


(86)


(43)


(279)

Acqua d'Alfresco


Spray Pump (90)


Liquid (60)


Deet Free


$35.00


(20)


(80)


(250)

Bee-Tour


T-Sack (80)


Solid Formula (50)


Not Specified


$57.00, 1 doz.t-sacks


(65)


(81)


(276)

Ben's 30% Wilderness Eco-Spray On


Aerosol (85)


Alcohol-based Liquid (45)


30%


$5.25, 4oz. bottle


(79)


(79)


(288)

Botanical Insect Repellent


Pump Spray (90)


Water-based Liquid (90)


Deet Free


$3.75 8oz. bottle


(38)


(75)


(293)

Bug Block


Pump Spray (90)


Oil-based Liquid (55)


Deet Free


$7.95


(24)


(76)


(245)

Bug Button


Wearable Device (70)


Solid Formula (50)


Deet Free


$59.95, 48 individually wrapped buttons


(15)


(80)


(215)

Bug-Ban


Wearable Device (70)


Solid Formula (50)


Deet Free


$37.80, 12 pack


(17)


(80)


(275)

Buggins Vanilla Mint Scent


Spray Pump (90)


Liquid (60)


Deet Free


$16.00, two 4oz. bottles


(35)


(80)


(265)

Buggspray™ Vanilla Scent


Spray Pump(90)


Liquid (60)


25%


$11.00, two 1oz. bottles


(79)


(76)


(305)

Burt's Bees Farmer's Friend Lemongrass Insect Lotion


Pump Spray (90)


Oil-based Liquid (55)


Deet Free


$3.99, 4oz. bottle


(34)


(75)


(254)

Bugs-B-Wear™ Insect Repellent


Dropper Bottle, to be used with jewelry sold separately (65)


Oil-based Liquid (55)


Deet Free


$5.00 per bottle


(28)


(81)


(229)

Cactus Juice™


Spray Pump (90)


Liquid (60)


Deet Free


$5.99, 6oz. bottle


(23)


(80)


(253)

ChiggAway®


Squeeze Bottle (65)


Lotion (55)


Deet Free


$5.50, 4oz. bottle


(40)


(76)


(236)

Cutter® All Family


Spray Pump, also available in Aerosol and Towelettes. (90)


Water-based Liquid (90)


7%


6oz. bottle


(65)


(81)


(326)

Finally Insect Repellent


Pump Spray (90)


Liquid (60)


Deet Free


$9.95, 8 oz. bottle


(45)


(80)


(275)

Fite Bite 30


Pump Spray (90)


Water-based Liquid (90)


30%


$5.95, 4oz. bottle


(80)


(79)


(339)

Garlic Barrier Ag®


Pint or Gallon bottle (55)


99.3% Garlic Juice (60)


Deet Free


$84.95 per gallon, $6.95 per pint


(42)


(80)


(237)

Green Head Fly, Insect, and Tick Repellent


Spray Pump (90)


Water-based Liquid (90)


30%


$9.95, 4oz. bottle


(85)


(80)


(345)

Herbal Armor™ by All Terrain


Spray Pump, also available in lotion (90)


Liquid (60)


Deet Free


$7.49, 4oz. pump spray


(23)


(79)


(252)

Hinoki Insect Repellent


Pump Spray (90)


Oil-based Liquid (55)


Deet Free


$5.99, 4oz. bottle


(35)


(75)


(255)

Muskol®


Pump Spray, also available in Aerosol (90)


Liquid (60)


33%


50ml bottle


(82)


(73)


(305)

Natrapel


Pump Spray (90)


Liquid (60)


Deet Free


$13.50, three 4oz. bottles


(32)


(80)


(262)

No-Spook by White Mountain


Squeeze Bottle (65)


Lotion (60)


Not Specified


$10.00, 1.25oz. bottle


(20)


(68)


(213)

Off!® Deep Woods


Aerosol (85)


Alcohol-based Liquid (45)


24%


$4.99, 6oz. can


(72)


(71)


(273)

Perma-Kill Permethrin Solution


Bottle (55)


Liquid (60)


13.3% Permethrin


$29.95, 8oz. bottle


(68)


(58)


(241)

PowerDEET 25®


Pump Spray (90)


Oil-based Liquid (55)


25%


2oz. bottle


(78)


(79)


(302)

Repel Citro-Guard


Pump Spray (90)


Oil-based solution (55)


Deet Free


$6.95, 3.5oz. bottle


(29)


(76)


(250)

Repel Family Aerosol


Aerosol, also available in pump spray (85)


Alcohol-based Liquid (45)


15%


$5.75, 6.5oz. can


(64)


(71)


(265)

Repel Lemon Eucalyptus Repellent Lotion


Squeeze Bottle (65)


Lotion (60)


Deet Free


$6.95, 4oz. bottle


(19)


(74)


(218)

Sawyer Gold Broad Spectrum Aerosol


Aerosol, also available in Pump Spray (85)


Liquid (60)


24%


$5.50, 4oz. can


(79)


(78)


(302)

Sawyer Maxi Deet


Pump Spray (90)


Liquid (60)


100%


$5.28, 2oz. bottle


(86)


(46)


(282)

Shoo!


Squeeze Bottle (65)


Lotion (60)


Deet Free


30ml bottle


(24)


(78)


(227)

Sportsmen Spray Pump Repellent by Repel


Pump Spray, also available in aerosol (90)


Liquid (60)


18%


$6.95, 4oz. bottle


(68)


(69)


(287)

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08-08-2009, 04:16 AM
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[Help us with translations!]
Fly
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation).
Flies
Fossil range: 245–0 Ma
Pre?
?
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Middle Triassic - Recent

A poster with sixteen different species of flies
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Order: Diptera
Linnaeus, 1758
Suborders

Nematocera (includes Eudiptera)
Brachycera

True flies are insects of the order Diptera (Greek: di = two, and pteron = wing), possessing a single pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax.

The presence of a single pair of wings distinguishes true flies from other insects with "fly" in their name, such as mayflies, dragonflies, damselflies, stoneflies, whiteflies, fireflies, alderflies, dobsonflies, snakeflies, sawflies, caddisflies, butterflies or scorpionflies. Some true flies have become secondarily wingless, especially in the superfamily Hippoboscoidea, or among those that are inquilines in social insect colonies.

Diptera is a large order, containing an estimated 240,000 species of mosquitos, gnats, midges and others, although under half of these (about 120,000 species) have been described.[1] It is one of the major insect orders both in terms of ecological and human (medical and economic) importance. The Diptera, in particular the mosquitoes (Culicidae), are of great importance as disease transmitters, acting as vectors for malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, encephalitis and other infectious diseases.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Anatomy and biology
o 1.1 Reproduction and development
* 2 Classification
* 3 Evolution
* 4 Flies in culture
o 4.1 Maggots
* 5 Pictures of different fly species
* 6 References
o 6.1 Biology
o 6.2 Classification
o 6.3 Evolution
* 7 External links

[edit] Anatomy and biology

Flies are well adapted for aerial movement, and typically have short and/or streamlined bodies. The second segment of the thorax, which bears the wings and contains the flight muscles, is greatly enlarged, with the other two segments being reduced to mere collar-like structures. The third segment bears the halteres, which help to balance the insect during flight. A further adaptation for flight is the reduction in number of the neural ganglia, and concentration of nerve tissue in the thorax, a feature that is most extreme in the highly dervied Muscomorpha infraorder.[2]

Flies have a mobile head with eyes, and, in most cases, have large compound eyes on the sides of the head, with three small ocelli on the top. The antennae take a variety of forms, but are often short, to reduce drag while flying.

Flies consume only liquid food, and their mouthparts and digestive tract show various modifications for this diet. The most apparently primitive flies have piercing blade-like mandibles and fleshy palps, but these have become adapted into numerous different forms in different groups. These include both the fine stilleto-like ****ing mouthparts of mosquitos, and the fleshy proboscis of houseflies. The gut typically includes large diverticulae, allowing the insect to store large quantities of liquid after a meal.[2]

[edit] Reproduction and development
Mating

The genitalia of male flies is rotated to a varying degree from the position found in other insects. In some flies this is a temporary rotation during mating, but in others, it is a permanent torsion of the organs that occurs during the pupal stage. This torsion may lead to the anus being located below the genitals, or, in the case of 360° torsion, to the sperm duct being wrapped around the gut, despite the external organs being in their usual position. When flies mate, the male initially lies on top of the female, facing in the same direction, but then turns round to face in the opposite direction. In some species, this forces the male to lie on its back in order for its genitalia to remain engaged with those of the female, but in most cases, the torsion of the male genitals allows the male to mate while remaining upright.[2]

The female lays her eggs as close to the food source as possible, and development is generally rapid, allowing the larva to consume as much food as possible in a short period of time before transforming into the adult. In extreme cases, the eggs hatch immediately after being laid, while a few flies are ovoviviparous, with the larva hatching inside the mother.[2]

Larval flies, or maggots, have no true legs, and often little demarcation between the thorax and abdomen; in the more derived species, even the head is not clearly distinguishable from the rest of the body. In some species, there are small prolegs on some segments, but maggots are more commonly entirely limbless. The eyes and antennae are reduced, or even absent, and the abdomen also lacks appendages such as cerci. This general lack of features is an adaptation to the extremely food rich environment, such as within rotting organic matter, or as an endoparasite.[2]

The pupae take various forms, and in some cases develop inside a silk cocoon. After emerging from the pupa, the adult fly rarely lives more than a few weeks, and serves mainly to reproduce and to disperse in search of new food sources.

[edit] Classification
See also: List of families of Diptera
Fly cleaning.ogv
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Cleaning

There are two generally accepted suborders of Diptera. The Nematocera are usually recognized by their elongated bodies and feathery antennae as represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera tend to have a more roundly proportioned body and very short antennae. A more recent classification has been proposed in which the Nematocera is split into two suborders, the Archidiptera and the Eudiptera, but this has not yet gained widespread acceptance among dipterists.


1. Suborder Nematocera (77 families, 35 of them extinct) – long antennae, pronotum distinct from mesonotum. In Nematocera, larvae are either eucephalic or hemicephalic and often aquatic.
2. Suborder Brachycera (141 families, 8 of them extinct) – short antennae, the pupa is inside a puparium formed from the last larval skin. Brachycera are generally robust flies with larvae having reduced mouthparts.
1. Infraorders Tabanomorpha and Asilomorpha – these comprise the majority of what was the Orthorrhapha under older classification schemes. The antennae are short, but differ in structure from those of the Muscomorpha.
2. Infraorder Muscomorpha – (largely the Cyclorrhapha of older schemes). Muscomorpha have 3-segmented, aristate (with a bristle) antennae and larvae with three instars that are acephalic (maggots).

Most of the Muscomorpha are further subdivided into the Acalyptratae and Calyptratae based on whether or not they have a calypter (a wing flap that extends over the halteres).

Beyond that, considerable revision in the taxonomy of the flies has taken place since the introduction of modern cladistic techniques, and much remains uncertain. The secondary ranks between the suborders and the families are more out of practical or historical considerations than out of any strict respect for phylogenetic classifications (some modern cladists tend to spurn the use of Linnaean rank names). Nearly all classifications in use now, including this article, contain some paraphyletic groupings; this is emphasized where the numerous alternative systems are most greatly at odds. See list of families of Diptera.

Dipterans belong to the taxon Mecopterida, that also contains Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and Trichoptera. Inside it, they are sometimes classified closely together with Mecoptera and Siphonaptera in the superorder Antliophora.[3]

[edit] Evolution

Diptera are usually thought to derive from Mecoptera or a strictly related group. First true dipterans are known from the Middle Triassic, becoming widespread during the Middle and Late Triassic [4].

[edit] Flies in culture

Flies have often been used in mythology and literature to represent agents of death and decay, such as the Biblical fourth plague of Egypt, or portrayed as nuisances (e.g., in Greek mythology, Myiagros was a god who chased away flies during the sacrifices to Zeus and Athena, and Zeus sent a fly to bite the horse Pegasus causing Bellerophon to fall back to Earth when he attempted to ride to Mount Olympus), though in a few cultures the connotation is not so negative (e.g., in the traditional Navajo religion, Big Fly is an important spirit being). Emily ****inson's poem "I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died" also makes reference to flies in the context of death. In fact, many flies, such as the genus Hydrotaea are used in forensic cases to determine time of death for many corpses.

Not surprisingly, in art and entertainment, flies are also used primarily to introduce elements of horror or the simply mundane; an example of the former is the 1958 science fiction film The Fly (remade in 1986), in which a scientist accidentally exchanges parts of his body with those of a fly. Examples of the latter include trompe l'oeil paintings of the fifteenth century such as Portrait of a Carthusian by Petrus Christus, showing a fly sitting on a fake frame [5], a 2001 art project by Garnet Hertz in which a complete web server was implanted into a dead fly [1], and various musical works (such as Yoko Ono's al*** Fly, U2's song "The Fly," Dave Matthews' song "The Fly" and Béla Bartók's "From the Diary of a Fly"). The ability of flies to cling to almost any surface has also inspired the title of Human Fly for stunt performers whose stunts involve climbing buildings, including both real life and fictional individuals.

Aside from the fictional and conceptual role flies play in culture, there are practical roles that flies can play (e.g., flies are reared in large numbers in Japan to serve as pollinators of sunflowers in greenhouses), especially the maggots of various species.

[edit] Maggots
Further information: Maggot
Maggots being used to treat a wound

Some types of maggots found on corpses can be of great use to forensic scientists. By their stage of development, these maggots can be used to give an indication of the time elapsed since death, as well as the place the organism died. Maggot species can be identified using their DNA. The size of the house fly maggot is 10–20 mm (?–¾ in). At the height of the summer season, a generation of flies (egg to adult) may be produced in 12–14 days. It is important to note that the lack of maggot presence is also telling in an investigation. Some other families of Insecta, such as Histeridae, feed on maggots. Thus, the lack of maggots would increase the estimated time of death.

Other types of maggots are bred commercially, as a popular bait in angling, and a food for carnivorous pets such as reptiles or birds.

Maggots have been used in medicine to clean out necrotic wounds [6], and in food production, particularly of cheeses (casu marzu).

[edit] Pictures of different fly species

Ceratitis capitata, "Mediterranean fruit fly"


Anopheles gambiae


Tachinid fly


House fly

Muscina prolapsa fly


Robberflies mating

[edit] References

1. ^ B. M. Wiegmann & D. K. Yeates (1996). "Tree of Life: Diptera". http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/loc...l/diptera.html#about (http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/ftp/bwiegman/fly_html/diptera.html#about).
2. ^ a b c d e Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed.. Oxford University Press. pp. 493-499. ISBN 0-19-510033-6.
3. ^ "Taxon: Superorder Antliophora". The Taxonomicon. http://www.taxonomy.nl/Taxonom...nTree.aspx?id=102510 (http://www.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=102510). Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
4. ^ V. A. Blagoderov, E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski (2002). "Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies". in A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke. History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1-4020-0026-X. http://palaeoentomolog.ru/New/diptera.html.
5. ^ "Portrait of a Carthusian, 1446". Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2006. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/optg/hod_49.7.19.htm.
6. ^ Ronald A. Sherman, MD, MSC, University of California (1998)©. "Maggot use of necrotic wounds". http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/417382_print.

[edit] Biology

* Harold Oldroyd The Natural History of Flies. New York: W. W. Norton.1965.
* Eugène Séguy Diptera: recueil d'etudes biologiques et systematiques sur les Dipteres du Globe (Collection of biological and systematic studies on Diptera of the World). 11 vols. Text figs. Part of Encyclopedie Entomologique, Serie B II: Diptera. 1924-1953.
* Eugène Seguy. La Biologie des Dipteres 1950. pp. 609. 7 col + 3 b/w plates, 225 text figs.

[edit] Classification

* Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E., and Zumbado, M. (Editors) 2009 Manual of Central American Diptera. Volume 1 NRC Research Press, Ottawa ISBN 978-0-660-19833-0
* Colless, D.H. & McAlpine, D.K.1991 Diptera (flies) , pp. 717-786. In: The Division of Entomology. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra (spons.), The insects of Australia.Melbourne Univ. Press, Melbourne.
* Griffiths, G.C.D. The phylogenetic classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha, withspecial reference to the structure of the male postabdomen. Ser. Ent. 8, 340 pp. [Dr. W. Junk, N. V., The Hague] (1972).
* Willi Hennig Die Larvenformen der Dipteren. 3. Teil. Akad.-Verlag, Berlin. 185 pp., 3 pls. 1948
* Willi Hennig (1954) Flugelgeader und System der Dipteren unter Berucksichtigung der aus dem Mesozoikum beschriebenen Fossilien. Beitr. Ent. 4: 245-388 (1954).
* F. Christian Thompson. "Sources for the Biosystematic Database of World Diptera (Flies)" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture, Systematic Entomology Laboratory. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/d...a/names/BDWDsour.pdf (http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/diptera/names/BDWDsour.pdf).
* Willi Hennig: Diptera (Zweifluger). Handb. Zool. Berl. 4 (2 ) (31):1-337. General introduction with key to World Families. In German.

[edit] Evolution

* Blagoderov, V.A., Lukashevich, E.D. & Mostovski, M.B. 2002. Order Diptera. In: Rasnitsyn, A.P. and Quicke, D.L.J. The History of Insects, Kluwer Publ., Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 227-240.

[edit] External links
Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Diptera
Search Wikispecies Wikispecies has information related to: Diptera
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Fly.

* The Diptera Site
* The Bishop Museum Catalog of Fossil Diptera
* The Diptera.info Portal
* The Tree of Life Project
* Diptera at the Open Directory Project
* Chrysomya megacephala
* Lucilia sericata

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly"
Categories: Flies | Insects | Pollinators
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Virus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This is a featured article. Click here for more information.
This article is about the biological agent. For other uses, see Virus (disambiguation).
For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to viruses.
Viruses

Rotavirus
Virus classification
Group: I–VII
Groups

I: dsDNA viruses
II: ssDNA viruses
III: dsRNA viruses
IV: (+)ssRNA viruses
V: (?)ssRNA viruses
VI: ssRNA-RT viruses
VII: dsDNA-RT viruses

A virus (from the Latin virus meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea.[1] Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898,[2] more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail,[3] although most types of virus remain undiscovered.[4] Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth,[5] and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet.[6] The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.

Viruses consist of two or three parts: all viruses have genes made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information; all have a protein coat that protects these genes; and some have an envelope of fat that surrounds them when they are outside a cell. Viruses vary in shape from simple helical and icosahedral shapes, to more complex structures. They are about 1/100th the size of bacteria.[7] The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity.[8]

Viruses spread in many ways; plant viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on sap, such as aphids, while animal viruses can be carried by blood-****ing insects. These disease-bearing organisms are known as vectors. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing, and others such as norovirus, are transmitted by the faecal-**** route, when they contaminate hands, food, or water. Rotaviruses are often spread by direct contact with infected children. HIV is one of several viruses that are transmitted through sexual contact.

Not all viruses cause disease, as many viruses reproduce without causing any obvious harm to the infected organism. Viruses such as hepatitis B can cause life-long or chronic infections, and the viruses continue to replicate in the body despite the hosts' defence mechanisms. In some cases, these chronic infections might be beneficial as they might increase the immune system's response against infection by other pathogens.[9] However, in most cases viral infections in animals cause an immune response that eliminates the infecting virus. These immune responses can also be produced by vaccines that give immunity to a viral infection. Microorganisms such as bacteria also have defences against viral infection, such as restriction modification systems. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but antiviral drugs have been developed to treat both life-threatening and more minor infections.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Origins
* 4 Microbiology
o 4.1 Structure
o 4.2 Genome
o 4.3 Replication cycle
o 4.4 Effects on the host cell
* 5 Classification
o 5.1 ICTV classification
o 5.2 Baltimore classification
* 6 Viruses and human disease
o 6.1 Epidemiology
o 6.2 Epidemics and pandemics
o 6.3 Cancer
o 6.4 Host defence mechanisms
o 6.5 Prevention and treatment
+ 6.5.1 Vaccines
+ 6.5.2 Antiviral drugs
* 7 Infection in other species
o 7.1 Plants
o 7.2 Bacteria
o 7.3 Archaea
* 8 Applications
o 8.1 Life sciences and medicine
o 8.2 Materials science and nanotechnology
o 8.3 Weapons
* 9 References
o 9.1 Notes
o 9.2 Bibliography

[edit] Etymology

The word is from the Latin virus referring to poison and other noxious substances, first used in English in 1392.[10] Virulent, from Latin virulentus (poisonous) dates to 1400.[11] A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728,[10] before the discovery of viruses by Dmitry Ivanovsky in 1892. The adjective viral dates to 1948.[12] The term virion is also used to refer to a single infective viral particle. The plural of virus is "viruses".

[edit] History
An old, bespectacled man wearing a suit and sitting at a bench by a large window. The bench is covered with small bottles and test tubes. On the wall behind him is a large old-fashioned clock below which are four small enclosed shelves on which sit many neatly labelled bottles.
Martinus Beijerinck in his laboratory in 1921

In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or Chamberland-Pasteur filter), with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[13] In 1892 the Russian biologist Dimitri Ivanovski used this filter to study what is now known to be tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that the crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants are still infectious after filtration. Ivanovski suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[14] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium—this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898 the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck repeated the experiments and became convinced that this was a new form of infectious agent.[15] He went on to observe that the agent multiplied only in dividing cells, but as his experiments did not show that it was made of particles, he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus.[14] Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory later discredited by Wendell Stanley, who proved they were particulate.[14] In the same year, 1899, Friedrich Loeffler and Frosch passed the agent of foot and mouth disease (aphthovirus) through a similar filter and ruled out the possibility of a toxin because of the high dilution; they concluded that the agent could replicate.[14]

In the early 20th century, the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered the viruses that infect bacteria, which are now called bacteriophages,[16] and the French-Canadian microbiologist Félix d'Herelle described viruses that, when added to bacteria on agar, would produce areas of dead bacteria. He accurately diluted a suspension of these viruses and discovered that the highest dilutions, rather than killing all the bacteria, formed discrete areas of dead organisms. Counting these areas and multiplying by the dilution factor allowed him to calculate the number of viruses in the suspension.[17]

By the end of the nineteenth century, viruses were defined in terms of their infectivity, filterability, and their requirement for living hosts. Viruses had been grown only in plants and animals. In 1906, Harrison invented a method for growing tissue in lymph, and, in 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert used this method to grow vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue.[18] In 1928, H. B. Maitland and M. C. Maitland grew vaccinia virus in suspensions of minced hens' kidneys. Their method was not widely adopted until the 1950s, when poliovirus was grown on a large scale for vaccine production.[19]

Another breakthrough came in 1931, when the American pathologist Ernest William Goodpasture grew influenza and several other viruses in fertilised chickens' eggs.[20] In 1949 John F. Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins grew polio virus in cultured human embryo cells, the first virus to be grown without using solid animal tissue or eggs. This work enabled Jonas Salk to make an effective polio vaccine.[21]
A painting showing the head and shoulders of a smiling young woman with brown hair.
Rosalind Franklin

With the invention of electron microscopy in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll came the first images of viruses.[22] In 1935 American biochemist and virologist Wendell Stanley examined the Tobacco mosaic virus and found it to be mostly made from protein.[23] A short time later, this virus was separated into protein and RNA parts.[24] Tobacco mosaic virus was the first one to be crystallised and whose structure could therefore be elucidated in detail. The first X-ray diffraction pictures of the crystallised virus were obtained by Bernal and Fankuchen in 1941. Based on her pictures, Rosalind Franklin discovered the full structure of the virus in 1955.[25] In the same year, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley Williams showed that purified Tobacco mosaic virus RNA and its coat protein can assemble by themselves to form functional viruses, suggesting that this simple mechanism was probably how viruses assembled within their host cells.[26]

The second half of the twentieth century was the golden age of virus discovery and most of the 2,000 recognised species of animal, plant, and bacterial viruses were discovered during these years.[27][28] In 1957, equine arterivirus and the cause of Bovine virus diarrhea (a pestivirus) were discovered. In 1963, the hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg,[29] and in 1965, Howard Temin described the first retrovirus. Reverse transcriptase, the key enzyme that retroviruses use to translate their RNA into DNA, was first described in 1970, independently by Howard Temin and David Baltimore.[30] In 1983 Luc Montagnier's team at the Pasteur Institute in France, first isolated the retrovirus now called HIV.[31]

[edit] Origins

Viruses are found wherever there is life and have probably existed since living cells first evolved.[32] The origin of viruses is unclear because they do not form fossils, so molecular techniques have been the most useful means of investigating how they arose.[33] These techniques rely on the availability of ancient viral DNA or RNA, but, unfortunately, most of the viruses that have been preserved and stored in laboratories are less than 90 years old.[34][35] There are three main hypotheses that try to explain the origins of viruses:[36][37]

Regressive hypothesis
Viruses may have once been small cells that parasitised larger cells. Over time, genes not required by their parasitism were lost. The bacteria rickettsia and chlamydia are living cells that, like viruses, can reproduce only inside host cells. They lend support to this hypothesis, as their dependence on parasitism is likely to have caused the loss of genes that enabled them to survive outside a cell. This is also called the degeneracy hypothesis.[38][39]
Cellular origin hypothesis
Some viruses may have evolved from bits of DNA or RNA that "escaped" from the genes of a larger organism. The escaped DNA could have come from plasmids (pieces of naked DNA that can move between cells) or transposons (molecules of DNA that replicate and move around to different positions within the genes of the cell).[40] Once called "jumping genes", transposons are examples of mobile genetic elements and could be the origin of some viruses. They were discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in 1950.[41] This is sometimes called the vagrancy hypothesis.[38][42]
Coevolution hypothesis
Viruses may have evolved from complex molecules of protein and nucleic acid at the same time as cells first appeared on earth and would have been dependent on cellular life for many millions of years. Viroids are molecules of RNA that are not classified as viruses because they lack a protein coat. However, they have characteristics that are common to several viruses and are often called subviral agents.[43] Viroids are important pathogens of plants.[44] They do not code for proteins but interact with the host cell and use the host machinery for their replication.[45] The hepatitis delta virus of humans has an RNA genome similar to viroids but has protein coat derived from hepatitis B virus and cannot produce one of its own. It is therefore a defective virus and cannot replicate without the help of hepatitis B virus.[46]

The Virophage 'sputnik' infects the Mimivirus and the related Mamavirus, which in turn infect the protozooan Acanthamoeba castellanii.[47] These viruses that are dependent on other virus species are called satellites and may represent evolutionary intermediates of viroids and viruses.[48][49] Prions are infectious protein molecules that do not contain DNA or RNA.[50] They cause an infection in sheep called scrapie and cattle bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow" disease). In humans they cause kuru and Creutzfeld-Jacob disease.[51] They are able to replicate because some proteins can exist in two different shapes and the prion changes the normal shape of a host protein into the prion shape. This starts a chain reaction where each prion protein converts many host proteins into more prions, and these new prions then go on to convert even more protein into prions. Although they are fundamentally different from viruses and viroids, their discovery gives credence to the idea that viruses could have evolved from self-replicating molecules.[52]

Computer analysis of viral and host DNA sequences is giving a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships between different viruses and may help identify the ancestors of modern viruses. To date, such analyses have not helped to decide on which of these hypotheses are correct. However, it seems unlikely that all currently known viruses have a common ancestor and viruses have probably arisen numerous times in the past by one or more mechanisms.[53]

Opinions differ on whether viruses are a form of life, or organic structures that interact with living organisms. They have been described as "organisms at the edge of life",[54] since they resemble organisms in that they possess genes and evolve by natural selection,[55] and reproduce by creating multiple copies of themselves through self-assembly. However, although they have genes, they do not have a cellular structure, which is often seen as the basic unit of life. Additionally, viruses do not have their own metabolism, and require a host cell to make new products. They therefore cannot reproduce outside a host cell (although bacterial species such as rickettsia and chlamydia are considered living organisms despite the same limitation). Accepted forms of life use cell division to reproduce, whereas viruses spontaneously assemble within cells, which is analogous to the autonomous growth of crystals. Virus self-assembly within host cells has implications for the study of the origin of life, as it lends further credence to the hypothesis that life could have started as self-assembling organic molecules.[1]

[edit] Microbiology

[edit] Structure
A cartoon showing several identical molecules of protein forming a hexigon
Diagram of how a virus capsid can be constructed using multiple copies of just two protein molecules

Viruses display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies. Viruses are about 1/100th the size of bacteria. Most viruses that have been studied have a diameter between 10 and 300 nanometres. Some filoviruses have a total length of up to 1400 nm, however their diameters are only about 80 nm.[7] Most viruses are unable to be seen with a light microscope so scanning and transmission electron microscopes are used to visualise virus particles.[56] To increase the contrast between viruses and the background, electron-dense "stains" are used. These are solutions of salts of heavy metals such as tungsten, that scatter the electrons from regions covered with the stain. When virus particles are coated with stain (positive staining), fine detail is obscured. Negative staining overcomes this problem by staining the background only.[57]

A complete virus particle, known as a virion, consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. These are formed from identical protein subunits called capsomers.[58] Viruses can have a lipid "envelope" derived from the host cell membrane. The capsid is made from proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction.[59][60] Virally coded protein subunits will self-assemble to form a capsid, generally requiring the presence of the virus genome. However, complex viruses code for proteins that assist in the construction of their capsid. Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral nucleic acid is called a nucleocapsid. The capsid and entire virus structure can be mechanically (physically) probed through atomic force microscopy. [61][62] In general, there are four main morphological virus types:
RNA coiled in a helix of repeating protein sub-units
Electron micrograph of icosahedral adenovirus
Herpes viruses have a lipid envelope

Helical
These viruses are composed of a single type of capsomer stacked around a central axis to form a helical structure, which may have a central cavity, or hollow tube. This arrangement results in rod-shaped or filamentous virions: these can be short and highly rigid, or long and very flexible. The genetic material, generally single-stranded RNA, but ssDNA in some cases, is bound into the protein helix, by interactions between the negatively charged nucleic acid and positive charges on the protein. Overall, the length of a helical capsid is related to the length of the nucleic acid contained within it and the diameter is dependent on the size and arrangement of capsomers. The well-studied Tobacco mosaic virus is an example of a helical virus.[63]
Icosahedral
Most animal viruses are icosahedral or near-spherical with icosahedral symmetry. A regular icosahedron is the optimum way of forming a closed shell from identical sub-units. The minimum number of identical capsomers required is twelve, each composed of five identical sub-units. Many viruses, such as rotavirus, have more than twelve capsomers and appear spherical but they retain this symmetry. Capsomers at the apices are surrounded by five other capsomers and are called pentons. Capsomers on the triangular faces are surround by six others and are call hexons.[64]
Envelope
Some species of virus envelope themselves in a modified form of one of the cell membranes, either the outer membrane surrounding an infected host cell, or internal membranes such as nuclear membrane or endoplasmic reticulum, thus gaining an outer lipid bilayer known as a viral envelope. This membrane is studded with proteins coded for by the viral genome and host genome; the lipid membrane itself and any carbohydrates present originate entirely from the host. The influenza virus and HIV use this strategy. Most enveloped viruses are dependent on the envelope for their infectivity.[65]
Complex

These viruses possess a capsid that is neither purely helical, nor purely icosahedral, and that may possess extra structures such as protein tails or a complex outer wall. Some bacteriophages, such as Enterobacteria phage T4 have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a helical tail, which may have a hexagonal base plate with protruding protein tail fibres. This tail structure acts like a molecular syringe, attaching to the bacterial host and then injecting the viral genome into the cell.[66]

The poxviruses are large, complex viruses that have an unusual morphology. The viral genome is associated with proteins within a central disk structure known as a nucleoid. The nucleoid is surrounded by a membrane and two lateral bodies of unknown function. The virus has an outer envelope with a thick layer of protein studded over its surface. The whole particle is slightly pleiomorphic, ranging from ovoid to brick shape.[67] Mimivirus is the largest known virus, with a capsid diameter of 400 nm. Protein filaments measuring 100 nm project from the surface. The capsid appears hexagonal under an electron microscope, therefore the capsid is probably icosahedral.[68]

Some viruses that infect Archaea have complex structures that are unrelated to any other form of virus, with a wide variety of unusual shapes, ranging from spindle-shaped structures, to viruses that resemble hooked rods, teardrops or even bottles. Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, although they can have multiple tail structures.[69]

[edit] Genome
Genomic diversity among viruses Property Parameters
Nucleic acid

* DNA
* RNA
* Both DNA and RNA (at different stages in the life cycle)

Shape

* Linear
* Circular
* Segmented

Strandedness

* Single-stranded
* Double-stranded
* Double-stranded with regions of single-strandedness

Sense

* Positive sense (+)
* Negative sense (?)
* Ambisense (+/?)

An enormous variety of genomic structures can be seen among viral species; as a group they contain more structural genomic diversity than plants, animals, archaea, or bacteria. A virus has either DNA or RNA genes and are called DNA viruses and RNA viruses respectively. By far most viruses have RNA. Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA.[70]

Viral genomes are circular, such as polyomaviruses, or linear, such as adenoviruses. The type of nucleic acid is irrelevant to the shape of the genome. Among RNA viruses, the genome is often divided up into separate parts within the virion and is called segmented. Each segment often codes for one protein and they are usually found together in one capsid. Every segment is not required to be in the same virion for the overall virus to be infectious, as demonstrated by the brome mosaic virus.[7]

A viral genome, irrespective of nucleic acid type, is either single-stranded or double-stranded. Single-stranded genomes consist of an unpaired nucleic acid, analogous to one-half of a ladder split down the middle. Double-stranded genomes consist of two complementary paired nucleic acids, analogous to a ladder. Some viruses, such as those belonging to the Hepadnaviridae, contain a genome that is partially double-stranded and partially single-stranded.[70]

For viruses with RNA or single-stranded DNA, the strands are said to be either positive-sense (called the plus-strand) or negative-sense (called the minus-strand), depending on whether it is complementary to the viral messenger RNA (mRNA). Positive-sense viral RNA is identical to viral mRNA and thus can be immediately translated by the host cell. Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase before translation. DNA nomenclature is similar to RNA nomenclature, in that the coding strand for the viral mRNA is complementary to it (?), and the non-coding strand is a copy of it (+).[70]

Genome size varies greatly between species. The smallest viral genomes code for only four proteins and have a mass of about 106 Daltons; the largest have a mass of about 108 Daltons and code for over one hundred proteins.[70] RNA viruses generally have smaller genome sizes than DNA viruses due to a higher error-rate when replicating, and have a maximum upper size limit. Beyond this limit, errors in the genome when replicating render the virus useless or uncompetitive. To compensate for this, RNA viruses often have segmented genomes where the genome is split into smaller molecules, thus reducing the chance of error. In contrast, DNA viruses generally have larger genomes due to the high fidelity of their replication enzymes.[71]
A cartoon showing how viral genes can be shuffled to form new viruses
How antigenic shift, or reassortment, can result in novel and highly pathogenic strains of human influenza

Viruses undergo genetic change by several mechanisms. These include a process called genetic drift where individual bases in the DNA or RNA mutate to other bases. Most of these point mutations are "silent"—they do not change the protein that the gene encodes—but others can confer evolutionary advantages such as resistance to antiviral drugs.[72] Antigenic shift is where there is a major change in the genome of the virus. This occurs as a result of recombination or reassortment. When this happens with influenza viruses, pandemics may result.[73] RNA viruses often exist as quasispecies or swarms of viruses of the same species but with slightly different genome nucleoside sequences. Such quasispecies are a prime target for natural selection.[74]

Segmented genomes confer evolutionary advantages; different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or (offspring) that have unique characteristics. This is called reassortment or viral ***.[75]

Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of DNA is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. This can occur when viruses infect cells simultaneously and studies of viral evolution have shown that recombination has been rampant in the species studied.[76] Recombination is common to both RNA and DNA viruses.[77][78]

[edit] Replication cycle

Viral populations do not grow through cell division, because they are acellular; instead, they use the machinery and metabolism of a host cell to produce multiple copies of themselves, and they assemble in the cell.
A typical virus replication cycle

Some bacteriophages inject their genomes into bacterial cells

The life cycle of viruses differs greatly between species but there are six basic stages in the life cycle of viruses:[79]

* Attachment is a specific binding between viral capsid proteins and specific receptors on the host cellular surface. This specificity determines the host range of a virus. For example, HIV infects only human T cells, because its surface protein, gp120, can interact with CD4 and receptors on the T cell's surface. This mechanism has evolved to favour those viruses that only infect cells in which they are capable of replication. Attachment to the receptor can induce the viral-envelope protein to undergo changes that results in the fusion of viral and cellular membranes.
* Penetration follows attachment; viruses enter the host cell through receptor mediated endocytosis or membrane fusion. This is often called viral entry. The infection of plant cells is different to that of animal cells. Plants have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose and viruses can only get inside the cells following trauma to the cell wall.[80] Viruses such as tobacco mosaic virus can also move directly in plants, from cell-to-cell, through pores called plasmodesmata.[81] Bacteria, like plants, have strong cell walls that a virus must breach to infect the cell. Some viruses have evolved mechanisms that inject their genome into the bacterial cell while the viral capsid remains outside.[82]
* Uncoating is a process in which the viral capsid is degraded by viral enzymes or host enzymes thus releasing the viral genomic nucleic acid.
* Replication involves synthesis of viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for viruses except positive sense RNA viruses (see above), viral protein synthesis and assembly of viral proteins and viral genome replication.
* Following the assembly of the virus particles, post-translational modification of the viral proteins often occurs. In viruses such as HIV, this modification, (sometimes called maturation), occurs after the virus has been released from the host cell.[83]
* Viruses are released from the host cell by lysis—a process that kills the cell by bursting its membrane. Enveloped viruses (e.g., HIV) typically are released from the host cell by budding. During this process the virus acquires its envelope, which is a modified piece of the host's plasma membrane.

The genetic material within viruses, and the method by which the material is replicated, vary between different types of viruses.

DNA viruses
The genome replication of most DNA viruses takes place in the cell's nucleus. If the cell has the appropriate receptor on its surface, these viruses enter the cell by fusion with the cell membrane or by endocytosis. Most DNA viruses are entirely dependent on the host cell's DNA and RNA synthesising machinery, and RNA processing machinery. The viral genome must cross the cell's nuclear membrane to access this machinery.[84]
RNA viruses
These viruses are unique because their genetic information is encoded in RNA. Replication usually takes place in the cytoplasm. RNA viruses can be placed into about four different groups depending on their modes of replication. The polarity (whether or not it can be used directly to make proteins) of the RNA largely determines the replicative mechanism, and whether the genetic material is single-stranded or double-stranded. RNA viruses use their own RNA replicase enzymes to create copies of their genomes.[85]
Reverse transcribing viruses
These replicate using reverse transcription, which is the formation of DNA from an RNA template. Reverse transcribing viruses containing RNA genomes use a DNA intermediate to replicate, whereas those containing DNA genomes use an RNA intermediate during genome replication. Both types use the reverse transcriptase enzyme to carry out the nucleic acid conversion. Retroviruses often integrate the DNA produced by reverse transcription into the host genome. They are susceptible to antiviral drugs that inhibit the reverse transcriptase enzyme, e.g. zidovudine and lamivudine. An example of the first type is HIV, which is a retrovirus. Examples of the second type are the Hepadnaviridae, which includes Hepatitis B virus.[86]

[edit] Effects on the host cell

The range of structural and biochemical effects that viruses have on the hosts cell is extensive.[87] These are called cytopathic effects.[88] Most virus infections eventually result in the death of the host cell. The causes of death include cell lysis, alterations to the cell's surface membrane and apoptosis.[89] Often cell death is caused by cessation of its normal activities due to suppression by virus-specific proteins, not all of which are components of the virus particle.[90]

Some viruses cause no apparent changes to the infected cell. Cells in which the virus is latent and inactive show few signs of infection and often function normally.[91] This causes persistent infections and the virus is often dormant for many months or years. This is often the case with herpes viruses.[92][93] Viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus often cause cells to proliferate without causing malignancy,[94] but viruses, such as papillomaviruses are an established cause of cancer.[95]

[edit] Classification
Main article: Virus classification

Classification seeks to describe the diversity of viruses by naming and grouping them based on similarities. In 1962, André Lwoff, Robert Horne, and Paul Tournier were the first to develop a means of virus classification, based on the Linnaean hierarchical system.[96] This system bases classification on phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Viruses were grouped according to their shared properties (not of their hosts) and the type of nucleic acid forming their genomes.[97] later the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses was formed.

[edit] ICTV classification

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) developed the current classification system and wrote guidelines that put a greater weight on certain virus properties to maintain family uniformity. A universal system for classifying viruses, and a unified taxonomy, has been established since 1966. The 7th lCTV Report formalised for the first time the concept of the virus species as the lowest taxon (group) in a branching hierarchy of viral taxa.[98] However, at present only a small part of the total diversity of viruses has been studied, with analyses of samples from humans finding that about 20% of the virus sequences recovered have not been seen before, and samples from the environment, such as from seawater and ocean sediments, finding that the large majority of sequences are completely novel.[99]

The general taxonomic structure is as follows:

Order (-virales)

Family (-viridae)

Subfamily (-virinae)

Genus (-virus)

Species (-virus)

In the current (2008) ICTV taxonomy, five orders have been established, the Caudovirales, Herpesvirales, Mononegavirales, Nidovirales, and Picornavirales. The committee does not formally distinguish between subspecies, strains, and isolates. In total there are 5 orders, 82 families, 11 subfamilies, 307 genera, 2,083 species and about 3,000 types yet unclassified.[100][101]

[edit] Baltimore classification
Main article: Baltimore classification
A diagram showing how the Baltimore Classification is based on a virus's DNA or RNA and method of mRNA synthesis
The Baltimore Classification of viruses is based on the method of viral mRNA synthesis.

The Nobel Prize-winning biologist David Baltimore devised the Baltimore classification system.[30][102] The ICTV classification system is used in conjunction with the Baltimore classification system in modern virus classification.[103][104][105]

The Baltimore classification of viruses is based on the mechanism of mRNA production. Viruses must generate mRNAs from their genomes to produce proteins and replicate themselves, but different mechanisms are used to achieve this in each virus family. Viral genomes may be single-stranded (ss) or double-stranded (ds), RNA or DNA, and may or may not use reverse transcriptase (RT). Additionally, ssRNA viruses may be either sense (+) or antisense (-). This classification places viruses into seven groups:

* I: dsDNA viruses (e.g. Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, Poxviruses)
* II: ssDNA viruses (+)sense DNA (e.g. Parvoviruses)
* III: dsRNA viruses (e.g. Reoviruses)
* IV: (+)ssRNA viruses (+)sense RNA (e.g. Picornaviruses, Togaviruses)
* V: (-)ssRNA viruses (-)sense RNA (e.g. Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses)
* VI: ssRNA-RT viruses (+)sense RNA with DNA intermediate in life-cycle (e.g. Retroviruses)
* VII: dsDNA-RT viruses (e.g. Hepadnaviruses)

As an example of viral classification, the chicken pox virus, varicella zoster (VZV), belongs to the order Herpesvirales, family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and genus Varicellovirus. VZV is in Group I of the Baltimore Classification because it is a dsDNA virus that does not use reverse transcriptase.

[edit] Viruses and human disease
See also: Table of clinically important viruses
Overview of the main types of viral infection and the most notable species involved. [106] [107]

Examples of common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold, influenza, chickenpox and cold sores. Many serious diseases such as ebola, AIDS, avian influenza and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability of viruses to cause disease is described in terms of virulence. Other diseases are under investigation as to whether they too have a virus as the causative agent, such as the possible connection between human herpes virus six (HHV6) and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. There is current controversy over whether the borna virus, previously thought to cause neurological diseases in horses, could be responsible for psychiatric illnesses in humans.[108]

Viruses have different mechanisms by which they produce disease in an organism, which largely depends on the viral species. Mechanisms at the cellular level primarily include cell lysis, the breaking open and subsequent death of the cell. In multicellular organisms, if enough cells die the whole organism will start to suffer the effects. Although viruses cause disruption of healthy homeostasis, resulting in disease, they may exist relatively harmlessly within an organism. An example would include the ability of the herpes simplex virus, which cause cold sores, to remain in a dormant state within the human body. This is called latency[109] and is a characteristic of the all herpes viruses including the Epstein-Barr virus, which causes glandular fever, and the varicella zoster virus, which causes chicken pox. The large majority of people have been infected with at least one of these types of herpes virus.[110] However, these latent viruses might sometimes be beneficial, as the presence of the virus can increase immunity against bacterial pathogens, such as Yersinia pestis.[111] On the other hand, latent chickenpox infections return in later life as the disease called shingles.

Some viruses can cause life-long or chronic infections, where the viruses continue to replicate in the body despite the hosts' defence mechanisms.[112] This is common in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections. People chronically infected are known as carriers, as they serve as reservoirs of infectious virus.[113] In populations with a high proportion of carriers, the disease is said to be endemic.[114] In contrast to acute lytic viral infections this persistence implies compatible interactions with the host organism. Persistent viruses may even broaden the evolutionary potential of host species.[115]

[edit] Epidemiology

Viral epidemiology is the branch of medical science that deals with the transmission and control of virus infections in humans. Transmission of viruses can be vertical, that is from mother to child, or horizontal, which means from person to person. Examples of vertical transmission include hepatitis B virus and HIV where the baby is born already infected with the virus.[116] Another, more rare, example is the varicella zoster virus, which although causing relatively mild infections in humans, can be fatal to the foetus and newly born baby.[117] Horizontal transmission is the most common mechanism of spread of viruses in populations. Transmission can be exchange of blood by sexual activity, e.g. HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C; by mouth by exchange of saliva, e.g. Epstein-Barr virus, or from contaminated food or water, e.g. norovirus; by breathing in viruses in the form of aerosols, e.g. influenza virus; and by insect vectors such as mosquitoes, e.g. dengue. The rate or speed of transmission of viral infections depends on factors that include population density, the number of susceptible individuals, (i.e. those who are not immune),[118] the quality of health care and the weather.[119]

Epidemiology is used to break the chain of infection in populations during outbreaks of viral diseases.[120] Control measures are used that are based on knowledge of how the virus is transmitted. It is important to find the source, or sources, of the outbreak and to identify the virus. Once the virus has been identified, the chain of transmission can sometimes be broken by vaccines. When vaccines are not available sanitation and disinfection can be effective. Often infected people are isolated from the rest of the community and those that have been exposed to the virus placed in quarantine.[121] To control the outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle in Britain in 2001, thousands of cattle were slaughtered.[122] Most viral infections of humans and other animals have incubation periods during which the infection causes no signs or symptoms.[123] Incubation periods for viral diseases range from a few days to weeks but are known for most infections.[124] Somewhat overlapping, but mainly following the incubation period, there is a period of communicability; a time when an infected individual or animal is contagious and can infect another person or animal.[125] This too is known for many viral infections and knowledge the length of both periods is important in the control of outbreaks.[126] When outbreaks cause an unusually high proportion of cases in a population, community or region they are called epidemics. If outbreaks spread worldwide they are called pandemics.[127]

[edit] Epidemics and pandemics
See also: Spanish flu, AIDS, and Ebola
For more details on this topic, see List of epidemics.
An electron micrograph of the virus that caused Spanish influenza
The reconstructed 1918 influenza virus

Native American populations were devastated by contagious diseases, particularly smallpox, brought to the Americas by European colonists. It is unclear how many Native Americans were killed by foreign diseases after the arrival of Columbus in the Americas, but the numbers have been estimated to be close to 70% of the indigenous population. The damage done by this disease significantly aided European attempts to displace and conquer the native population.[128]

A pandemic is a worldwide epidemic. The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu, was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly influenza A virus. The victims were often healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks, which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or otherwise weakened patients.[129]

The Spanish flu pandemic lasted from 1918 to 1919. Older estimates say it killed 40–50 million people,[130] while more recent research suggests that it may have killed as many as 100 million people, or 5% of the world's population in 1918.[131] Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century;[132] it is now a pandemic, with an estimated 38.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide.[133] The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognised on June 5, 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history.[134] In 2007 there were 2.7 million new HIV infections and 2 million HIV-related deaths.[135]
An electron micrograph of the filamentous Marburg virus
Marburg virus

Several highly lethal viral pathogens are members of the Filoviridae. Filoviruses are filament-like viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever, and include the ebola and marburg viruses. The Marburg virus attracted widespread press attention in April 2005 for an outbreak in Angola. Beginning in October 2004 and continuing into 2005, the outbreak was the world's worst epidemic of any kind of viral hemorrhagic fever.[136]

[edit] Cancer
For more details on this topic, see Oncovirus.

Viruses are an established cause of cancer in humans and other species. However, cancer is not an infectious disease. Instead, the presence of the virus increases the risk that cells in the body will become cancerous. The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus. Hepatitis viruses can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer.[137][138] Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus can lead to tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukemia.[139] Human papillomaviruses are an established cause of cancers of cervix, skin, anus, and *****.[140] Within the Herpesviridae, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus causes Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity lymphoma, and Epstein–Barr virus causes Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, B lymphoproliferative disorder and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.[141]

[edit] Host defence mechanisms
See also: Immune system

The body's first line of defence against viruses is the innate immune system. This comprises cells and other mechanisms that defend the host from infection in a non-specific manner. This means that the cells of the innate system recognise, and respond to, pathogens in a generic way, but unlike the adaptive immune system, it does not confer long-lasting or protective immunity to the host.[142]

RNA interference is an important innate defence against viruses.[143] Many viruses have a replication strategy that involves double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). When such a virus infects a cell, it releases its RNA molecule or molecules, which immediately bind to a protein complex called dicer that cuts the RNA into smaller pieces. A biochemical pathway called the RISC complex is activated, which degrades the viral mRNA and the cell survives the infection. Rotaviruses avoid this mechanism by not uncoating fully inside the cell and by releasing newly produced mRNA through pores in the particle's inner capsid. The genomic dsRNA remains protected inside the core of the virion.[144][145]

When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus and render it non-infectious. This is called humoral immunity. Two types of antibodies are important. The first called IgM is highly effective at neutralizing viruses but is only produced by the cells of the immune system for a few weeks. The second, called, IgG is produced indefinitely. The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime in the past.[146] IgG antibody is measured when tests for immunity are carried out.[147]
Two spherical rotavirus particles, one is coated with antibody which looks like many small birds, regularly spaced on the surface of the virus
Two rotaviruses: the one on the right is coated with antibodies that stop its attaching to cells and infecting them

A second defence of vertebrates against viruses is called cell-mediated immunity and involves immune cells known as T cells. The body's cells constantly display short fragments of their proteins on the cell's surface, and if a T cell recognises a suspicious viral fragment there, the host cell is destroyed by T killer cells and the virus-specific T-cells proliferate. Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation.[148] The production of interferon is an important host defence mechanism. This is a hormone produced by the body when viruses are present. Its role in immunity is complex, but it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by killing the infected cell and its close neighbours[149]

Not all virus infections produce a protective immune response in this way. HIV evades the immune system by constantly changing the amino acid sequence of the proteins on the surface of the virion. These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration, blockade of antigen presentation, cytokine resistance, evasion of natural killer cell activities, escape from apoptosis, and antigenic shift.[150] Other viruses, called neurotropic viruses, are disseminated by neural spread where the immune system may be unable to reach them.

[edit] Prevention and treatment

Because viruses use the machinery of a host cell to reproduce and reside within them, they are difficult to eliminate without killing the host cell. The most effective medical approaches to viral diseases so far are vaccinations to provide resistance to infection, and antiviral drugs.

[edit] Vaccines
For more details on this topic, see Vaccination.

Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections long before the discovery of the actual viruses. Their use has resulted in a dramatic decline in morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) associated with viral infections such as polio, measles, mumps and rubella.[151] Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[152] Currently vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral infections of humans,[153] and more are used to prevent viral infections of animals.[154] Vaccines can consist of live-attenuated or killed viruses, or viral proteins (antigens).[155] Live vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus that causes the disease. Such viruses are called attenuated. Live vaccines can be dangerous when given to people with a weak immunity, (who are described as immunocompromised), because in these people, the weakened virus can cause the original disease.[156] Biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques are used to produce subunit vaccines. These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine.[157] Subunit vaccines are safe for immunocompromised patients because they cannot cause the disease.[158] However,

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Kidney
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Kidney
Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed
Lamb kidneys
Latin ren
Gray's subject #253 1215
Artery renal artery
Vein renal vein
Nerve renal plexus
MeSH Kidney
Dorlands/Elsevier Kidney

The kidneys are paired organs, which have the production of urine as their primary function. Kidneys are seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are part of the urinary system, but have several secondary functions concerned with homeostatic functions. These include the regulation of electrolytes, acid-base balance, and blood pressure. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of glucose and amino acids. Finally, the kidneys are important in the production of hormones including vitamin D, renin and erythropoietin.

Located behind the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.

Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with diseases of the kidney. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney disease frequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical presentations include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction.[1]
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Anatomy
o 1.1 Location
o 1.2 Structure
o 1.3 Blood supply
o 1.4 Histology
* 2 Embryology
* 3 Evolutionary adaptation
* 4 Etymology
* 5 Diseases and disorders
o 5.1 Congenital
o 5.2 Acquired
o 5.3 Kidney failure
* 6 History
o 6.1 Human thought about kidneys
* 7 Animal kidneys as food
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links

[edit] Anatomy

[edit] Location

In humans, the kidneys are located behind the abdominal cavity, in a space called the retroperitoneum. There are two, one on each side of the spine; they are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3.[2] The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver, the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen. Resting on top of each kidney is an adrenal gland (also called the suprarenal gland). The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left, and left kidney being located slightly more medial than the right.[3][4] The upper (cranial) parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney and adrenal gland are surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) and the renal fascia. Each adult kidney weighs between 125 and 170 g in males and between 115 and 155 g in females.[2] The left kidney is typically slightly larger than the right.[citation needed]

[edit] Structure
1. Renal pyramid • 2. Interlobar artery • 3. Renal artery • 4. Renal vein • 5. Renal hilum • 6. Renal pelvis • 7. Ureter • 8. Minor calyx • 9. Renal capsule • 10. Inferior renal capsule • 11. Superior renal capsule • 12. Interlobar vein • 13. Nephron • 14. Minor calyx • 15. Major calyx • 16. Renal papilla • 17. Renal column

Bean-shaped structures, each kidney has concave and convex surfaces. The concave surface, the renal hilum, is the point at which the renal artery enters the organ, and the renal vein and ureter leaves. The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, which is itself surrounded by perinephric fat, renal fascia (of Gerota), and paranephric fat. The anterior (front) border of these tissues is the peritoneum, while the posterior (rear) border is the transversalis fascia.

The substance, or parenchyma, of the kidney is divided into two major structures: superficial is the renal cortex and deep is the renal medulla. Grossly, these structures take the shape of 8 to 18 cone-shaped renal lobes, each containing renal cortex surrounding a portion of medulla called a renal pyramid (of Malphigi).[2] Between renal pyramids, which are composed of medulla, are projections of cortex called renal columns (of Bertin). Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla. The initial filtering portions of the nephron, the renal corpuscles, are located in the cortex and each sends a renal tubule that passes from the cortex deep into the medullary pyramids. Part of the renal cortex, a medullary ray is a collection of renal tubules that drain into a single collecting duct.

The tip, or papilla, of each pyramid empties urine into a minor calyx, minor calyces empty into major calyces, and major calyces empty into the renal pelvis and ultimately the ureter and urinary bladder. These urine-filled spaces comprise the renal sinus.[2]

[edit] Blood supply

The kidneys receive blood from the renal arteries, left and right, which branch directly from the abdominal aorta. Despite their relatively small size, the kidneys receive approximately 20% of the cardiac output.[2]

Each renal artery branches into segmental arteries, dividing further into interlobar arteries which penetrate the renal capsule and extend through the renal columns between the renal pyramids. The interlobar arteries then supply blood to the arcuate arteries that run through the boundary of the cortex and the medulla. Each arcuate artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli.

After filtration occurs the blood moves through a small network of venules that converge into interlobular veins. As with the arteriole distribution the veins follow the same pattern, the interlobular provide blood to the arcuate veins then back to the interlobar veins which come to form the renal vein exiting the kidney for transfusion for blood.

[edit] Histology
Microscopic photograph of the renal medulla.
Microscopic photograph of the renal cortex.

Renal histology studies the structure of the kidney as viewed under a microscope. Various distinct cell types occur in the kidney, including:

* Kidney glomerulus parietal cell
* Kidney glomerulus podocyte
* Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
* Loop of Henle thin segment cell
* Thick ascending limb cell
* Kidney distal tubule cell
* Kidney collecting duct cell
* Interstitial kidney cell

[edit] Embryology
Main article: Kidney development

The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called nephrogenesis, proceeds through a series of three successive phases, each marked by the development of a more advanced pair of kidneys: the pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros.[5]

[edit] Evolutionary adaptation

Kidneys of various animals show evidence of evolutionary adaptation and have long been studied in ecophysiology and comparative physiology. Kidney morphology, often indexed as the relative medullary thickness, is associated with habitat aridity among species of mammals.[6]

[edit] Etymology

Medical terms related to the kidneys commonly use terms such as renal and the prefix nephro-. The adjective renal, meaning related to the kidney, is from the Latin r?n?s, meaning kidneys; the prefix nephro- is from the Ancient Greek word for kidney, nephros (??????).[7] For example, surgical removal of the kidney is a nephrectomy, while a reduction in kidney function is called renal dysfunction.

[edit] Diseases and disorders
Main article: Nephropathy

[edit] Congenital

* Congenital hydronephrosis
* Congenital obstruction of urinary tract
* Duplicated ureter
* Horseshoe kidney
* Polycystic kidney disease
* Renal agenesis
* Renal dysplasia
* Unilateral small kidney
* Multicystic dysplastic kidney
* Parenchyma

[edit] Acquired
Drawing of an enlarged kidney by John Hunter.

* Diabetic nephropathy
* Glomerulonephritis
* Hydronephrosis is the enlargement of one or both of the kidneys caused by obstruction of the flow of urine.
* Interstitial nephritis

* Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) are a relatively common and particularly painful disorder.
* Kidney tumors
o Wilms tumor
o Renal cell carcinoma
* Lupus nephritis
* Minimal change disease
* In nephrotic syndrome, the glomerulus has been damaged so that a large amount of protein in the blood enters the urine. Other frequent features of the nephrotic syndrome include swelling, low serum al***in, and high cholesterol.
* Pyelonephritis is infection of the kidneys and is frequently caused by complication of a urinary tract infection.
* Renal failure
o Acute renal failure
o Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

[edit] Kidney failure
Main article: Renal failure

Generally, humans can live normally with just one kidney, as one has more functioning renal tissue than is needed to survive. Only when the amount of functioning kidney tissue is greatly diminished will chronic kidney disease develop. Renal replacement therapy, in the form of dialysis or kidney transplantation, is indicated when the glomerular filtration rate has fallen very low or if the renal dysfunction leads to severe symptoms.

[edit] History

[edit] Human thought about kidneys

The Latin term renes is related to the English word "reins", a synonym for the kidneys in Shakespearean English (eg. Merry Wives of Windsor 3.5), which was also the time the King James Version was translated. Kidneys were once popularly regarded as the seat of the conscience and reflection[8][9], and a number of verses in the Bible (eg. Ps. 7:9, Rev. 2:23) state that God searches out and inspects the kidneys, or "reins", of humans. Similarly, the Talmud (Berakhoth 61.a) states that one of the two kidneys counsels what is good, and the other evil.

[edit] Animal kidneys as food
Hökarpanna, Swedish pork and kidney stew

The kidneys of animals can be cooked and eaten by humans (along with other offal).

Kidneys are usually grilled or sautéed, but in more complex dishes they are stewed with a sauce that will improve their flavor. In many preparations kidneys are combined with pieces of meat or liver, like in mixed grill or in Meurav Yerushalmi. Among the most reputed kidney dishes, the British Steak and kidney pie, the Swedish Hökarpanna (pork and kidney stew), the French Rognons de veau sauce moutarde (veal kidneys in mustard sauce) and the Spanish "Riñones al Jerez" (kidneys stewed in sherry sauce), deserve special mention.[10]

[edit] See also

* Artificial kidney
* Pelvic kidney

[edit] References

1. ^ Cotran, RS S.; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.
2. ^ a b c d e Walter F., PhD. Boron (2004). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.
3. ^ http://www.indexedvisuals.com/...k/pic.asp?id=118-100 (http://www.indexedvisuals.com/scripts/ivstock/pic.asp?id=118-100)
4. ^ http://www.bioportfolio.com/indepth/Kidney.html
5. ^ Bruce M. Carlson (2004). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (3rd edition ed.). Saint Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0-323-03649-X.
6. ^ Al-kahtani, M. A.; C. Zuleta, E. Caviedes-Vidal, and T. Garland, Jr. (2004). "Kidney mass and relative medullary thickness of rodents in relation to habitat, body size, and phylogeny". Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77: 346-365. http://www.biology.ucr.edu/peo...Al-kahtaniEA2004.pdf (http://www.biology.ucr.edu/people/faculty/Garland/Al-kahtaniEA2004.pdf).
7. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1.
8. ^ The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics p. 60 by Paul Ramsey, Margaret Farley, Albert Jonsen, William F. May (2002)
9. ^ History of Nephrology 2 p. 235 by International Association for the History of Nephrology Congress, Garabed Eknoyan, Spyros G. Marketos, Natale G. De Santo - 1997; Reprint of American Journal of Nephrology; v. 14, no. 4-6, 1994.
10. ^ Rognons dans les recettes (French)

[edit] External links
Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Kidney

* electron microscopic images of the kidney (Dr. Jastrow's EM-Atlas)
* European Renal Genome project kidney function tutorial
* Kidney Foundation of Canada kidney disease information
* National Kidney Foundation
* Kidney Foundation (Canada)
* BC Renal Agency - Official site for the province-wide network of renal care providers in British Columbia, Canada
* World Kidney Day website
* UNC Nephropathology
* American Society of Nephrology
* Renal Fellow Network: Structure & Function of Other Animals' Kidneys

[show]
v • d • e
Urinary system – Kidney
Layers
Renal fascia • Renal capsule • Renal cortex (Renal column) • Renal medulla (Renal sinus, Renal pyramids, medullary interstitium) • Renal lobe • Cortical lobule • Medullary ray • Nephron
Afferent circulation
Renal artery ? Segmental arteries ? Interlobar arteries ? Arcuate arteries ? Interlobular arteries ? Afferent arterioles ? Renal corpuscle (Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule)
Renal tubule
Proximal tubule ? Loop of Henle (Descending, Thin ascending, Thick ascending) ? Distal convoluted tubule ? Connecting tubule ? Collecting ducts aka Duct of Belini ? Renal papilla ? Minor calyx ? Major calyx ? Renal pelvis ? Ureter
Efferent circulation
Glomerulus ? Efferent arterioles ? Peritubular capillaries / Vasa recta ? Arcuate vein ? Interlobar veins ? Renal vein
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
Macula densa • Juxtaglomerular cells • Mesangium/Extraglomerular mesangial cell
Filtration
Glomerular basement membrane • Podocyte • Filtration slits • Mesangium/Intraglomerular mesangial cell • Tubular fluid
Renal physiology
Acid base physiology • Fluid balance
[show]
v • d • e
Anatomy: urinary system
Abdomen
Kidneys · Ureters · Orifice of ureter
Pelvis
Urinary bladder (Uvula, Trigone, Detrusor, Apex, Neck)

Urethral sphincters (External sphincter muscle of male urethra, External sphincter muscle of female urethra, Internal sphincter muscle of urethra)
Urethra
Development
Development of the urinary and reproductive organs
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney"
Categories: Kidney
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Insect
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Insects)
Jump to: navigation, search
Insects
Fossil range: 396–0 Ma
Pre?
?
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Early Devonian[1] (but see text) - Recent

Western honey bee (Order Hymenoptera)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Mandibulata
Class: Insecta
Linnaeus, 1758
Insect anatomy
A- Head B- Thorax C- Abdomen
1. antenna
2. ocelli (lower)
3. ocelli (upper)
4. compound eye
5. brain (cerebral ganglia)
6. prothorax
7. dorsal blood vessel
8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle)
9. mesothorax
10. metathorax
11. forewing
12. hindwing
13. mid-gut (stomach)
14. dorsal blood vessel (aorta)
15. ovary
16. hind-gut (intestine, ****** & anus)
17. anus
18. oviduct
19. nerve chord (abdominal ganglia)
20. Malpighian tubes
21. tarsal pads
22. claws
23. tarsus
24. tibia
25. femur
26. trochanter
27. fore-gut (crop, gizzard)
28. thoracic ganglion
29. coxa
30. salivary gland
31. subesophageal ganglion
32. mouthparts

Insects (Class Insecta) are arthropods, having a hard exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae. They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and include approximately 30 gladiator and icebug, 35 Zoraptera, 150 snakefly, 200 silverfish, 300 alderfly, 300 webspinner, 350 jumping bristletail, 550 scorpionfly, 600 Strepsiptera, 1,200 caddisfly, 1,700 stonefly, 1,800 earwig, 2,000 flea, 2,200 mantis, 2,500 mayfly, 3,000 louse, 3,000 walking stick, 4,000 cockroach, 4,000 lacewing, 4,000 termite, 5,000 dragonfly, 5,000 thrips, 5,500 booklouse, 20,000 cricket, grasshopper, and locust, 82,000 true bug, 110,000 ant, bee, sawfly, and wasp, 120,000 true fly, 170,000 butterfly and moth, and 360,000 beetle species described to date. The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million[2][3][4], with over a million species already described. Insects represent more than half of all known living organisms[2][5] and potentially represent over 90% of the differing life forms on Earth.[6] Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species occur in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, the crustaceans.

Adult modern insects range in size from a 0.139 mm (0.00547 in) *****fly (Dicopomorpha echmepterygis) to a 56.7-centimetre (22.3 in) long stick insect (Phobaeticus chani).[7] The heaviest documented present-day insect was 70 g (2½ oz) Giant Weta, though the Goliath beetles Goliathus goliatus, Goliathus regius and Cerambycid beetles such as Titanus giganteus hold the title for some of the largest species in general.

The largest known extinct insect is a kind of dragonfly, Meganeura.[8]
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Body structure
o 1.1 Nervous system
o 1.2 Digestive system
o 1.3 Respiration and circulation
o 1.4 Exoskeleton
* 2 Reproduction
* 3 Senses and communication
o 3.1 Light production and vision
o 3.2 Sound production and hearing
o 3.3 Chemical communication
* 4 Social behaviour
o 4.1 Care of young
* 5 Locomotion
o 5.1 Flight
o 5.2 Walking
o 5.3 Swimming
* 6 Evolution
o 6.1 Coevolution
* 7 Classification
* 8 Relationship to humans
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 External links

[edit] Body structure

Insects possess segmented bodies supported by an exoskeleton, a hard outer covering made mostly of chitin. The segments of the body are organized into three distinctive but interconnected units, or tagmata; a head, a thorax, and an abdomen.[9] The head supports a pair of sensory antennae, a pair of compound eyes, if present, one to three simple eyes or (ocelli) and three sets of variously modified appendages that form the mouthparts. The thorax has six segmented legs (one pair each for the prothorax, mesothorax and the metathorax segments making up the thorax) and two or four wings (if present in the species). The abdomen (made up of eleven segments some of which may be reduced or fused) has most of the digestive, respiratory, excretory and reproductive internal structures.[10]

[edit] Nervous system

The nervous system of an insect can be divided into a brain and a ventral nerve cord. The head capsule (made up of six fused segments) has six pairs of ganglia. The first three pairs are fused into the brain, while the three following pairs are fused into a structure called the subesophageal ganglion.[10]

The thoracic segments have one ganglion on each side, which are connected into a pair, one pair per segment. This arrangement is also seen in the abdomen but only in the first eight segments. Many species of insects have reduced numbers of ganglia due to fusion or reduction.[11] Some cockroaches have just six ganglia in the abdomen, whereas the wasp Vespa crabro has only two in the thorax and three in the abdomen. And some, like the house fly Musca domestica, have all the body ganglia fused into a single large thoracic ganglion.

Until very recently, no one had ever documented the presence of nociceptors (the cells that detect and transmit sensations of pain) in insects,[12] though recent findings of nociception in larval fruit flies challenges this[13] and raises the possibility that some insects may be capable of feeling pain.

[edit] Digestive system
Insect digestive system
A- Head B- Thorax C- Abdomen
13. mid-gut (stomach)
15. ovary
16. hind-gut (intestine, ****** & anus)
17. anus
27. fore-gut (crop, gizzard)
30. salivary gland

An insect uses its digestive system to extract nutrients and other substances from the food it consumes.[14] Most of this food is ingested in the form of macromolecules and other complex substances (such as proteins, polysaccharides, fats, and nucleic acids) which must be broken down by catabolic reactions into smaller molecules (i.e. amino acids, simple sugars, etc.) before being used by cells of the body for energy, growth, or reproduction. This break-down process is known as digestion.

The insect's digestive system is a closed system, with one long enclosed tube called the alimentary canal which runs lengthwise through the body. The alimentary canal only allows food to enter the mouth, and then gets processed as it travels toward the anus. Each of the three sections of the alimentary canal performs a different process of digestion. In addition to the alimentary canal, insects also have paired salivary glands and salivary reservoirs. These structures usually reside in the thorax (adjacent to the fore-gut).

The salivary glands (30) produce saliva, the salivary ducts lead from the glands to the reservoirs and then forward through the head to an opening called the salivarium behind the hypopharynx; which movements of the mouthparts help mix saliva with food in the buccal cavity. Saliva mixes with food which travels through salivary tubes into the mouth, beginning the process of breaking it down.[14][15]
Stylised diagram of insect digestive tract showing malpighian tubule (Orthopteran type)

The first section of the alimentary canal is the fore-gut (27) or stomodaeum. In the fore-gut, initial breakdown of large food particles occurs, mostly by saliva. The fore-gut includes the Buccal cavity, the esophagus, and the crop, which stores food before it passes to the mid-gut.

Once food leaves the crop, it passes to the mid-gut (13) or mesenteron. The mid-gut is where digestion really happens, through enzymatic action.[16] Microscopic projections from the mid-gut wall, called microvilli, increase surface area and allow for maximum absorption of nutrients.

In the hind-gut (16) or proctodaeum, is where undigested food particles join uric acid from Malphigian tubules to form fecal pellets. The ****** absorbs most of the water in this waste matter, and the dry pellet is then eliminated through the anus (17), there by completing the process of digestion.

[edit] Respiration and circulation

Insect respiration is accomplished without lungs using a system of internal tubes and sacs through which gases either diffuse or are actively pumped, delivering oxygen directly to tissues that need oxygen (see invertebrate trachea). Since oxygen is delivered directly, the circulatory system is not used to carry oxygen, and is therefore greatly reduced; it has no closed vessels (i.e., no veins or arteries), consisting of little more than a single, perforated dorsal tube which pulses peristaltically, and in doing so helps circulate the hemolymph inside the body cavity.[10] Air is taken in through spiracles, openings on the sides of the abdomen. There are many different patterns of gas exchange demonstrated by different groups of insects. Gas exchange patterns in insects can range from continuous, diffusive ventilation, to discontinuous gas exchange.[10]

[edit] Exoskeleton
Scanning electron micrograph of a thrips (Thysanoptera), showing fine structure, the compound eyes, wing construction, and setae.

Most higher insects have two pairs of wings located on the second and third thoracic segments.[10] Insects are the only invertebrates to have developed flight capability, and this has played an important part in their success. Insect flight is not very well understood, relying heavily on turbulent aerodynamic effects. The primitive insect groups use muscles that act directly on the wing structure. The more advanced groups making up the Neoptera have foldable wings and their muscles act on the thorax wall and power the wings indirectly.[10] These muscles are able to contract multiple times for each single nerve impulse, allowing the wings to beat faster than would ordinarily be possible.

Their outer skeleton, the cuticle, is made up of two layers; the epicuticle which is a thin and waxy water resistant outer layer and contains no chitin, and another layer under it called the procuticle. This is chitinous and much thicker than the epicuticle and has two layers, the outer being the exocuticle while the inner is the endocuticle. The tough and flexible endocuticle is built from numerous layers of fibrous chitin and proteins, criss-crossing each others in a sandwich pattern, while the exocuticle is rigid and sclerotized.[10] The exocuticle is greatly reduced in many soft-bodied insects, especially the larval stages (e.g., caterpillars).

[edit] Reproduction
A pair of Simosyrphus grandicornis hoverflies mating in flight.

Most insects hatch from eggs, but some are ovoviviparous or viviparous,[10] and all undergo a series of moults as they develop and grow in size. This manner of growth is necessitated by the inelastic exoskeleton. Moulting is a process by which the individual escapes the confines of the exoskeleton in order to increase in size, then grows a new and larger outer covering.[10] In some insects, the young are called nymphs and are similar in form to the adult except that the wings are not developed until the adult stage. This is called incomplete metamorphosis and insects showing this are termed hemimetabolous. Holometabolous insects show complete metamorphosis, which distinguishes the Endopterygota and includes many of the most successful insect groups.[10] In these species, an egg hatches to produce a larva, which is generally worm-like in form, and can be divided into five different forms; eruciform (caterpillar-like), scarabaeiform (grublike), campodeiform (elongated, flattened, and active), elateriform (wireworm-like) and vermiform (maggot-like). The larva grows and eventually becomes a pupa, a stage marked by reduced movement and often sealed within a cocoon.
Muscina flies mating

There are three types of pupae; obtect (the pupa is compact with the legs and other appendages enclosed), exarate (where the pupa has the legs and other appendages free and extended) and coarctate (where the pupa develops inside the larval skin).[17] In the pupal stage, the insect undergoes considerable change in form to emerge as an adult, or imago. Butterflies are an example of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis. Some insects have even evolved hypermetamorphosis.

Some insects (parastic wasps) show polyembryony where a single fertilized egg can divide into many and in some cases thousands of separate embryos. Other developmental and reproductive variations include haplodiploidy, polymorphism, paedomorphosis (metathetely and prothetely), sexual dimorphism, parthenogenesis and more rarely hermaphroditism.

[edit] Senses and communication
A robberfly with its prey, a hoverfly

Many insects possess very sensitive and/or specialized organs of perception. Some insects such as bees can perceive ultraviolet wavelengths, or detect polarized light, while the antennae of male moths can detect the pheromones of female moths over distances of many kilometres.[18] There is a pronounced tendency for there to be a trade-off between visual acuity and chemical or tactile acuity, such that most insects with well-developed eyes have reduced or simple antennae, and vice-versa. There are a variety of different mechanisms by which insects perceive sound, and it is by no means universal; the general pattern, however, is that if an insect can produce sound, then it can also hear sound, though the range of frequencies they can hear is often quite narrow (and may in fact be limited to only the frequency that they themselves produce). Some nocturnal moths can perceive the ultrasonic emissions of bats, a mechanism which helps them avoid predation. Certain predatory and parasitic insects can detect the characteristic sounds made by their prey/hosts. Blood****ing insects have special sensory structures that can detect infrared emissions, and use them to home in on their hosts.
Sensillae: sensory structures on insects

A few such insects also have a well-developed number sense,[19] such as the solitary wasps that provision with a single species of prey. The mother wasp lays her eggs in individual cells and provides each egg with a number of live caterpillars on which the young feed when hatched. Some species of wasp always provide five, others twelve, and others as high as twenty-four caterpillars per cell. The number of caterpillars is different among species, but it is always the same for each *** of larva. The male solitary wasp in the genus Eumenes is smaller than the female, so the mother of one species supplies him with only five caterpillars; the larger female receives ten caterpillars in her cell. She can in other words distinguish between both the numbers five and ten in the caterpillars she is providing and which cell contains a male or a female.

[edit] Light production and vision

A few insects, such as members of the families Poduridae and Onychiuridae (Collembola), Mycetophilidae (Diptera), and the beetle families Lampyridae, Phengodidae, Elateridae and Staphylinidae are bioluminescent. The most familiar group are the fireflies, beetles of the family Lampyridae. Some species are able to control this light generation to produce flashes. The function varies with some species using them to attract mates, while others use them to lure prey. Cave dwelling larvae of Arachnocampa (Mycetophilidae, Fungus gnats) glow to lure small flying insects into sticky strands of silk.[20] Some fireflies of the genus Photuris mimic the flashing of female Photinus species to attract males of that species, which are then captured and devoured.[21] The colours of emitted light vary from dull blue (Orfelia fultoni, Mycetophilidae) to the familiar greens and the rare reds (Phrixothrix tiemanni, Phengodidae).[22]

Most insects except some species of cave dwelling crickets are able to perceive light and dark. Many species have acute vision capable of detecting minute movements. The eyes include simple eyes or ocelli as well as compound eyes of varying sizes. Many species are able to detect light in the infrared, ultraviolet as well as the visible light wavelengths. Colour vision has been demonstrated in many species and phylogenetic analysis suggests that the basic bauplan of UV-green-blue trichromacy existed from at least the Devonian period.[23]

[edit] Sound production and hearing

Insects were the earliest organisms to produce sounds and to sense them. Soundmaking in insects is achieved mostly by mechanical action of appendages. In the grasshoppers and crickets this is achieved by stridulation. The cicadas have the loudest sounds among the insects and have special modifications to their body and musculature to produce and amplify sounds. The African cicada, Brevisana brevis has been measured at 106.7 decibels at a distance of 50 cm (20 in).[24] Some insects, such as the hawk moths and Hedylid butterflies, can hear ultrasound and take evasive action when they sense detection by bats. Some moths produce ultrasound clicks that were earlier thought to have a role in jamming the bat echolocation, but it was subsequently found that these are produced mostly by unpalatable moths to warn bats, just as warning colourations are used against predators that hunt by sight.[25] These calls are also made by other moths involved in mimicry.[26]

Very low sounds are also produced in various species of Neuroptera, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Coleoptera and Hymenoptera produced by the mechanical actions of movement often aided by special microscopic stridulatory structures. Most sound-making insects also have tympanal organs that can perceive airborne sounds. Most insects are also able to sense vibrations transmitted by the substrate. Communication using substrate-borne vibrational signals is more widespread among insects because of the size constraints in producing air-borne sounds.[27] Insects cannot effectively produce low-frequency sounds, and high-frequency sounds tend to disperse more in a dense environment (such as foliage), so insects living in such environments communicate primarily using substrate-borne vibrations.[28] The mechanisms of production of vibrational signals are just as diverse as those for producing sound in insects.

Some species use vibrations for communicating within members of the same species, such as to attract mates as in the songs of the shield bug Nezara viridula[29] while it can also be used to communicate between entirely different species, such as between ants and myrmecophilous lycaenid caterpillars.[30]

The Madagascar hissing cockroach has the ability to press air through the spiracles to make a hissing noise, and the Death's-head Hawkmoth makes a squeaking noise by forcing air out of their pharynx.

[edit] Chemical communication

In addition to the use of sound for communication, a wide range of insects have evolved chemical means for communication. These chemicals, termed semiochemicals, are often derived from plant metabolites include those meant to attract, repel and provide other kinds of information. While some chemicals are targeted at individuals of the same species, others are used for communication across species. The use of scents is especially well known to have developed in social insects.[10]

[edit] Social behaviour
A cathedral mound created by termites (Isoptera).

Social insects, such as termites, ants and many bees and wasps, are the most familiar species of eusocial animal.[31] They live together in large well-organized colonies that may be so tightly integrated and genetically similar that the colonies of some species are sometimes considered superorganisms. It is sometimes argued that the various species of honey bee are the only invertebrates (and indeed one of the few non-human groups) to have evolved a system of abstract symbolic communication (i.e., where a behaviour is used to represent and convey specific information about something in the environment), called the dance language - the angle at which a bee dances represents a direction relative to the sun, and the length of the dance represents the distance to be flown.

Only those insects which live in nests or colonies demonstrate any true capacity for fine-scale spatial orientation or homing - this can be quite sophisticated, however, and allow an insect to return unerringly to a single hole a few millimetres in diameter among a mass of thousands of apparently identical holes all clustered together, after a trip of up to several kilometres' distance, and (in cases where an insect hibernates) as long as a year after last viewing the area (a phenomenon known as philopatry). A few insects migrate, but this is a larger-scale form of navigation, and often involves only large, general regions (e.g., the overwintering areas of the Monarch butterfly).

[edit] Care of young

Most insects lead short lives as adults, and rarely interact with one another except to mate or compete for mates. A small number exhibit some form of parental care, where they will at least guard their eggs, and sometimes continue guarding their offspring until adulthood, and possibly even actively feeding them. Another simple form of parental care is to construct a nest (a burrow or an actual construction, either of which may be simple or complex), store provisions in it, and lay an egg upon those provisions. The adult does not contact the growing offspring, but it nonetheless does provide food. This sort of care is typical of bees and various types of wasps.[32]

[edit] Locomotion

[edit] Flight
Main article: Insect flight
Basic motion of the insect wing in insect with an indirect flight mechanism scheme of dorsoventral cut through a thorax segment with
a wings
b joints
c dorsoventral muscles
d longitudinal muscles

Insects are the only group of invertebrates to have developed flight. The evolution of insect wings has been a subject of debate. Some proponents suggest that the wings are para-notal in origin while others have suggested they are modified gills. In the Carboniferous age, some of the Meganeura dragonflies had as much as a 50 cm (20 in) wide wingspan. The appearance of gigantic insects has been found to be consistent with high atmospheric oxygen. The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere found from ice core-samples was as high as 35% compared to the current 21%. The respiratory system of insects constrains their size, however the high oxygen in the atmosphere allowed larger sizes.[33] The largest flying insects today are much smaller and include several moth species such as the Atlas moth and the White Witch (Thysania agrippina). Insect flight has been a topic of great interest in aerodynamics due partly to the inability of steady-state theories to explain the lift generated by the tiny wings of insects.

Unlike birds, insects are swept along by the prevailing winds.[34] This includes aphids, which are often transported long distances by low-level jet streams.[35] As such, fine line patterns associated with converging winds within weather radar imagery, like the WSR-88D, are dominated by insect returns.[36]

[edit] Walking

Many adult insects use six legs for walking and have adopted a tripedal gait. The tripedal gait allows for rapid walking whilst always having a stable stance and has been studied extensively in cockroaches. The legs are used in alternate triangles touching the ground. For the first step the middle right leg and the front and rear left legs are in contact with the ground and move the insect forward, whilst the front and rear right leg and the middle left leg are lifted and moved forward to a new position. When they touch the ground to form a new stable triangle the other legs can be lifted and brought forward in turn and so on.[37] The purest form of the tripedal gait is seen in insects moving at speed. However, this type of locomotion is not rigid and insects can adapt a variety of gaits; for example, when moving slowly, turning, or avoiding obstacles, four or more feet may be touching the ground. Insects can also adapt their gait to cope with the loss of one or more limbs.

Cockroaches are amongst the fastest insect runners and at full speed actually adopt a bipedal run to reach a high velocity in proportion to their body size. As cockroaches move extremely rapidly, they need recording at several hundred frames per second to reveal their gait. More sedate locomotion is also studied by scientists in stick insects Phasmatodea. A few insects have evolved to walk on the surface of the water, especially the bugs of the family, Gerridae, also known as water striders. A few species of ocean-skaters in the genus Halobates even live on the surface of open oceans, a habitat that has few insect species.

Insect walking is of particular interest as an alternative form of locomotion to the use of wheels for robots (Robot locomotion). [37]

[edit] Swimming
The backswimmer Notonecta glauca underwater, showing the paddle like hindleg adaptation

A large number of insects live either parts or the whole of their lives underwater. In many of the more primitive orders the immature stages are aquatic while some other groups have aquatic adults as well.[38]

Many of these species have adaptations to help in locomotion under water. The water beetles and water bugs have legs adapted into paddle like structures. Dragonfly naiads use jet propulsion, forcibly expelling water out of the ****** chamber.[39] Some species like the water striders are capable of walking on the surface of water. They can do this because their claws are not at the tips of the legs as in most insects, but recessed in a special groove further up the leg; this prevents the claws from piercing the water's surface film.[38] Other insects such as the Rove beetle Stenus are known to emit salivary secretions that reduce surface tension making it possible for them to move on the surface of water by Marangoni propulsion (also known by the German term Entspannungsschwimmen).[40][41] Species that are submerged also have adaptations to aid in respiration. Many larval forms have gills that can extract oxygen dissolved in water, while others need to rise to the water surface to replenish air supplies which may be held or trapped in special structures.[38][42]

[edit] Evolution
Evolution has produced astonishing variety in insects. Pictured are some of the possible shapes of antennae.
Main article: Insect evolution

The relationships of insects to other animal groups remain unclear. Although more traditionally grouped with millipedes and centipedes, evidence has emerged favoring closer evolutionary ties with the crustaceans. In the Pancrustacea theory, insects, together with Remipedia and Malacostraca, make up a natural clade.[43]

Other terrestrial arthropods, such as centipedes, millipedes, scorpions and spiders, are sometimes confused with insects since their body plans can appear similar, sharing (as do all arthropods) a jointed exoskeleton. However upon closer examination their features differ significantly; most noticeably they do not have the six legs characteristic of adult insects.[44]








Hexapoda (Insecta, collembola, diplura, protura)




Crustacea (crabs, shrimp, isopods)


Myriapoda



Pauropoda




Diplopoda (Millipedes)




Chilopoda (Centipedes)




Symphyla


Chelicerata



Arachnida (Spiders, scorpions and allies)




Eurypterida (Sea scorpions: Extinct)




Xiphosura (Horseshoe crabs)




Pycnogonida (Sea spiders)





Trilobites (Extinct)


A phylogenetic tree of the arthropods and related groups.[45]

The higher level phylogeny of the arthropods continues to be a matter of debate and research. In 2008, a Tufts University student and a faculty lecturer uncovered what they believe is the world's oldest known full-body impression of a primitive flying insect, a 300 million-year-old specimen from the Carboniferous Period. The scientists presented the fossil at the Second International Congress on Ichnology, in Krakow, Poland in September 2008.[46] The oldest definitive insect fossil is the Devonian Rhyniognatha hirsti, from the 396 million year old Rhynie chert. This species already possessed dicondylic mandibles, a feature associated with winged insects, suggesting that wings may already have evolved at this time. Thus, the first insects probably appeared earlier, in the Silurian period.[1][47][48]

The origins of insect flight remain obscure, since the earliest winged insects currently known appear to have been capable fliers. Some extinct insects had an additional pair of winglets attaching to the first segment of the thorax, for a total of three pairs. So far, there is no evidence that suggests that the insects were a particularly successful group of animals before they got their wings.[49]

Late Carboniferous and Early Permian insect orders include both several current very long-lived groups and a number of Paleozoic forms. During this era, some giant dragonfly-like forms reached wingspans of 55 to 70 cm, (22-28 in) making them far larger than any living insect. This gigantism may have been due to higher atmospheric oxygen levels that allowed increased respiratory efficiency relative to today. The lack of flying vertebrates could have been another factor. Most extinct orders of insects developed during the Permian era that began around 270 million years ago. Many of the early groups became extinct during the Permian-Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in the history of the Earth, around 252 million years ago.[50]

The remarkably successful Hymenopterans appeared in the Cretaceous but achieved their diversity more recently, in the Cenozoic. A number of highly-successful insect groups evolved in conjunction with flowering plants, a powerful illustration of co-evolution. [51]

Many modern insect genera developed during the Cenozoic; insects from this period on are often found preserved in amber, often in perfect condition. Such specimens are easily compared with modern species. The study of fossilized insects is called paleoentomology.

[edit] Coevolution

See also: Coevolution

Insects were among the earliest terrestrial herbivores and acted as major selection agents on plants.[51] Plants evolved chemical defenses against this herbivory and the insects in turn evolved mechanisms to deal with plant toxins. Many insects make use of these toxins to protect themselves from their predators. Such insects often advertise their toxicity using warning colors. This successful evolutionary pattern has also been utilized by mimics. Over time, this has led to complex groups of co-evolved species. Conversely, some interactions between plants and insects are beneficial (see pollination), and coevolution has led to the development of very specific mutualisms in such systems.

[edit] Classification

Insecta
Monocondylia

Archaeognatha

Dicondylia



Thysanura

Pterygota
Paleoptera



Ephemeroptera




Odonata


Neoptera


Plecoptera




Embiidina




Phasmida




Orthoptera




Zoraptera




Dictyoptera




Dermaptera




Notoptera






Psocodea




Thysanoptera




Hemiptera




Endopterygota



Simplified Cladogram of insect groups[52] and very simplified. Note that Apterygota, Palaeoptera and Exopterygota are possibly paraphyletic groups.

Traditional morphology-based systematics has included in the subphylum Hexapoda four groups - Insects (Ectognatha), springtails (Collembola), Protura and Diplura, the latter three being grouped together as Entognatha on the basis of internalized mouthparts. Supraordinal relationships have undergone numerous changes with the advent of cladistic methods and genetic data. A recent hypothesis is that Hexapoda is polyphyletic, with the entognath classes having separate evolutionary histories from Insecta. [53]

As many of the traditional morphology-based taxa have been shown to be paraphyletic, it is best to avoid using terms such as subclass, superorder and infraorder and instead focus on monophyletic groupings. The following list represents the best supported monophyletic groupings for the Insecta.

† signifies an extinct taxon.

Apterygota

* Monura †

Monocondylia

* Archaeognatha=Microcoryphia (bristletails)

Dicondylia

* Thysanura=Zygentoma (silverfish)

Pterygota

Paleoptera

* Ephemeroptera (mayflies)
* Palaeodictyoptera †
* Megasecoptera †
* Archodonata †
* Diaphanopterodea †
* Protodonata=Meganisoptera †
* Protanisoptera †
* Triadophlebioptera †
* Protozygoptera=Archizygoptera †
* Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies)

Orthetrum caledonicum (Odonata), the Blue Skimmer dragonfly.
Tenodera sinensis (Mantodea), the Chinese Mantis.
A Yellowjacket wasp (Hymenoptera).
A Syrphid fly (Diptera) on a grape hyacinth.

Neoptera

Polyneoptera

* Caloneurodea †
* Titanoptera †
* Protorthoptera †
* Plecoptera (stoneflies)
* Embiidina=Embioptera (webspinners)
* Zoraptera (angel insects)
* Dermaptera (earwigs)
* Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)
* Phasmatodea (stick insects)
* Notoptera (ice-crawlers & gladiators)
* Blattaria (cockroaches)

* Isoptera (termites - included in Blattaria)

* Mantodea (mantids)

Paraneoptera

* Psocodea (booklice, barklice)

* Mallophaga (chewing lice - in Psocodea)
* Anoplura (****ing lice - in Psocodea)

* Thysanoptera (thrips)
* Hemiptera (true bugs, aphids, cicadas)

Endopterygota=Holometabola

* Glosselytrodea †
* Miomoptera †
* Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants)
* Coleoptera (beetles)
* Strepsiptera (twisted-winged parasites)

Neuropterida

* Raphidioptera (snakeflies)
* Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies)
* Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions)

Antliophora/Mecopteroidea

* Mecoptera (scorpionflies, hangingflies)

* Siphonaptera (fleas - in Mecoptera)

* Diptera (true flies)
* Protodiptera †

Amphiesmenoptera

* Trichoptera (caddisflies)
* Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths, skippers)

Insects can be divided into two groups, historically treated as subclasses: Apterygota (wingless) and Pterygota (winged). The Apterygota consists of two primitively wingless orders - Archaeognatha (bristletails) and Thysanura (silverfish). Archaeognatha makes up the Monocondylia (based on mandibular morphology) while Thysanura and Pterygota are grouped together as Dicondylia. It is possible that the Thysanura itself is not monophyletic, with the family Lepidotrichidae a sister group to the Dicondylia (Pterygota and the remaining Thysanura).

Paleoptera and Neoptera are the winged orders of insects, separated by the presence of sclerites and musculature that allow for folding of the wings flat over the abdomen in the latter group. Neoptera can further be divided into hemimetabolous (Polyneoptera & Paraneoptera) and Holometabolous groups. It has proven particularly difficult to elucidate interordinal relationships within Polyneoptera. Phasmatodea and Embiidina have been suggested to form Eukino*****.[54] Mantodea, Blattodea & Isoptera are thought to form a monophyletic group termed Dictyoptera.[55] Paraneoptera has turned out to be more closely related to Endopterygota than to the rest of the Exopterygota. The recent molecular finding that the traditional louse orders Mallophaga and Anoplura are derived from within Psocoptera has led to the new taxon Psocodea.[56]

It is quite likely that Exopterygota is paraphyletic in regards to Endopterygota. Contentious matters include Strepsiptera and Diptera grouped together as Halteria based on a reduction of one of the wing pairs - a position not well-supported in the entomological community.[57] The Neuropterida are often lumped or split on the whims of the taxonomist. Fleas are now thought to be closely related to boreid mecopterans.[58] Many questions remain to be answered when it comes to basal relationships amongst endopterygote orders, particularly Hymenoptera.

The study of the classification or taxonomy of any insect is called systemic entomology. Normally, if one chooses to work with a more specific order or even a family, the sytemics would be added to the study of that order or family, an example would be systemic dipterology

[edit] Relationship to humans
Aedes aegypti, a parasite, and vector of dengue fever and yellow fever

Many insects are considered pests by humans. Insects commonly regarded as pests include those that are parasitic (mosquitoes, lice, bed bugs), transmit diseases (mosquitoes, flies), damage structures (termites), or destroy agricultural goods (locusts, weevils). Many entomologists are involved in various forms of pest control, often using insecticides, but more and more relying on methods of biocontrol.[59][60]

Although pest insects attract the most attention, many insects are beneficial to the environment and to humans. Some pollinate flowering plants (for example wasps, bees, butterflies, and ants). Pollination is a trade between plants that need to reproduce, and pollinators that receive rewards of nectar and pollen. A serious environmental problem today is the decline of populations of pollinator insects, and a number of species of insects are now cultured primarily for pollination management in order to have sufficient pollinators in the field, orchard or greenhouse at bloom time.

Insects also produce useful substances such as honey, wax, lacquer and silk. Honey bees have been cultured by humans for thousands of years for honey, although contracting for crop pollination is becoming more significant for beekeepers. The silkworm has greatly affected human history, as silk-driven trade established relationships between China and the rest of the world. In some cultures, insects, especially deep-fried cicadas, are considered to be delicacies, and, in fact, have a high protein content for their mass. In most first-world countries, however, the consumption of insects is eschewed, although peoples in these cultures tend to accidentally consume between 50 and 90 insects in a given year, though this number varies based on region. Fly larvae (maggots) were formerly used to treat wounds to prevent or stop gangrene, as they would only consume dead flesh. This treatment is finding modern usage in some hospitals. Adult insects such as crickets, and insect larvae of various kinds are also commonly used as fishing bait.
Chorthippus biguttulus, a grasshopper

In some parts of the world, insects are used for human food, while being a taboo in other places. There are proponents of developing this use to provide a major source of protein in human nutrition.[10] Since it is impossible to entirely eliminate pest insects from the human food chain, insects already are present in many foods, especially grains. Most people do not realize that food safety laws in many countries do not prohibit insect parts in food, but rather limit the quantity. According to cultural materialist anthropologist Marvin Harris, the eating of insects is taboo in cultures that have protein sources that require less work, like farm birds or cattle.

Many insects, especially beetles, are scavengers, feeding on dead animals and fallen trees, recycling the biological materials into forms found useful by other organisms, and insects are responsible for much of the process by which topsoil is created.[10] The ancient Egyptian religion adored **** beetles and represented them as beetle-shaped amulets, or scarabs.

The most useful of all insects are insectivores, those that feed on other insects. Many insects can potentially reproduce so quickly that if all of their offspring were to survive, they could literally bury the earth in a single season. However, for any given insect, there will be plenty of species of insects that are either parasitoids or predators that play a significant role in controlling it.[10] This role in ecology is usually assumed to be primarily one of birds, but insects, though less glamorous, are much more significant.

Human attempts to control pests by insecticides can backfire, because important but unrecognised insects already helping to control pest populations are also killed by the poison, leading eventually to population explosions of the pest species.[10][61][62]

[edit] See also
Search Wikispecies Wikispecies has information related to: Insecta
Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Insect
Search Wikiquote Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Insects
Search Wiktionary Look up insect in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Aquatic insect
* Flying and gliding animals
* Entomology
* Invertebrate
* Prehistoric insect
* Insect flight
* Insect ecology
* Category:Insect-borne diseases
* Chrysomya megacephala
* Satoyama - Relationship to humans

[edit] References

1. ^ a b Engel, Michael S.; David A. Grimaldi (2004). "New light shed on the oldest insect". Nature 427: 627–630. doi:10.1038/nature02291. http://www.nature.com/nature/j...ull/nature02291.html (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6975/full/nature02291.html).
2. ^ a b Chapman, A. D. (2006). Numbers of living species in Australia and the World. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 60pp. ISBN 978-0-642-56850-2. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiver...s-numbers/index.html (http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/publications/other/species-numbers/index.html).
3. ^ Vojtech Novotny, Yves Basset, Scott E. Miller, George D. Weiblen, Birgitta Bremer, Lukas Cizek & Pavel Drozd (2002). "Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest". Nature 416: 841–844. doi:10.1038/416841a.
4. ^ Erwin, Terry L. (1997). Biodiversity at its utmost: Tropical Forest Beetles. pp. 27–40. In: Reaka-Kudla, M. L., D. E. Wilson & E. O. Wilson (eds.). Biodiversity II. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C..
5. ^ Wilson, E.O.. "Threats to Global Diversity" (in English). http://www.globalchange.umich....ty/biodiversity.html (http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/biodiversity/biodiversity.html). Retrieved on 2009-05-17.
6. ^ Erwin, Terry L. (1982). "Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species". Coleopt. Bull. 36: 74–75.
7. ^ "World's longest insect revealed". Natural History Museum. 2008-10-16. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/about-us/...insect-revealed.html (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/about-us/news/2008/october/worlds-longest-insect-revealed.html). Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
8. ^ SCHNEIDERMAN, HOWARD A.; WILLIAMS, CARROLL M. (1955). "AN EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISCONTINUOUS RESPIRATION OF THE CECROPIA SILKWORM". Biol. Bull. (Biol. Bull.) (109): 123-143.
9. ^ "O. Orkin Insect zoo". The University of Nebraska Department of Entomology. http://insectzoo.msstate.edu/S...basic.structure.html (http://insectzoo.msstate.edu/Students/basic.structure.html). Retrieved on 2009-05-03.
10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Gullan, P.J.; P.S. Cranston (2005). The Insects: An Outline of Entomology (3 ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 22–48. ISBN 1-4051-1113-5.
11. ^ SCHNEIDERMAN, HOWARD A. (1960). "DISCONTINUOUS RESPIRATION IN INSECTS: ROLE OF THE SPIRACLES". Biol. Bull. (119): 494-528. http://www.biolbull.org/cgi/re...e&resourcetype=HWCIT (http://www.biolbull.org/cgi/reprint/119/3/494?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=insect+thoracic+spiracle&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT).
12. ^ C. H. Eisemann, W. K. Jorgensen, D. J. Merritt, M. J. Rice, B. W. Cribb, P. D. Webb and M. P. Zalucki (1984) Do insects feel pain? — A biological view. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 40: 1420-1423
13. ^ Tracey, J., W. Daniel, R. I. Wilson, G. Laurent, and S. Benzer (2003) painless, a Drosophila gene essential for nociception. Cell 113: 261-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00272-1
14. ^ a b "General Entomology - Digestive and Excritory system". NC state University. http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/cours...atomy/digestive.html (http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/library/tutorials/internal_anatomy/digestive.html). Retrieved on 2009-05-03.
15. ^ Duncan, Carl D. (1939). A Contribution to The Biology of North American Vespine Wasps (1 ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 24-29.
16. ^ "The New Penguin Dictionary of Biological". Penguin books. http://www.scribd.com/doc/9570812/Biology-Dictionary. Retrieved on 2009-05-03.
17. ^ "coarctate pupa". Encyclopaedia Brittanica. http://www.britannica.com/EBch...23051/coarctate-pupa (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/123051/coarctate-pupa). Retrieved on 2009-05-03.
18. ^ "Insects". Alien Life Forms. 4. http://crazydaz.com/insects.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-05-17.
19. ^ Möller, R. (2002). BibTeX. ed (in German). A Biorobotics Approach to the Study of Insect Visual Homing Strategies. pp. pg.11. http://www.ti.uni-bielefeld.de...blications/habil.pdf (http://www.ti.uni-bielefeld.de/downloads/publications/habil.pdf).
20. ^ Pugsley, Chris W. (1983). "Literature review of the New Zealand glowworm Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Keroplatidae) and related cave-dwelling Diptera". New Zealand Entomologist 7 (4): 419–424. http://www.ento.org.nz/nzentom...me%207-4-419-424.pdf (http://www.ento.org.nz/nzentomologist/free_issues/NZEnto07_4_1983/Volume%207-4-419-424.pdf).
21. ^ Lloyd, James E. (1984). "Occurrence of Aggressive Mimicry in Fireflies". The Florida Entomologist 67 (3): 368–376. doi:10.2307/3494715.
22. ^ Lloyd, James E.; Erin C. Gentry. in Resh, V.H. and R.C. Cardé (editors) 2003. The Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press. pp. 115–120.
23. ^ Briscoe, AD & L Chittka (2001). "The evolution of color vision in insects". Annu. Rev. Entomol 46: 471–510. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.46.1.471.
24. ^ Walker, T.J., ed. 2001. University of Florida Book of Insect Records, 2001. [1]
25. ^ Hristov, N.I.; Conner, W.E. (2005). "Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat–tiger moth arms race". Naturwissenschaften 92: 164–169. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0611-7.
26. ^ Barber, J. R.; W. E. Conner (2007). "Acoustic mimicry in a predator–prey interaction". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104 (22): 9331–9334. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703627104. PMID 17517637. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/figsonly/104/22/9331.
27. ^ Virant-Doberlet, M.; ?okl A. (2004). "Vibrational communication in insects". Neotropical Entomology 33 (2): 121–134. doi:10.1590/S1519-566X2004000200001. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ne/v33n2/a01v33n2.pdf.
28. ^ Bennet-Clark, H.C. (1998). "Size and scale effects as constraints in insect sound communication". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 353: 407–419. doi:10.1098/rstb.1998.0219.
29. ^ Miklas, Nadège; Nataša Stritih,Andrej ?okl, Meta Virant-Doberlet, Michel Renou (2001). "The Influence of Substrate on Male Responsiveness to the Female Calling Song in Nezara viridula". Journal of Insect Behavi

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Snake
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Snakes
Fossil range: 145–0 Ma Pre??OSDCPTJKPgNCretaceous – Recent


Common garter snake,
Thamnophis sirtalis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Subphylum: Vertebrata

Class: Reptilia

Order: Squamata

Suborder: Serpentes
Linnaeus, 1758



World range of snakes
(rough range of sea snakes in blue)
Infraorders
Alethinophidia – Nopcsa, 1923
Scolecophidia – Cope, 1864

This article is about the animal. For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation).
Snakes are elongate legless carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Like lizards, from which they evolved, they have loosely articulated skulls and most can swallow prey much larger than their own head. In order to accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca.

Living snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica. Fifteen families are currently recognized comprising 456 genera and over 2,900 species.[1][2] They range in size from the tiny, 10 cm long thread snake to pythons and anacondas of up to 7.6 m (25 ft) in length. The recently discovered fossil Titanoboa was 13 m or 43 ft long. Snakes are thought to have evolved from either burrowing or aquatic lizards during the Cretaceous period (c 150 Ma). The diversity of modern snakes appeared during the Paleocene period (c 66 to 56 Ma).

Most species are non-venomous and those that have venom use it primarily to kill and subdue prey rather than for self-defense. Some possess venom potent enough to cause painful injury or death to humans.

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Evolution
3 Taxonomy
4 Families
5 Skeleton
6 Size comparison
7 Skin
7.1 Moulting
8 Perception
8.1 Eyesight
8.2 Smell
8.3 Vibration sensitivity
8.4 Infrared sensitivity
9 Feeding and diet
10 Internal organs
11 Locomotion
11.1 Lateral undulation
11.1.1 Terrestrial
11.1.2 Aquatic
11.2 Sidewinding
11.3 Concertina locomotion
11.4 Rectilinear locomotion
11.5 Other
12 Reproduction
13 Venom
14 Interactions with humans
14.1 Snake bite
14.2 Snake charmers
14.3 Snake trapping
14.4 Human consumption
14.5 As pets
14.6 Symbolism
14.7 In religion
15 See also
16 References
17 Further reading
18 External links



Etymology
The English word snake comes from Old English snaca, itself from Proto-Germanic *snak-an- (cf. German Schnake "ring snake", Swedish snok "grass snake"), from Proto-Indo-European root *(s)n?g-o- "to crawl, creep", which also gave sneak as well as Sanskrit n?gá "snake".[3] The word ousted adder as it went on to narrow in meaning, though in Old English næddre was the general word for snake.[4] The other term, serpent, is a french word, ultimately from Indo-European *serp- "to creep"[5] which also gave Greek érpein (????) "to crawl".


Evolution
The fossil record of snakes is relatively poor because snake skeletons are typically small and fragile, making fossilization uncommon. However 150 million-year-old specimens, readily identifiable as snakes, yet with lizard-like skeletal structures, have been uncovered in South America and Africa.[6]:11 There is consensus, on the basis of comparative anatomy, that snakes descended from lizards.[6]:11[7] Fossil evidence suggests that snakes may have evolved from burrowing lizards, such as the varanids or a similar group during the Cretaceous Period.[8] An early fossil snake, Najash rionegrina, was a two-legged burrowing animal with a sacrum, and was fully terrestrial.[9] One extant analog of these putative ancestors is the earless monitor Lanthanotus of Borneo, although it also is semi-aquatic.[10] Subterranean forms evolved bodies that were streamlined for burrowing and lost their limbs.[10] According to this hypothesis, features such as the transparent, fused eyelids (brille) and loss of external ears evolved to cope with fossorial difficulies such as scratched corneas and dirt in the ears.[8][10] Some primitive snakes are known to have possessed hindlimbs, but their pelvic bones lack a direct connection to the vertebrae. These include fossil species like Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis, which are slightly older than Najash.[11]


Fossil of Archaeophis proavusPrimitive groups among the modern snakes, pythons and boas, have vestigial hind limbs; tiny, clawed digits known as **** spurs which are used to grasp during mating.[6]:11[11] Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae are other groups where remnants of the pelvic girdle are present, sometimes appearing as ***** projections when visible. The frontal limbs are non-existent in all snakes and this loss is associated with the evolution of the Hox genes controlling limb morphogenesis. The axial skeleton of the snakes' common ancestor, like most other tetrapods had regional specializations consisting of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic) and caudal (tail) vertebrae. The Hox gene expression in the axial skeleton responsible for the development of the thorax became dominant early in snake evolution and as a result, the vertebrae anterior to the hindlimb buds (when present) all have the same thoracic-like identity (except from the atlas, axis and one to three neck vertebrae), making most of the snake's skeleton being composed of an extremely extended thorax. Ribs are found exclusively on the thoracic vertebrae. The neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are very reduced in number (only two to ten lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are still present), while only a short tail remains of the caudal vertebrae, although the tail is still long enough to be of good use in many species, and is modified in some aquatic and tree dwelling species.


Texas coral snake, Micrurus tenerAn alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests that the ancestors of snakes were related to mosasaurs — extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous — which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards.[7] Under this hypothesis, the fused, transparent eyelids of snakes are thought to have evolved to combat marine conditions (corneal water-loss through osmosis), while the external ears were lost through disuse in an aquatic environment, ultimately leading to an animal similar in appearance to sea snakes of today. In the Late Cretaceous, snakes re-colonized land to appear as they are today. Fossil snake remains are known from early Late Cretaceous marine sediments, which is consistent with this hypothesis, particularly as they are older than the terrestrial Najash rionegrina. Similar skull structure; reduced/absent limbs; and other anatomical features found in both mosasaurs and snakes lead to a positive cladistical correlation, although some of these features are shared with varanids. In recent years, genetic studies have indicated that snakes are not as closely related to monitor lizards as it was once believed, and therefore not to mosasaurs, the proposed ancestor in the aquatic scenario of their evolution. However, there is more evidence linking mosasaurs to snakes than to varanids. Fragmentary remains that have been found from the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous indicate deeper fossil records for these groups, which may eventually refute either hypothesis.

The great diversity of modern snakes appeared in the Paleocene, correlating with the adaptive radiation of mammals following the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs. One of the more common groups today, the colubrids, became particularly diverse due to their preying on rodents, a mammal group that has been particularly successful. There are over 2,900 species of snakes ranging as far northward as the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and southward through Australia and Tasmania.[7] Snakes can be found on every continent (with the exception of Antarctica), dwelling in the sea, and as high as 16,000 feet (4,900 m)in the Himalayan Mountains of Asia.[7][12]:143 There are numerous islands from which snakes are conspicuously absent such as Ireland, Iceland, and New Zealand.[12]:143


Taxonomy

Rough phylogeny of snakesAll modern snakes are grouped within the suborder Serpentes in Linnean taxonomy, part of the order Squamata, though their precise placement within squamates is controversial.[1] There are two infraorders of Serpentes: Alethinophidia and Scolecophidia.[1] This separation is based on morphological characteristics and mitochondrial DNA sequence similarity. Alethinophidia is sometimes split into Henophidia and Caenophidia, with the latter consisting of "Colubroid" snakes (colubrids, vipers, elapids, hydrophiids, and attractaspids) and acrochordids, while the other alethinophidian families comprise Henophidia[13]. While not extant today, the Madtsoiidae, a family of giant, primitive, python-like snakes, was around until 50,000 years ago in Australia, represented by genera such as Wonambi.

There are numerous debates in the systematics within the group. For instance, many sources classify Boidae and Pythonidae as one family, while some keep the Elapidae and Hydrophiidae, separate for practical reasons despite their extremely close relation.

Recent molecular studies support the monophyly of the clades of modern snakes, scolecophidians, typhlopids + anomalepidids, alethinophidians, core alethinophidians, uropeltids (Cylindrophis, Anomochilus, uropeltines), macrostomatans, booids, boids, pythonids and caenophidians.[14]

Modern snakes Scolecophidia
Leptotyphlopidae




Anomalepididae




Typhlopidae









Alethinophidia
Anilius



Core Alethinophidia Uropeltidae
Cylindrophis




Anomochilus




Uropeltinae









Macrostomata Pythonidae
Pythoninae




Xenopeltis




Loxocemus






Caenophidia
Colubroidea




Acrochordidae






Boidae
Erycinae




Boinae




Calabaria







Ungaliophiinae







Tropidophiinae













Note that the tree only indicates relationships not evolutionary branching times.[14]


Families
Infraorder Alethinophidia 15 families
Family[1] Taxon author[1] Genera[1] Species[1] Common name Geographic range[15]
Acrochordidae Bonaparte, 1831 1 3 Wart snakes Western India and Sri Lanka through tropical Southeast Asia to the Philippines, south through the Indonesian/Malaysian island group to Timor, east through New Guinea to the northern coast of Australia to Mussau Island, the Bismark Archipelago and Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands.
Aniliidae Stejneger, 1907 1 1 False coral snake Tropical South America.
Anomochilidae Cundall, Wallach, 1993 1 2 Dwarf pipe snakes West Malaysia and on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Atractaspididae Günther, 1858 12 64 Burrowing asps Africa and the Middle East.[6][16][17]
Boidae Gray, 1825 8 43 Boas Northern, Central and South America, the Caribbean, southeastern Europe and Asia Minor, Northern, Central and East Africa, Madagascar and Reunion Island, the Arabian Peninsula, Central and southwestern Asia, India and Sri Lanka, the Moluccas and New Guinea through to Melanesia and Samoa.
Bolyeriidae Hoffstetter, 1946 2 2 Splitjaw snakes Mauritius.
Colubridae Oppel, 1811 304[2] 1938[2] Typical snakes Widespread on all continents, except Antarctica.[18]
Cylindrophiidae Fitzinger, 1843 1 8 Asian pipe snakes Sri Lanka east through Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and the Malay Archipelago to as far east as Aru Islands off the southwestern coast of New Guinea. Also found in southern China (Fujian, Hong Kong and on Hainan Island) and in Laos.
Elapidae Boie, 1827 61 235 Elapids On land, worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, except in Europe. Sea snakes occur in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific.[19]
Loxocemidae Cope, 1861 1 1 Mexican burrowing snake Along the Pacific versant from Mexico south to Costa Rica.
Pythonidae Fitzinger, 1826 8 26 Pythons Subsaharan Africa, peninsular India, Myanmar, southern China, Southeast Asia and from the Philippines southeast through Indonesia to New Guinea and Australia.
Tropidophiidae Brongersma, 1951 4 22 Dwarf boas From southern Mexico and Central America, south to northwestern South America in Colombia, (Amazonian) Ecuador and Peru, as well as in northwestern and southeastern Brazil. Also found in the West Indies.
Uropeltidae Müller, 1832 8 47 Shield-tailed snakes Southern India and Sri Lanka.
Viperidae Oppel, 1811 32 224 Vipers The Americas, Africa and Eurasia.
Xenopeltidae Bonaparte, 1845 1 2 Sunbeam snakes Southeast Asia from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, east through Myanmar to southern China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula and the East Indies to Sulawesi, as well as the Philippines.



Infraorder Scolecophidia 3 families
Family[1] Taxon author[1] Genera[1] Species[1] Common name Geographic range[15]
Anomalepidae Taylor, 1939 4 15 Primitive blind snakes From southern Central America to northwestern South America. Disjunct populations in northeastern and southeastern South America.
Leptotyphlopidae Stejneger, 1892 2 87 Slender blind snakes Africa, western Asia from Turkey to northwestern India, on Socotra Island, from the southwestern United States south through Mexico and Central America to South America, though not in the high Andes. In Pacific South America they occur as far south as southern coastal Peru, and on the Atlantic side as far as Uruguay and Argentina. In the Caribbean they are found on the Bahamas, Hispaniola and the Lesser Antilles.
Typhlopidae Merrem, 1820 6 203 Typical blind snakes Most tropical and many subtropical regions around the world, particularly in Africa, Madagascar, Asia, islands in the Pacific, tropical America and in southeastern Europe.


Skeleton
The skeleton of most snakes consists solely of the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, and ribs, though henophidian snakes retain vestiges of the pelvis and rear limbs. The skull of the snake consists of a solid and complete braincase, to which many of the other bones are only loosely attached, particularly the highly mobile jaw bones, which facilitate manipulation and ingestion of large prey items. The left and right sides of the lower jaw are joined only by a flexible ligament at the anterior tips, allowing them to separate widely, while the posterior end of the lower jaw bones articulate with a quadrate bone, allowing further mobility. The bones of the mandible and quadrate bones can also pick up ground borne vibrations.[20] The hyoid is a small bone located posterior and ventral to the skull, in the 'neck' region, which serves as an attachment for muscles of the snake's tongue, as it does in all other tetrapods.

The vertebral column consists of anywhere between 200 to over 400 vertebrae. Tail vertebrae are comparatively few in number (often less than 20% of the total) and lack ribs, while body vertebrae each have two ribs articulating with them. The vertebrae have projections that allow for strong muscle attachment enabling locomotion without limbs. Autotomy of the tail, a feature found in some lizards is absent in most snakes.[21] Caudal autotomy in snakes is rare and is intervertebral unlike that seen in lizards which is intravertebral, that is, the break happens along a predefined fracture plane present on a vertebra.[22][23]


An adult Barbados threadsnake, Leptotyphlops carlae, on an American quarter dollar
Size comparison
The now extinct Titanoboa cerrejonensis snakes found were between 12 and 15 meters (39 and 49 ft) in length. In comparison, the largest extant snakes are the reticulated python, which measures about 9 meters (30 ft) long, and the anaconda, which measures about 7.5 meters (25 ft) long[24] and is considered the heaviest snake on Earth. At the other end of the scale, the smallest extant snake is Leptotyphlops carlae with a length of about 10 centimeters (4 in).[25]


Skin
Main article: Snake scales
The skin of a snake is covered in scales. Contrary to the popular notion of snakes being slimy because of possible confusion of snakes with worms, snakeskin has a smooth, dry texture. Most snakes use specialized belly scales to travel, gripping surfaces. The body scales may be smooth, keeled, or granular. The eyelids of a snake are transparent "spectacle" scales which remain permanently closed, also known as brille.


A line diagram from G.A. Boulenger's Fauna of British India (1890) illustrating the terminology of shields on the head of a snakeThe shedding of scales is called ecdysis, or, in normal usage moulting or sloughing. In the case of snakes, the complete outer layer of skin is shed in one layer.[26] Snake scales are not discrete but extensions of the epidermis hence they are not shed separately, but are ejected as a complete contiguous outer layer of skin during each moult, akin to a sock being turned inside out.[27]

The shape and number of scales on the head, back and belly can be characteristic are often used for taxonomic purposes. Scales are named mainly according to their positions on the body. In "advanced" (Caenophidian) snakes, the broad belly scales and rows of dorsal scales correspond to the vertebrae, allowing scientists to count the vertebrae without dissection. Snake's eyes are covered by their clear scales rather than movable eyelids; therefore, their eyes are always open.[citation needed]


Moulting
Moulting serves a number of functions – firstly, the old and worn skin is replaced, secondly, it helps get rid of parasites such as mites and ticks. Renewal of the skin by moulting is supposed to allow growth in some animals such as insects, however this view has been disputed in the case of snakes.[27][28]


A snake shedding its skinMoulting is repeated periodically throughout a snake's life. Before a moult, the snake stops eating and often hides or moves to a safe place. Just before shedding, the skin becomes dull and dry looking and the eyes become cloudy or blue-colored. The inner surface of the old outer skin liquefies. This causes the old outer skin to separate from the new inner skin. After a few days, the eyes clear and the snake "crawls" out of its old skin. The old skin breaks near the mouth and the snake wriggles out aided by rubbing against rough surfaces. In many cases the cast skin peels backward over the body from head to tail, in one piece like an old sock. A new, larger, and brighter layer of skin has formed underneath.[27][29]

An older snake may shed its skin only once or twice a year, but a younger, still-growing snake, may shed up to four times a year.[29] The discarded skin gives a perfect imprint of the scale pattern and it is usually possible to identify the snake if this discard is reasonably complete and intact.[27] This periodic renewal has led to the snake being a symbol of healing and medicine, as pictured in the Rod of Asclepius.[30]



Perception

Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse
Eyesight
Snake vision varies greatly, from only being able to distinguish light from dark to keen eyesight, but the main trend is that their vision is adequate although not sharp, and allows them to track movements.[31] Generally, vision is best in arboreal snakes and weakest in burrowing snakes. Some snakes, such as the Asian vine snake (genus Ahaetulla), have binocular vision, with both eyes capable of focusing on the same point. Most snakes focus by moving the lens back and forth in relation to the retina, while in the other amniote groups, the lens is stretched.


Smell
Snakes use smell to track their prey. It smells by using its forked tongue to collect airborne particles then passing them to the Jacobson's organ or the Vomeronasal organ in the mouth for examination.[32] The fork in the tongue gives the snake a sort of directional sense of smell and taste simultaneously.[32] The snake keeps its tongue constantly in motion, sampling particles from the air, ground, and water analyzing the chemicals found and determining the presence of prey or predators in its local environment.[32]


Vibration sensitivity
The part of the body which is in direct contact with the surface of the ground is very sensitive to vibration, thus a snake is able to sense other animals approaching through detecting faint vibrations in the air and on the ground.[32]


Infrared sensitivity
Pit vipers, pythons, and some boas have infrared-sensitive receptors in deep grooves between the nostril and eye, although some have *****l pits on their upper lip just below the nostrils (common in pythons) which allow them to "see" the radiated heat.[32] Infrared sensitivity helps snakes locate nearby prey, especially warm-blooded mammals.


Feeding and diet

Snake eating a rodent
Carpet python constricting and consuming a chicken.All snakes are strictly carnivorous, eating small animals including lizards, other snakes, small mammals, birds, eggs, fish, snails or insects.[6]:81[7][33] Because snakes cannot bite or tear their food to pieces, a snake must swallow its prey whole. The body size of a snake has a major influence on its eating habits. Smaller snakes eat smaller prey. Juvenile pythons might start out feeding on lizards or mice and graduate to small deer or antelope as an adult, for example.


African Egg-eating snakeThe snake's jaw is a complex structure. Contrary to the popular belief that snakes can dislocate their jaws, snakes have a very flexible lower jaw, the two halves of which are not rigidly attached, and numerous other joints in their skull (see snake skull), allowing them to open their mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole, even if it is larger in diameter than the snake itself,[33] as snakes do not chew. For example, the African Egg-eating Snake has flexible jaws adapted for eating eggs much larger than the diameter of its head.[6]:81 This snake has no teeth, but does have bony protrusions on the inside edge of its spine which are used to aid in breaking the shells of the eggs it eats.[6]:81

While the majority of snakes eat a variety of prey animals, there is some specialization by some species. King cobras and the Australian Bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Pareas iwesakii and other snail-eating Colubrids of subfamily Pareatinae have more teeth on the right side of their mouths than on the left, as the shells of their prey usually spiral clockwise[6]:184[34]

Some snakes have a venomous bite, which they use to kill their prey before eating it.[33][35] Other snakes kill their prey by constriction.[33] Still others swallow their prey whole and alive.[6]:81[33]

After eating, snakes become dormant while the process of digestion takes place.[36] Digestion is an intense activity, especially after consumption of very large prey. In species that feed only sporadically, the entire intestine enters a reduced state between meals to conserve energy, and the digestive system is 'up-regulated' to full capacity within 48 hours of prey consumption. Being cold-blooded (ectothermic), the surrounding temperature plays a large role in a snake's digestion. 30? is the ideal temperature for snakes to digest their food. So much metabolic energy is involved in a snake's digestion that in Crotalus durissus, the Mexican rattlesnake, an increase of body temperature to as much as 1.2? above the surrounding environment has been observed.[37] Because of this, a snake disturbed after having eaten recently will often regurgitate its prey in order to be able to escape the perceived threat. When undisturbed, the digestive process is highly efficient, with the snake's digestive enzymes dissolving and absorbing everything but the prey's hair and claws, which are excreted along with waste.


Internal organs

Anatomy of a snake. 1 esophagus, 2 trachea, 3 tracheal lungs, 4 rudimentary left lung, 5 right lung, 6 heart, 7 liver, 8 stomach, 9 air sac, 10 gallbladder, 11 pancreas, 12 spleen, 13 intestine, 14 testicles, 15 kidneys.The snake's heart is encased in a sac, called the pericardium, located at the bifurcation of the bronchi. The heart is able to move around, however, owing to the lack of a diaphragm. This adjustment protects the heart from potential damage when large ingested prey is passed through the esophagus. The spleen is attached to the gall bladder and pancreas and filters the blood. The thymus gland is located in fatty tissue above the heart and is responsible for the generation of immune cells in the blood. The cardiovascular system of snakes is also unique for the presence of a renal portal system in which the blood from the snake's tail passes through the kidneys before returning to the heart.[38]

The vestigial left lung is often small or sometimes even absent, as snakes' tubular bodies require all of their organs to be long and thin.[38] In the majority of species, only one lung is functional. This lung contains a vascularized anterior portion and a posterior portion which does not function in gas exchange.[38] This 'saccular lung' is used for hydrostatic purposes to adjust buoyancy in some aquatic snakes and its function remains unknown in terrestrial species.[38] Many organs that are paired, such as kidneys or reproductive organs, are staggered within the body, with one located ahead of the other.[38] Snakes have no colenary bladder or lymph nodes.[38]


Locomotion
The lack of limbs does not impede the movement of snakes, and they have developed several different modes of locomotion to deal with particular environments. Unlike the gaits of limbed animals, which form a continuum, each mode of snake locomotion is discrete and distinct from the others, and transitions between modes are abrupt.[39][40]


Lateral undulation
See also: Lateral undulation
Lateral undulation is the sole mode of aquatic locomotion, and the most common mode of terrestrial locomotion.[40] In this mode, the body of the snake alternately flexes to the left and right, resulting in a series of rearward-moving 'waves'.[39] While this movement appears rapid, snakes have been documented moving faster than two body-lengths per second, often much less.[41] This mode of movement is similar to running in lizards of the same mass.[42]


Terrestrial

Banded sea snake, Laticauda sp.Terrestrial lateral undulation is the most common mode of terrestrial locomotion for most snake species.[39] In this mode, the posteriorly moving waves push against contact points in the environment, such as rocks, twigs, irregularities in the soil, etc.[39] Each of these environmental objects, in turn, generates a reaction force directed forward and towards the midline of the snake, resulting in forward thrust while the lateral components cancel out.[43] The speed of this movement depends upon the density of push-points in the environment, with a medium density of about 8 along the snake's length being ideal.[41] The wave speed is precisely the same as the snake speed, and as a result, every point on the snake's body follows the path of the point ahead of it, allowing snakes to move through very dense vegetation and small openings.[43]


Aquatic
When swimming, the waves become larger as they move down the snake's body, and the wave travels backwards faster than the snake moves forwards.[44] Thrust is generated by pushing their body against the water, resulting in the observed slip. In spite of overall similarities, studies show that the pattern of muscle activation is different in aquatic vs terrestrial lateral undulation, which justifies calling them separate modes.[45] All snakes can laterally undulate forward (with backward-moving waves), but only sea snakes have been observed reversing the pattern, i.e. moving backwards via forward-traveling waves.[39]


A Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) sidewinding
Sidewinding

When compared, the skeletons of snakes are radically different from those of most other reptiles (such as the turtle, right), being made up almost entirely of an extended ribcage.See also: Sidewinding
Most often employed by colubroid snakes (colubrids, elapids, and vipers) when the snake must move in an environment which lacks any irregularities to push against (and which therefore renders lateral undulation impossible), such as a slick mud flat, or a sand dune. Sidewinding is a modified form of lateral undulation in which all of the body segments oriented in one direction remain in contact with the ground, while the other segments are lifted up, resulting in a peculiar 'rolling' motion.[46][47] This mode of locomotion overcomes the slippery nature of sand or mud by pushing off with only static portions on the body, thereby minimizing slipping.[46] The static nature of the contact points can be shown from the tracks of a sidewinding snake, which show each belly scale imprint, without any smearing. This mode of locomotion has very low caloric cost, less than ? of the cost for a lizard or snake to move the same distance.[42] Contrary to popular beliefs, there is no evidence that sidewinding is associated with hot sand.[46]


Concertina locomotion
See also: Concertina movement
When push-points are absent, but there is not enough space to use sidewinding because of lateral constraints, such as in tunnels, snakes rely on concertina locomotion.[39][47] In this mode, the snake braces the posterior portion of its body against the tunnel wall while the front of the snake extends and straightens.[46] The front portion then flexes and forms an anchor point, and the posterior is straightened and pulled forwards. This mode of locomotion is slow and very demanding, up to seven times the cost of laterally undulating over the same distance.[42] This high cost is due to the repeated stops and starts of portions of the body as well as the necessity of using active muscular effort to brace against the tunnel walls.


Rectilinear locomotion
See also: Rectilinear locomotion
The slowest mode of snake locomotion is rectilinear locomotion, which is also the only one in which the snake does not need to bend its body laterally, though it may do so when turning.[48] In this mode, the belly scales are lifted and pulled forward before being placed down and the body pulled over them. Waves of movement and stasis pass posteriorly, resulting in a series of ripples in the skin.[48] The ribs of the snake do not move in this mode of locomotion and this method is most often used by large pythons, boas, and vipers when stalking prey across open ground as the snake's movements are subtle and harder to detect by their prey in this manner.[46]


Other
The movement of snakes in arboreal habitats has only recently been studied.[49] While on tree branches, snakes use several modes of locomotion depending on species and bark texture.[49] In general, snakes will use a modified form of concertina locomotion on smooth branches, but will laterally undulate if contact points are available[49]. Snakes move faster on small branches and when contact points are present, in contrast to limbed animals, which do better on large branches with little 'clutter'[49].

Gliding snakes (Chrysopelea) of Southeast Asia launch themselves from branch tips, spreading their ribs and laterally undulating as they glide between trees.[46][50][51] These snakes can perform a controlled glide for hundreds of feet depending upon launch altitude and can even turn in mid-air.[46][50]


Reproduction
Although a wide range of reproductive modes are used by snakes, all snakes employ internal fertilization, accomplished by means of paired, forked hemipenes, which are stored inverted in the male's tail.[52] The hemipenes are often grooved, hooked, or spined in order to grip the walls of the female's cloaca.[52]

Most species of snake lay eggs, and most of those species abandon them shortly after laying; however, individual species such as the King cobra actually construct nests and stay in the vicinity of the hatchlings after incubation.[52] Most pythons coil around their egg-clutches after they have laid them and remain with the eggs until they hatch.[53] The female python will not leave the eggs, except to occasionally bask in the sun or drink water and will generate heat to incubate the eggs by shivering.[53]

Some species of snake are ovoviviparous and retain the eggs within their bodies until they are almost ready to hatch.[54][55] Recently, it has been confirmed that several species of snake are fully viviparous, such as the boa constrictor and green anaconda, nourishing their young through a placenta as well as a yolk sac, which is highly unusual among reptiles, or anything else outside of placental mammals.[54][55] Retention of eggs and live birth are most often associated with colder environments, as the retention of the young within the female.[52][55]


Venom
See also: Snake venom

Vipera berus, one fang in glove with a small venom stain, the other still in placeCobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs.[6]:243 The fangs of 'advanced' venomous snakes like viperids and elapids are hollow in order to inject venom more effectively, while the fangs of rear-fanged snakes such as the Boomslang merely have a groove on the posterior edge to channel venom into the wound. Snake venoms are often prey specific, its role in self-defense is secondary.[6]:243 Venom, like all salivary secretions, is a pre-digestant which initiates the breakdown of food into soluble compounds allowing for proper digestion and even "non-venomous" snake bites (like any animal bite) will cause tissue damage.[6]:209

Certain birds, mammals, and other snakes such as kingsnakes that prey on venomous snakes have developed resistance and even immunity to certain venom.[6]:243 Venomous snakes include three families of snakes and do not constitute a formal classification group used in taxonomy. The term poisonous snake is mostly incorrect – poison is inhaled or ingested whereas venom is injected.[56] There are, however, two exceptions – Rhabdophis sequesters toxins from the toads it eats then secretes them from nuchal glands to ward off predators, and a small population of garter snakes in Oregon retains enough toxin in their liver from the newts they eat to be effectively poisonous to local small predators such as crows and foxes.[57]

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and are stored in poison glands at the back of the head.[57] In all venomous snakes these glands open through ducts into grooved or hollow teeth in the upper jaw.[6]:243[56] These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the circulatory system), cytotoxins, bungarotoxins and many other toxins that affect the body in different ways.[56] Almost all snake venom contains hyaluronidase, an enzyme that ensures rapid diffusion of the venom.[6]:243

Venomous snakes that use hemotoxins usually have the fangs that secrete the venom in the front of their mouths, making it easier for them to inject the venom into their victims.[56] Some snakes that use neurotoxins, such as the mangrove snake, have their fangs located in the back of their mouths, with the fangs curled backwards.[58] This makes it both difficult for the snake to use its venom and for scientists to milk them.[56] Elapid snakes, however, such as cobras and kraits are proteroglyphous, possessing hollow fangs which cannot be erected toward the front of their mouths and cannot "stab" like a viper, they must actually bite the victim.[6]:242

It has recently been suggested that all snakes may be venomous to a certain degree, the harmless snakes having weak venom and no fangs.[59]. Most snakes that are considered non-venomous would still be considered harmless under this theory, because under most cases the snakes have no way of delivering much or any venom, certainly not enough to kill a human. Also under this theory, snakes may have evolved from a common lizard ancestor that was venomous, from which venomous lizards like the gila monster and beaded lizard may have also derived, as well as the monitor lizards and now extinct mosasaurs. They share this venom clade with various other saurian species.

Venomous snakes are classified in two taxonomic families:

Elapids – cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian copperheads, sea snakes, and coral snakes.[58]
Viperids – vipers, rattlesnakes, copperheads/cottonmouths, adders and bushmasters.[58]
There is a third family containing the opistoglyphous (rear-fanged) snakes as well as the majority of other snake species:

Colubrids – boomslangs, tree snakes, vine snakes, mangrove snakes, although not all colubrids are venomous.[6]:209[58]

Interactions with humans

Most common symptoms of any kind of snake bite poisoning.[60] [61] [62] Furthermore, there is vast variation in symptoms between bites from different types of snakes.[60]
Snake bite
Main article: Snakebite

Although not venomous, a Green tree python (Morelia viridis) can deliver a biteSnakes do not ordinarily prey on humans and most will not attack humans unless the snake is startled or injured, preferring instead to avoid contact. With the exception of large constrictors, non-venomous snakes are not a threat to humans. The bite of non-venomous snakes is usually harmless because their teeth are designed for grabbing and holding, rather than tearing or inflicting a deep puncture wound. Although the possibility of an infection and tissue damage is present in the bite of a non-venomous snake, venomous snakes present far greater hazard to humans.[6]:209

Documented deaths resulting from snake bites are uncommon. Non-fatal bites from venomous snakes may result in the need for amputation of a limb or part thereof. Of the roughly 725 species of venomous snakes worldwide, only 250 are able to kill a human with one bite. Although Australia is home to the largest number of venomous snakes in the world,[citation needed] it only has one fatal snake bite per year on average. In India, 250,000 snakebites are recorded in a single year with as many as 50,000 recorded initial deaths.[63]

The treatment for a snakebite is as variable as the bite itself. The most common and effective method is through antivenom, a serum made from the venom of the snake. Some antivenom is species specific (monovalent) while some is made for use with multiple species in mind (polyvalent). In the United States for example, all species of venomous snakes are pit vipers, with the exception of the coral snake. To produce antivenin, a mixture of the venoms of the different species of rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths is injected into the body of a horse in ever-increasing dosages until the horse is immunized. Blood is then extracted from the immunized horse and freeze-dried. It is reconstituted with sterile water and becomes antivenin. For this reason, people who are allergic to horses cannot be treated using antivenin. Antivenin for the more dangerous species (such as mambas, taipans, and cobras) is made in a similar manner in India, South Africa, and Australia with the exception being that those antivenins are species-specific.


An Indian cobra in a basket with a snake charmer. These snakes are perhaps the most common subjects of snake charmings.
Snake charmers
Main article: Snake charming
In some parts of the world, especially in India, snake charming is a roadside show performed by a charmer. In such a show, the snake charmer carries a basket that contains a snake that he seemingly charms by playing tunes from his flutelike musical instrument, to which the snake responds.[64] Snakes lack external ears, and though they do have internal ears, they show no tendency to be influenced by music.[64]

The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 in India technically proscribes snake charming on grounds of reducing animal cruelty. Other snake charmers also have a snake and mongoose show, where both the animals have a mock fight; however, this is not very common, as the snakes, as well as the mongooses, may be seriously injured or killed. Snake charming as a profession is dying out in India because of competition from modern forms of entertainment and environment laws proscribing the practice.[64]


Snake trapping
The tribals of "Irulas" from Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India have been hunter-gatherers in the hot dry plains forests and have practiced this art for generations. They have a vast knowledge of snakes in the field. Irulas generally catch the snakes with the help of a simple stick. Earlier, the Irulas caught thousands of snakes for the snake-skin industry. After the complete ban on snake-skin industry in India and protection of all snakes under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, they formed the Irula Snake Catcher's Cooperative and switched to catching snakes for removal of venom, releasing them in the wild after four extractions. The venom so collected is used for producing life-saving antivenin, biomedical research and for other medicinal products.[65] The Irulas are also known to eat some of the snakes they catch and are very useful in rat extermination in the villages.

Despite the existence of snake charmers, there have also been professional snake catchers or wranglers. Modern day snake trapping involves a herpetologist using a long stick with a "V" shaped end. Some like Bill Haast, Austin Stevens, and Jeff Corwin prefer to catch them using bare hands.


Human consumption

A "???" ("sea-leopard snake", supposedly Enhydris bocourti) occupies a place of honor among the live delicacies waiting to meet their eaters outside of a Guangzhou restaurantWhile not commonly thought of as a dietary item by most cultures, in some cultures, the consumption of snakes is acceptable, or even considered a delicacy, prized for its alleged pharmaceutical effect of warming the heart. Snake soup of Cantonese cuisine is consumed by local people in autumn, to warm up their body. Western cultures document the consumption of snakes under extreme circumstances of hunger.[66] Cooked rattlesnake meat is an exception, which is commonly consumed in parts of the Midwestern United States. In Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia, drinking the blood of snakes, particularly the cobra, is believed to increase sexual virility.[67] The blood is drained while the cobra is still alive when possible, and is usually mixed with some form of liquor to improve the taste.[67]

In some Asian countries, the use of snakes in alcohol is also accepted. In such cases, the body of a snake or several snakes is left to steep in a jar or container of liquor. It is claimed that this makes the liquor stronger (as well as more expensive). One example of this is the Habu snake sometimes placed in the Okinawan liquor Awamori also known as "Habu Sake".[68]


As pets
In the Western world some snakes, especially docile species such as the ball python and corn snake, are kept as pets. To supply this demand a captive breeding industry has developed. Snakes bred in captivity tend to make better pets and are considered preferable to wild caught specimens.[69] Snakes can be very low maintenance pets, especially in comparison to more traditional species. They require minimal space, as most common species do not exceed five feet in length. Pet snakes can be fed relatively infrequently, usually once every five to fourteen days. Certain snakes have a life span of more than forty years if given proper care.


Symbolism

Medusa by 16th Century Italian artist Caravaggio
Lilith with a snake, (1892), by John Collier (1892).
Rod of Asclepius, in which the snakes, through ecdysis, symbolize healing.Main article: Serpent (symbolism)
In Egyptian history, the snake occupies a primary role with the Nile cobra adorning the crown of the pharaoh in ancient times. It was worshipped as one of the gods and was also used for sinister purposes: murder of an adversary and ritual suicide (Cleopatra).

In Greek mythology snakes are often associated with deadly and dangerous antagonists, but this is not to say that snakes are symbolic of evil; in fact, snakes are a chthonic symbol, roughly translated as 'earthbound'. The nine-headed Lernaean Hydra that Hercules defeated and the three Gorgon sisters are children of Gaia, the earth.[70] Medusa was one of the three Gorgon sisters who Perseus defeated.[70] Medusa is described as a hideous mortal, with snakes instead of hair and the power to turn men to stone with her gaze.[70] After killing her, Perseus gave her head to Athena who fixed it to her shield called the Aegis.[70] The Titans are also depicted in art with snakes instead of legs and feet for the same reason—they are children of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus), so they are bound to the earth.

Three medical symbols involving snakes that are still used today are Bowl of Hygieia, symbolizing pharmacy, and the Caduceus and Rod of Asclepius, which are symbols denoting medicine in general.[30]

India is often called the land of snakes and is steeped in tradition regarding snakes.[71] Snakes are worshipped as gods even today with many women pouring milk on snake pits (despite snakes' aversion for milk).[71] The cobra is seen on the neck of Shiva and Vishnu is depicted often as sleeping on a seven-headed snake or within the coils of a serpent.[72] There are also several temples in India solely for cobras sometimes called Nagraj (King of Snakes) and it is believed that snakes are symbols of fertility. There is a Hindu festival called Nag Panchami each year on which day snakes are venerated and prayed to. See also N?ga.

In Christianity and Judaism, the snake makes its infamous appearance in the first book (Genesis 3:1) of the Bible when a serpent appears before the first couple Adam and Eve as an agent of the devil and tempts them with the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. The snake returns in Exodus when Moses, as a sign of God's power, turns his staff into a snake and when Moses made the Nehushtan, a bronze snake on a pole that when looked at cured the people of bites from the snakes that plagued them in the desert. The serpent makes its final appearance symbolizing Satan in the Book of Revelation:"And he laid hold on the dragon the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years." (Revelation 20:2)

The Ouroboros is a symbol that is associated with many different religions and customs, and is also claimed to be related to Alchemy. The Ouroboros or Oroboros is a snake eating its own tail in a clock-wise direction (from the head to the tail) in the shape of a circle, representing manifestation of one's own life and rebirth, leading to immortality.

The snake is one of the 12 celestial animals of Chinese Zodiac, in the Chinese calendar.

Many ancient Peruvian cultures worshipped nature.[73] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted snakes in their art.[74]


In religion

A snake associated with Saint Simeon StylitesSnakes are a part of Hindu worship. A festival Nag Panchami is celebrated every year on snakes. Most images of Lord Shiva depict snake around his neck. Puranas have various stories associated with Snakes. In the Puranas, Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the Universe on his hoods and to constantly sing the glories of Vishnu from all his mouths. He is sometimes referred to as "Ananta-Shesha" which means "Endless Shesha". Other notable snakes in Hinduism are Ananta, Vasuki, Taxak, Karkotaka and Pingala. The term N?ga is used to refer to entities which take the form of large snakes in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Snakes have also been widely revered, such as in ancient Greece, where the serpent was seen as a healer, and Asclepius carried two intertwined on his wand, a symbol seen today on many ambulances. In Judaism, the snake of brass is also a symbol of healing, of one's life being saved from imminent death (Book of Numbers 26:6–9). In Christianity, Christ's redemptive work is compared to saving one's life through beholding the serpent of brass (Gospel of John 3:14). However, more commonly in Christianity, the serpent was seen as a representative of evil and sly plo

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08-08-2009, 04:31 AM
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Bee
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For information on the disappearing domesticated honey bee colonies in North America and Europe, see Colony Collapse Disorder.
For other uses, see European honey bee and Bee (disambiguation).
Bees


Honeybee (Apis mellifera) collecting pollen
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Hymenoptera

Suborder: Apocrita

Superfamily: Apoidea

(unranked): Anthophila


Families
Andrenidae
Apidae
Colletidae
Dasypodaidae
Halictidae
Megachilidae
Meganomiidae
Melittidae
Stenotritidae

Synonyms
Apiformes

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, and are known for their roles of producing honey and beeswax and pollination. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in nine recognized families,[1] though many are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants.

Contents [hide]
1 Introduction
2 Pollination
2.1 Depopulation
3 Evolution
4 Eusocial and semisocial bees
4.1 ***blebees
4.2 Stingless bees
4.3 Honey bees
4.4 Africanized honey bee
5 Solitary and communal bees
6 Cleptoparasitic bees
7 Nocturnal bees
8 Bee flight
9 Bees and humans
10 Gallery
11 See also
12 References
13 External links



Introduction
Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae.

Bees have a long proboscis (a complex "tongue") that enables them to obtain the nectar from flowers. They have antennae almost universally made up of 13 segments in males and 12 in females, as is typical for the superfamily. Bees all have two pairs of wings, the hind pair being the smaller of the two; in a very few species, one *** or caste has relatively short wings that make flight difficult or impossible, but none is wingless.


Morphology of a female honey beeThe smallest bee is Trigona minima, a stingless bee whose workers are about 2.1 mm (5/64") long. The largest bee in the world is Megachile pluto, a leafcutter bee whose females can attain a length of 39 mm (1.5"). Members of the family Halictidae, or sweat bees, are the most common type of bee in the Northern Hemisphere, though they are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies.

The best-known bee species is the European honey bee, which, as its name suggests, produces honey, as do a few other types of bee. Human management of this species is known as beekeeping or apiculture.

Bees are the favorite meal of Merops apiaster, the bee-eater bird. Other common predators are kingbirds, mockingbirds, bee wolves and dragonflies.


Pollination
See also: List of crop plants pollinated by bees
Bees play an important role in pollinating flowering plants, and are the major type of pollinator in ecosystems that contain flowering plants. Bees either focus on gathering nectar or on gathering pollen depending on demand, especially in social species. Bees gathering nectar may accomplish pollination, but bees that are deliberately gathering pollen are more efficient pollinators. It is estimated that one third of the human food supply depends on insect pollination, most of which is accomplished by bees, especially the domesticated European honey bee. Contract pollination has overtaken the role of honey production for beekeepers in many countries. Monoculture and the massive decline of many bee species (both wild and domesticated) have increasingly caused honey bee keepers to become migratory so that bees can be concentrated in seasonally-varying high-demand areas of pollination.


Osmia ribiflorisMost bees are fuzzy and carry an electrostatic charge, which aids in the adherence of pollen. Female bees periodically stop foraging and groom themselves to pack the pollen into the scopa, which is on the legs in most bees, and on the ventral abdomen on others, and modified into specialized pollen baskets on the legs of honey bees and their relatives. Many bees are opportunistic foragers, and will gather pollen from a variety of plants, while others are oligolectic, gathering pollen from only one or a few types of plant. A small number of plants produce nutritious floral oils rather than pollen, which are gathered and used by oligolectic bees. One small subgroup of stingless bees, called "vulture bees," is specialized to feed on carrion, and these are the only bees that do not use plant products as food. Pollen and nectar are usually combined together to form a "provision mass", which is often soupy, but can be firm. It is formed into various shapes (typically spheroid), and stored in a small chamber (a "cell"), with the egg deposited on the mass. The cell is typically sealed after the egg is laid, and the adult and larva never interact directly (a system called "mass provisioning").

In New Zealand scientists discovered that three genera of native bees have evolved to open flower buds of the native mistletoe Peraxilla tetrapetala. The buds cannot open themselves but are visited by birds such as the tui and bellbird which twist the top of the ripe bud. That action releases a mechanism which causes the petals to suddenly spring open, giving access to the nectar and pollen. However, when observing the native bees in the Canterbury province in the South Island, the scientists were astonished to see the bees biting the top off the buds, then pushing with their legs, occasionally popping open the buds to allow the bees to harvest the nectar and pollen, and therefore aid in the pollination of the mistletoe which is in decline in New Zealand. Nowhere else in the world have bees demonstrated ability to open explosive bird-adapted flowers. [2]

Visiting flowers can be a dangerous occupation. Many assassin bugs and crab spiders hide in flowers to capture unwary bees. Other bees are lost to birds in flight. Insecticides used on blooming plants kill many bees, both by direct poisoning and by contamination of their food supply. A honey bee queen may lay 2000 eggs per day during spring buildup, but she also must lay 1000 to 1500 eggs per day during the foraging season, mostly to replace daily casualties, most of which are workers dying of old age. Among solitary and primitively social bees, however, lifetime reproduction is among the lowest of all insects, as it is common for females of such species to produce fewer than 25 offspring.


Two honey bees are collecting pollen from Nightblooming cereusThe population value of bees depends partly on the individual efficiency of the bees, but also on the population itself. Thus while ***blebees have been found to be about ten times more efficient pollinators on cucurbits, the total efficiency of a colony of honey bees is much greater due to greater numbers. Likewise during early spring orchard blossoms, ***blebee populations are limited to only a few queens, and thus are not significant pollinators of early fruit.


Depopulation
In 2007, managed populations of European honey bees experienced substantial declines. This has prompted investigations into the phenomenon amidst great concern over the nature and extent of the losses.[3] One aspect of the problem is believed to be "Colony Collapse Disorder" but many of the losses outside the US are attributed to other causes. Pesticides used to treat seeds, such as Clothianidin and Imidacloprid, may also negatively impact honey bee populations.[4] Other species of bees such as mason bees are increasingly cultured and used to meet the agricultural pollination need.[5]

Native pollinators include ***blebees and solitary bees, which often survive in refuges in wild areas away from agricultural spraying, but may still be poisoned in massive spray programs for mosquitoes, gypsy moths, or other insect pests. Although pesticide use remains a concern, the major problem for wild pollinator populations is the loss of the flower-rich habitat on which they depend for food. Throughout the northern hemisphere, the last 70 or so years has seen an intensification of agricultural systems which has decreased the abundance and diversity of wild flowers.


Evolution

Bees vary tremendously in size. Here a tiny halictid bee is gathering pollen, while a ***blebee behind her gathers nectar from a lily.Bees, like ants, are a specialized form of wasp. The ancestors of bees were wasps in the family Crabronidae, and therefore predators of other insects. The switch from insect prey to pollen may have resulted from the consumption of prey insects that were flower visitors and were partially covered with pollen when they were fed to the wasp larvae. This same evolutionary scenario has also occurred within the vespoid wasps, where the group known as "pollen wasps" also evolved from predatory ancestors. Up until recently the oldest non-compression bee fossil had been Cretotrigona prisca in New Jersey amber and of Cretaceous age, a meliponine. A recently reported bee fossil, of the genus Melittosphex, is considered "an extinct lineage of pollen-collecting Apoidea sister to the modern bees", and dates from the early Cretaceous (~100 mya).[6] Derived features of its morphology ("apomorphies") place it clearly within the bees, but it retains two unmodified ancestral traits ("plesiomorphies") of the legs (two mid-tibial spurs, and a slender hind basitarsus), indicative of its transitional status.

The earliest animal-pollinated flowers were pollinated by insects such as beetles, so the syndrome of insect pollination was well established before bees first appeared. The novelty is that bees are specialized as pollination agents, with behavioral and physical modifications that specifically enhance pollination, and are generally more efficient at the task than any other pollinating insect such as beetles, flies, butterflies and pollen wasps. The appearance of such floral specialists is believed to have driven the adaptive radiation of the angiosperms, and, in turn, the bees themselves.

Among living bee groups, the Dasypodaidae are now considered to be the most "primitive", and sister taxon to the remainder of the bees, contrary to earlier hypotheses that the "short-tongued" bee family Colletidae was the basal group of bees; the short, wasp-like mouthparts of colletids are the result of convergent evolution, rather than indicative of a plesiomorphic condition.[1]


Eusocial and semisocial bees

A honey bee swarm
A European honey bee extracts nectar from an Aster flowerBees may be solitary or may live in various types of communities. The most advanced of these are eusocial colonies found among the honey bees, ***blebees, and stingless bees. Sociality, of several different types, is believed to have evolved separately many times within the bees.

In some species, groups of cohabiting females may be sisters, and if there is a division of labor within the group, then they are considered semisocial.

If, in addition to a division of labor, the group consists of a mother and her daughters, then the group is called eusocial. The mother is considered the "queen" and the daughters are "workers". These castes may be purely behavioral alternatives, in which case the system is considered "primitively eusocial" (similar to many paper wasps), and if the castes are morphologically discrete, then the system is "highly eusocial".

There are many more species of primitively eusocial bees than highly eusocial bees, but they have rarely been studied. The biology of most such species is almost completely unknown. The vast majority are in the family Halictidae, or "sweat bees". Colonies are typically small, with a dozen or fewer workers, on average. The only physical difference between queens and workers is average size, if they differ at all. Most species have a single season colony cycle, even in the tropics, and only mated females (future queens, or "gynes") hibernate (called diapause). A few species have long active seasons and attain colony sizes in the hundreds. The orchid bees include a number of primitively eusocial species with similar biology. Certain species of allodapine bees (relatives of carpenter bees) also have primitively eusocial colonies, with unusual levels of interaction between the adult bees and the developing brood. This is "progressive provisioning"; a larva's food is supplied gradually as it develops. This system is also seen in honey bees and some ***blebees.

Highly eusocial bees live in colonies. Each colony has a single queen, many workers and, at certain stages in the colony cycle, drones. When humans provide the nest, it is called a hive. A honey bee hive can contain up to 40,000 bees at their annual peak, which occurs in the spring, but usually have fewer.


***blebee
***blebees
Main article: ***blebee
***blebees (Bombus terrestris, B. pratorum, et al.) are eusocial in a manner quite similar to the eusocial Vespidae such as hornets. The queen initiates a nest on her own (unlike queens of honey bees and stingless bees which start nests via swarms in the company of a large worker force). ***blebee colonies typically have from 50 to 200 bees at peak population, which occurs in mid to late summer. Nest architecture is simple, limited by the size of the nest cavity (pre-existing), and colonies are rarely perennial. ***blebee queens sometimes seek winter safety in honey bee hives, where they are sometimes found dead in the spring by beekeepers, presumably stung to death by the honey bees. It is unknown whether any survive winter in such an environment.

***blebees are one of the more important wild pollinators, but have declined significantly in recent decades. In the UK, 2 species have become nationally extinct during the last 75 years while others have been placed on the UK Biodiversity Action Plan as priority species in recognition of the need for conservation action. In 2006 a new charity, the ***blebee Conservation Trust, was established in order to coordinate efforts to conserve remaining populations through conservation and education.


Stingless bees
Main article: Stingless bee
Stingless bees are very diverse in behavior, but all are highly eusocial. They practice mass provisioning, complex nest architecture, and perennial colonies.


A north-American Honey bee extracting nectar
Honey bees
Main article: Honey bee
The true honey bees (genus Apis) have arguably the most complex social behavior among the bees. The European (or Western) honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the best known bee species and one of the best known of all insects.


Africanized honey bee
Main article: Africanized bee
Africanized bees, also called killer bees, are a hybrid strain of Apis mellifera derived from experiments to cross European and African honey bees by Warwick Estevam Kerr. Several queen bees escaped his laboratory in South America and have spread throughout the Americas. Africanized honey bees are more defensive than European honey bees.


Solitary and communal bees
Most other bees, including familiar species of bee such as the Eastern carpenter bee (Xylocopa virginica), alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata), orchard mason bee (Osmia lignaria) and the hornfaced bee (Osmia cornifrons) are solitary in the sense that every female is fertile, and typically inhabits a nest she constructs herself. There are no worker bees for these species. Solitary bees typically produce neither honey nor beeswax. They are immune from acarine and Varroa mites (see diseases of the honey bee), but have their own unique parasites, pests and diseases.


A solitary bee, Anthidium florentinum (family Megachilidae), visiting LantanaSolitary bees are important pollinators, and pollen is gathered for provisioning the nest with food for their brood. Often it is mixed with nectar to form a paste-like consistency. Some solitary bees have very advanced types of pollen carrying structures on their bodies. A very few species of solitary bees are being increasingly cultured for commercial pollination.

Solitary bees are often oligoleges, in that they only gather pollen from one or a few species/genera of plants (unlike honey bees and ***blebees which are generalists). No known bees are nectar specialists; many oligolectic bees will visit multiple plants for nectar, but there are no bees which visit only one plant for nectar while also gathering pollen from many different sources. Specialist pollinators also include bee species that gather floral oils instead of pollen, and male orchid bees, which gather aromatic compounds from orchids (one of the only cases where male bees are effective pollinators). In a very few cases only one species of bee can effectively pollinate a plant species, and some plants are endangered at least in part because their pollinator is dying off. There is, however, a pronounced tendency for oligolectic bees to be associated with common, widespread plants which are visited by multiple pollinators (e.g., there are some 40 oligoleges associated with creosote bush in the US desert southwest,[7] and a similar pattern is seen in sunflowers, asters, mesquite, etc.)

Solitary bees create nests in hollow reeds or twigs, holes in wood, or, most commonly, in tunnels in the ground. The female typically creates a compartment (a "cell") with an egg and some provisions for the resulting larva, then seals it off. A nest may consist of numerous cells. When the nest is in wood, usually the last (those closer to the entrance) contain eggs that will become males. The adult does not provide care for the brood once the egg is laid, and usually dies after making one or more nests. The males typically emerge first and are ready for mating when the females emerge. Providing nest boxes for solitary bees is increasingly popular for gardeners. Solitary bees are either stingless or very unlikely to sting (only in self defense, if ever).


A bee on a cornelWhile solitary females each make individual nests, some species are gregarious, preferring to make nests near others of the same species, giving the appearance to the casual observer that they are social. Large groups of solitary bee nests are called aggregations, to distinguish them from colonies.

In some species, multiple females share a common nest, but each makes and provisions her own cells independently. This type of group is called "communal" and is not uncommon. The primary advantage appears to be that a nest entrance is easier to defend from predators and parasites when there are multiple females using that same entrance on a regular basis.


Cleptoparasitic bees
Cleptoparasitic bees, commonly called "cuckoo bees" because their behavior is similar to cuckoo birds, occur in several bee families, though the name is technically best applied to the apid subfamily Nomadinae. Females of these bees lack pollen collecting structures (the scopa) and do not construct their own nests. They typically enter the nests of pollen collecting species, and lay their eggs in cells provisioned by the host bee. When the cuckoo bee larva hatches it consumes the host larva's pollen ball, and if the female cleptoparasite has not already done so, kills and eats the host larva. In a few cases where the hosts are social species, the cleptoparasite remains in the host nest and lays many eggs, sometimes even killing the host queen and replacing her.

Many cleptoparasitic bees are closely related to, and resemble, their hosts in looks and size, (i.e., the Bombus subgenus Psithyrus, which are parasitic ***blebees that infiltrate nests of species in other subgenera of Bombus). This common pattern gave rise to the ecological principle known as "Emery's Rule". Others parasitize bees in different families, like Townsendiella, a nomadine apid, one species of which is a cleptoparasite of the dasypodaid genus Hesperapis, while the other species in the same genus attack halictid bees.


Nocturnal bees
Four bee families (Andrenidae, Colletidae, Halictidae, and Apidae) contain some species that are crepuscular (these may be either the vespertine or matinal type). These bees have greatly enlarged ocelli, which are extremely sensitive to light and dark, though incapable of forming images. Many are pollinators of flowers that themselves are crepuscular, such as evening primroses, and some live in desert habitats where daytime temperatures are extremely high.


Bee flight

Bee in mid air flight carrying pollen in pollen basketIn his 1934 French book Le vol des insectes, M. Magnan wrote that he and a Mr. Saint-Lague had applied the equations of air resistance to ***blebees and found that their flight could not be explained by fixed-wing calculations, but that "One shouldn't be surprised that the results of the calculations don't square with reality".[8] This has led to a common misconception that bees "violate aerodynamic theory", but in fact it merely confirms that bees do not engage in fixed-wing flight, and that their flight is explained by other mechanics, such as those used by helicopters.[9]

In 1996 Charlie Ellington at Cambridge University showed that vortices created by many insects’ wings and non-linear effects were a vital source of lift;[10] vortices and non-linear phenomena are notoriously difficult areas of hydrodynamics, which has made for slow progress in theoretical understanding of insect flight.

In 2005 Michael ****inson and his Caltech colleagues studied honey bee flight with the assistance of high-speed cinematography[11] and a giant robotic mock-up of a bee wing.[12] Their analysis revealed sufficient lift was generated by "the unconventional combination of short, choppy wing strokes, a rapid rotation of the wing as it flops over and reverses direction, and a very fast wing-beat frequency". Wing beat frequency normally increases as size decreases, but as the bee's wing beat covers such a small arc, it flaps approximately 230 times per second, faster than a fruitfly (200 times per second) which is 80 times smaller.[13]

In 2008 Barbara Shipman discovered a mathematical connection between the dance of bees and the Flag manifold.[14]


Bees and humans
Bees figure prominently in mythology (See Bee (mythology)) and have been used by political theorists as a model for human society. Journalist Bee Wilson states that the image of a community of honey bees "occurs from ancient to modern times, in Aristotle and Plato; in Virgil and Seneca; in Erasmus and Shakespeare; Tolstoy, as well as by social theorists Bernard Mandeville and Karl Marx."[15]

Despite the honey bee's painful sting and the stereotype of insects as pests, bees are generally held in high regard. This is most likely due to their usefulness as pollinators and as producers of honey, their social nature, and their reputation for diligence. Bees are one of the few insects regularly used on advertisements, being used to illustrate honey and foods made with honey (such as Honey Nut Cheerios).

In North America, yellowjackets and hornets, especially when encountered as flying pests, are often misidentified as bees, despite numerous differences between them - see Characteristics of common wasps and bees. Although a bee sting can be deadly to those with allergies, virtually all bee species are non-aggressive if undisturbed and many cannot sting at all. Humans are often a greater danger to bees, as bees can be affected or even harmed by encounters with toxic chemicals in the environment - see Bees and toxic chemicals.


Gallery
***ble bee and honey bee
European honey bee, Poland
European honey bee on a Sphaeralcea flower. Mesa, Az
European honey bee in a Sphaeralcea flower. Mesa, Az
Sweat bee, Agapostemon virescens (female) on a Coreopsis flower. Madison, Wi

***blebee, Bombus sp. startles Agapostemon virescens. Madison, Wi
European honey bee
European honey bee, Kaunakakai, HI
European honey bees, Lebanon.
European honey bee, Lebanon.

European honey bee collecting pollen from a rose.
European honey bee collecting nectar from small flowers. McKinney, Texas.
Hovering ***blebee at lupine
European honey bee on Apple blossom
***blebee, Montreal

Euglossine bees on orchid Mormodes buccinator (Suriname)
***ble bee targeting apple blossom in Calgary, Alberta
European honey bee
European honey bee on tufted vetch (Vicia cracca) (Quebec, Canada)
Honey bee approaching a milk thistle flower



See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Apoidea
Apiology
Bee and wasp stings
Honey bee life cycle
International Union for the Study of Social Insects
Pesticide toxicity to bees
Schmidt Sting Pain Index
Starr sting pain scale

References
^ a b Danforth BN, Sipes S, Fang J, Brady SG (October 2006). "The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (41): 15118–23. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604033103. PMID 17015826.
^ New Zealand Science Monthly, Native Bees With New Tricks accessdate= 16 June 2009
^ "Honey bees in US facing extinction", Telegraph 14 March 2007
^ German Consumer Protection Agency Bulletin June 9, 2008
^ Mason bee from Everything.About. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
^ Poinar GO, Danforth BN (October 2006). "A fossil bee from Early Cretaceous Burmese amber". Science 314 (5799): 614. doi:10.1126/science.1134103. PMID 17068254.
^ Hurd, P.D. Jr., Linsley, E.G. (1975). "The principal Larrea bees of the southwestern United States.". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 193: 1–74.
^ Ingram, Jay The Barmaid's Brain, Aurum Press, 2001, pp. 91-92.
^ Cecil Adams (1990-05-04). "Is it aerodynamically impossible for ***blebees to fly?". The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/co...or-***blebees-to-fly (http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1076/is-it-aerodynamically-impossible-for-***blebees-to-fly). Retrieved on 2009-03-07.
^ Secrets of bee flight revealed, Phillips, Helen. 28 November 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-28.
^ "www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/av/dn8382.avi". http://www.newscientist.com/da...ges/ns/av/dn8382.avi (http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/av/dn8382.avi).
^ Deciphering the Mystery of Bee Flight Caltech Media Relations. Nov. 29, 2005. Retrieved 2007, 4-7.
^ Douglas L. Altshuler, William B. ****son, Jason T. Vance, Stephen P. Roberts, and Michael H. ****inson (2005). "Short-amplitude high-frequency wing strokes determine the aerodynamics of honeybee flight". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102: 18213–18218. doi:10.1073/pnas.0506590102. PMID 16330767.
^ "Science Box". Science.box.sk. 2005-05-15. http://science.box.sk/newsread.php?newsid=6321. Retrieved on 2009-03-07.
^ Wilson, Bee (2004). The Hive: The Story Of The Honeybee. London, Great Britain: John Murray (publisher). ISBN 0 7195 6598 7.

External links
All Living Things Images, identification guides, and maps of bees
Bee Genera of the World
Carl Hayden Bee Research Center
Rescuing Australian stingless bees
The first bee of spring
Solitary Bees & Things Solitary Bees in British gardens
Scientists identify the oldest known bee, a 100 million-year-old specimen preserved in amber
Search for North American species at Bugguide here
The ***blebee Conservation Trust - Learn about the UK's ***blebees, recent declines and how you can help
For Hymenoptera: Bees and other related Insects Natural History of Bees, Wasps, and Insects
Bee images on Morphbank, biological image database
****inson Lab
Video: Life Cycle of a Honey Bee
Video: Orchid Bees
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Donkey
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For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation).
Donkey


Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Perissodactyla

Family: Equidae

Genus: Equus

Subgenus: Asinus

Species: E. africanus

Subspecies: E. africanus asinus


Trinomial name
Equus africanus asinus
Linnaeus, 1758
The donkey or ***, Equus africanus asinus,[1][2] is a domesticated member of the Equidae or horse family, and an odd-toed ungulate. The wild ancestor of the donkey is the African Wild ***, E. africanus. Traditionally, the scientific name for the donkey is Equus asinus asinus based on the principle of priority used for scientific names of animals. However, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has ruled in 2003 that if the domestic species and the wild species are considered subspecies of each other, the scientific name of the wild species has priority, even when that subspecies has been described after the domestic subspecies.[2] This means that the proper scientific name for the donkey is Equus africanus asinus when it is considered a subspecies, and Equus asinus when it is considered a species.

In the western United States, a small donkey is sometimes called a burro (from the Spanish word for the animal).

A male donkey or *** is called a jack, a female a jenny, and offspring less than one year old, a foal (male: colt, female filly).

While different species of the Equidae family can interbreed, offspring are almost always sterile. Nonetheless, horse/donkey hybrids are popular for their durability and vigor. A mule is the offspring of a jack (male donkey) and a mare (female horse). The much rarer successful mating of a male horse and a female donkey produces a hinny.

Asses were first domesticated around 3000 BCE[3], approximately the same time as the horse, and have spread around the world. They continue to fill important roles in many places today and domesticated species are increasing in numbers, but the African wild *** and another relative, the Onager, are endangered. As "beasts of burden" and companions, asses and donkeys have worked together with humans for centuries.

Contents [hide]
1 Breeding
2 Characteristics
3 Etymology of the name
4 History
5 Economic use
6 Present status
7 Donkeys in warfare
8 Types of donkeys
8.1 Domestic donkey breeds
8.2 Burro
8.3 Donkey hybrids
8.4 Wild ***, Onager, and Kiang
9 Cultural references
9.1 Religion and myth
9.2 Fable and folklore
9.3 Literature
9.4 Film
9.5 Proverb and idiom
9.6 Advertising
9.7 Insult and vulgarity
9.8 Politics
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References
13 External links



Breeding
Jennies are pregnant for approximately 12 months, though the gestational period can vary from 11 to almost 14 months.[4] Jennies usually give birth to one foal. Twins are very rare. Only about 1.7 percent of donkey pregnancies result in twins. Both twins survive in only about 14 percent of the cases.


Characteristics

On the island of Hydra, because cars are outlawed, donkeys and mules form virtually the sole method of heavy goods transport.Donkeys vary considerably in size, depending on breed and management. Most domestic donkeys range from 0.9 to over 1.4 m tall, though the Mammoth Jack breed is taller, and the Andalucian-Cordobesan breed of southern Spain can reach up to 1.6 m high.

Donkeys are adapted to marginal desert lands, and have many traits that are unique to the species as a result. Wild donkeys live separated from each other, unlike tight wild horse and feral horse herds. Donkeys have developed very loud vocalizations, which help keep in contact with other donkeys over the wide spaces of the desert. The best-known call is referred to a "bray," which can be heard for over three kilometers. Donkeys have larger ears than horses. Their longer ears may pick up more distant sounds,[citation needed] and may help cool the donkey's blood. Donkeys in the wild can defend themselves with a powerful kick of their hind legs as well as by biting and striking with their front feet.

Donkeys' tough digestive system is somewhat less prone to colic than that of horses, can break down near-inedible vegetation and extract moisture from food very efficiently. As a rule, donkeys need smaller amounts of feed than horses of comparable height and weight. Because they are easy keepers, if overfed, donkeys are also quite susceptible to developing a condition called laminitis.


Etymology of the name
Until recent times, the synonym *** was commonly used to refer to Equus asinus (e.g., as in jackass, meaning "male donkey"); *** has clear cognates in most other Indo-European languages. However, its homonymity in the United States with the vulgar term *** for "buttocks" probably influenced its gradual replacement by donkey when referring to Equus asinus. The word donkey is an etymologically obscure word. The first written use dates to 1785.[5] No credible cognate for donkey has yet been identified. Hypotheses on its derivation include the following:

Perhaps a diminutive of dun (dull grayish-brown), a typical donkey colour.[5][6]
Perhaps from the name Duncan.[5][7]
Perhaps of imitative origin.[7]

History

Donkey in an Egyptian painting c. 1298-1235 BCEThe ancestors of the modern donkey are the Nubian and Somalian subspecies of African wild ***.[8][9] The African Wild *** was domesticated around 4,000 BCE. The donkey became an important pack animal for people living in the Egyptian and Nubian regions as they can easily carry 20% to 30% of their own body weight and can also be used as a farming and dairy animal. By 1800 BCE, the *** had reached the Middle East, where the trading city of Damascus was referred to as the “City of Asses” in cuneiform texts. Syria produced at least three breeds of donkeys, including a saddle breed with a graceful, easy gait. These were favored by women.[citation needed]

For the Greeks, the donkey was associated with the Syrian god of wine, Dionysus. The Romans also valued the *** and would use it as a sacrificial animal.

Equines had become extinct in the Western Hemisphere at the end of the last Ice Age. However, horses and donkeys were brought back to the Americas by the Conquistadors. In 1495, the *** first appeared in the New World when Christopher Columbus brought four jacks and two jennys. It is from this bloodline that many of the mules which the Conquistadors used while they explored the Americas were produced.[citation needed] Shortly after America became independent, President George Washington imported the first mammoth jack stock into the country. Because the existing Jack donkeys in the New World at the time lacked the size and strength he sought to produce quality work mules, he imported donkeys from Spain and France, some standing over 1.63 m tall. One of the donkeys Washington received from the Marquis de Lafayette, named "Knight of Malta," stood 1.43 m and thus was regarded as a great disappointment. Viewing this donkey as unfit for producing mules, Washington instead bred Knight of Malta to his jennys and, in doing so, created an American line of Mammoth Jacks (a breed name that includes both males and females).

Despite these early appearances of donkeys in America, the donkey did not find widespread distribution in America until it was found useful as a pack animal by miners, particularly the gold prospectors, of the mid-1800s. Miners preferred this animal due to its ability to carry tools, supplies, and ore. Their sociable disposition and adaptation to human companionship allowed many miners to lead their donkeys without ropes. They simply followed behind their owner. As mining became less an occupation of the individual prospector and more of an industrial underground operation, the miners' donkeys lost their jobs, and many were simply turned loose into the American deserts. Descendants of these donkeys, now feral, can still be seen roaming the Southwest today.


*** headcount in 2003By the early 20th century, donkeys began to be used less as working animals and instead kept as pets in the United States and other wealthier nations, while remaining an important work animal in many poorer regions. The donkey as a pet is best portrayed by the appearance of the miniature donkey in 1929. Robert Green imported miniature donkeys to the United States and was a lifetime advocate of the breed. Mr. Green is perhaps best quoted when he said "Miniature Donkeys possess the affectionate nature of a Newfoundland, the resignation of a cow, the durability of a mule, the courage of a tiger, and the intellectual capability only slightly inferior to man's." Standing only 32-40 inches, many families recognized the potential of miniature donkeys as pets and companions for their children.[citation needed]

Although the donkey fell from public notice and became viewed as a comical, stubborn beast which was considered “cute” at best, the donkey has recently regained some popularity in North America as a mount, for pulling wagons, and even as a guard animal. Some standard species are ideal for guarding herds of sheep against predators, since most donkeys have a natural wariness toward coyotes and other canines and will keep them away from the herd.


Economic use

Classic British seaside donkeys in Skegness
Donkey cart being loaded in Mapai, MozambiqueDonkeys have a notorious reputation for stubbornness, but this has been attributed to a much stronger sense of "self preservation" than exhibited by horses.[10] Likely based upon a stronger prey instinct and a weaker connection with man, it is considerably more difficult to force or frighten a donkey into doing something it perceives to be dangerous for whatever reason.

Although formal studies of their behaviour and cognition are rather limited, donkeys appear to be quite intelligent, cautious, friendly, playful, and eager to learn. They are often pastured or stabled with horses and ponies, and are thought to have a calming effect on nervous horses. If a donkey is introduced to a mare and foal, the foal will often turn to the donkey for support after it has been weaned from its mother.[11]

Once a person has earned their confidence they can be willing and companionable partners and very dependable in work[citation needed]. For this reason, they are now commonly[citation needed] kept as pets in countries where their use as beasts of burden has disappeared. They are also popular[citation needed] for giving rides to children in holiday resorts or other leisure contexts.


Present status
There are about 44 million donkeys today. China has the most with 11 million, followed by Pakistan, Ethiopia and Mexico. Some researchers think the real number is higher since many donkeys go uncounted.[12]

The vast majority of donkeys are used for the same types of work that they have been doing for 6000 years. Their most common role is for transport, whether riding, pack transport, or pulling carts. They may also be used for farm tillage, threshing, raising water, milling, and other jobs. Other donkeys are used to sire mules, as companions for horses, to guard sheep, and as pets. A few are milked or raised for meat[12]

The number of donkeys in the world continues to grow, as it has steadily throughout most of history. Some factors that today are contributing to this are increasing human population, progress in economic development and social stability in some poorer nations, conversion of forests to farm and range land, rising prices of motor vehicles and gasoline, and the donkeys' popularity as pets.[12][13]


A 3 week old donkeyIn prosperous countries, the welfare of donkeys both at home and abroad has recently become a concern and a number of sanctuaries for retired and rescued donkeys have been set up. The largest is the Donkey Sanctuary of England, which also supports donkey welfare projects in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Mexico.[14]


Donkeys in warfare
Donkeys have been used throughout history for transportation of supplies, pulling wagons, and, in a few cases, as riding animals. During World War I a British stretcher bearer, John Simpson Kirkpatrick, serving with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, used a donkey named Duffy to rescue wounded soldiers, carrying them to safety in Gallipoli. There is a statue of John Simpson Kirkpatrick and his donkey in his home town, South Shields.

According to British food writer Matthew Fort, donkeys were until recently used in the Italian Army. The Mountain Fusiliers each had a donkey to carry their gear and in extreme circumstances, the animal could be eaten.[15] In 2006, security forces in Afghanistan prevented a man taking a donkey which he had laden with 30 kg (66lb) of explosives and a number of landmines, which would have been set off by a remote controlled detonator, from entering a town in Zabul Province.[16]


Types of donkeys

Poitou donkeys.
Domestic donkey breeds
An incomplete list of domestic donkey breeds includes the:

Abyssinian Donkey
American Spotted Donkey
Cypriot Donkey
Mammoth Donkey
Mammoth Jack
Miniature Mediterranean Donkey
Poitou Donkey: The Poitou Donkey breed was developed in France for the sole purpose of producing mules. It is a large donkey breed with a very long shaggy coat and no dorsal stripe.
Spotted ***
Standard Donkey

Burro

Adopted wild burroThe Spanish brought donkeys, called "burros" in Spanish, to North America, where they were prized for their hardiness in arid country and became the beast of burden of choice by early prospectors in the Southwest United States. In the western United States the word "burro" is often used interchangeably with the word "donkey" by English speakers. Sometimes the distinction is made with smaller donkeys, descended from Mexican stock, called "burros," while those descended from stock imported directly from Europe are called "donkeys."


Wild burros grazingThe wild burros (or more accurately, feral burros) on the western rangelands descend from animals that ran away, were abandoned, or were freed. Wild burros in the United States were protected by Pub.L. 92-195, the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 (see also Kleppe v. New Mexico). These animals, considered to be a living legacy, are periodically at risk when there are severe drought conditions. To reduce herd populations and preserve grazing land, the Bureau of Land Management conducts roundups of burro herds and holds public auctions.

Wild burros can make good pets when treated well and trained properly. They are clever and curious. When trust has been established, they appreciate, and even seek, attention and grooming.


Donkey hybrids
A male donkey (jack) can be crossed with a female horse to produce a mule. A male horse can be crossed with a female donkey (jennet or jenny) to produce a hinny. A female donkey in the UK is called a mare, or jenny.

Horse-donkey hybrids are almost always sterile because horses have 64 chromosomes whereas donkeys have 62, producing offspring with 63 chromosomes. Mules are much more common than hinnies. This is believed to be caused by two factors, the first being proven in cat hybrids, that when the chromosome count of the male is the higher, fertility rates drop (as in the case of stallion x jennet).[citation needed] The lower progesterone production of the jenny may also lead to early embryonic loss. In addition, there are less-scientific reasons: Due to different mating behavior, jacks are often more willing to cover mares than stallions are to breed jennys. Further, mares are usually larger than jennys and thus have more room for the ensuing foal to grow in the womb, resulting in a larger animal at birth. It is commonly believed that mules are more easily handled and also physically stronger than hinnies, making them more desirable for breeders to produce, and it is unquestioned that mules are more common in total number.

The offspring of a zebra-donkey cross is called a zonkey, zebroid, zebrass, or zedonk;[17] zebra mule is an older term, but still used in some regions today. The foregoing terms generally refer to hybrids produced by breeding a male zebra to a female donkey. Zebra hinny, zebret and zebrinny all refer to the cross of a female zebra with a male donkey. Zebrinnies are rarer than zedonkies because female zebras in captivity are most valuable when used to produce full-blooded zebras.[18] There are not enough female zebras breeding in captivity to spare them for hybridizing; there is no such limitation on the number of female donkeys breeding.

For at least the past century, a few donkeys and burros in Mexico have been painted with white stripes to amuse tourists. These are not hybrids.

An animal which may look like a zebra-donkey hybrid because of its distinctly striped hindquarters and hind legs is the okapi, which has no relationship to either of those species. Okapi are most closely related to the giraffe. In addition to the rear stripes, okapi have some striping near the top of their forelegs.


Wild ***, Onager, and Kiang
With domestication of almost all donkeys, few species now exist in the wild. Some of them are the African Wild *** (Equus africanus) and its subspecies Somalian Wild *** (Equus africanus somaliensis). The Asiatic wild *** or Onager, Equus hemionus, and its relative the Kiang, Equus kiang, are closely related wild species.

There were several other, now extinct (sub)species called the Yukon Wild *** (Equus asinus lambei) and the European *** (Equus Hydruntinus) which became extinct during the Neolithic. In the wild the asses can reach top speeds equalling zebras and even most horses.


Cultural references

A North African donkey in a 1917 issue of National Geographic MagazineThe long history of human donkey use has created a rich store of cultural references.


Religion and myth
Greek mythology includes the story of King Midas who judged against Apollo in favor of Pan during a musical contest, and had his ears changed to those of a donkey as punishment.
In both Jewish and Christian traditions, the messiah (Jesus Christ in the later case) was often described as riding on a donkey. As noted, in the context of the Hebrew Bible this connoted wealth and affluence befitting the House of David, as at the time commoners are described as simply going on foot. However, in later times when the aristocracy used horses, depicting the messiah as riding a donkey came to have an opposite connotation, as indicating a simple, sober way of life and avoiding luxury. The same connotation is evident in the description of saints such as Francis of Assisi as riding donkeys.
In contemporary Israel, the term "Messiah's Donkey" (Chamoro Shel Mashiach ????? ?? ????) stands at the center of a controversial religious-political doctrine, attributed to Rabbi Avraham Yitchak Hacohen Cook, under which it was the Heavenly-imposed "task" of secular Zionists to build up a Jewish State, but once the state is established they are fated to give place to the Religious who are ordained to lead the state. The secularists in this analogy are "The Donkey" while the religious who are fated to supplant them are a collective "Messiach". A book on the subject, published in 1998 by the militant secularist Sefi Rechlevsky, aroused a major controversy in the Israeli public opinion.[19]
In Genesis the King of Shechem (the modern Nablus), killed by Jacob's sons, is called "Hamor" - showing that at the time this animal was held in high enough esteem that it was no disrespect for royalty to use its name as their first name. (See Dinah, Shechem, Animal names as first names in Hebrew).
In Numbers 22:22-41 "The Lord opened the mouth of the donkey" (vs. 28) and it speaks to Balaam. In Judges 15:13-17 where the hero Samson slays Philistines with the jawbone of an ***. Additional references can be found in Deuteronomy 22:10, Job 11:12, Proverbs 26:3 and elsewhere.
Muhammad, the prophet of Islam said that dogs and donkeys - if they pass in front of men in prayer - they will void or nullify that prayer.[20] He also said that "when you hear the braying of donkeys, seek Refuge with Allah from Satan for (their braying indicates) that they have seen a devil."[21]
Several were buried in Hor-Aha's tomb
The *** was a symbol of the Greek god Dionysus, particularly in relationship to his companion, Silenus.
The most common Greek word for *** appears roughly 100 times in the Biblical text. In the Gospels, Jesus rides a donkey into Jerusalem (Mark 11:1 in which colt refers to a donkey colt).
There are numerous references to the donkey ("hamor" or "chamor" ????) in the Hebrew Bible, (Old Testament). It mostly appears reflecting the natural environment of Israel and as an aspect of the agricultural economy. Ownership of many donkeys is a sign of God’s blessing. The Bible often specifies whether a person rode donkeys, since this was used to indicate a person’s wealth in much the same way luxury cars do today. (Horses at that time were used solely for war, powerful kings such as Solomon being the only ones who could afford to import them from Egypt.)
Traditionally, Mary is portrayed as riding a donkey while pregnant. Legend has it that the cross on the donkey’s shoulders comes from the shadow of Christ’s crucifixion, placing the donkey at the foot of the cross. It was once believed that hair cut from this cross and hung from a child’s neck in a bag would prevent fits and convulsions.
In Hindu Mythology a donkey [in sanskrit ] gardbha is vahana [ vehicle] of God Kalaratr .

Fable and folklore
European folklore claims that the tail of a donkey can be used to combat whooping cough or scorpion stings.
In Panchatantra which is a collection of animal fables, where are two stories of donkey 1) The Lion and The Foolish Donkey and 2)The Singing Donkey
In Hitopadesha there is a story of Donkey named The Donkey and the Dog
One of Aesop's fables has an *** dressed in a lion skin who gives himself away by braying.

Literature
Benjamin, the skeptical donkey from George Orwell's Animal Farm.
Any number of donkeys appear in world literary works.

In Don Quixote, Sancho Panza rides a donkey he refers to as "my rucio" or "the rucio", an elegant (and ironic) designation of the texture of the animal's fur.[22]
Eeyore, the gloomy donkey from A.A. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh books.
In Pinocchio, naughty boys turn into donkeys and are sold off to hard labour by the evil Coachman. In the book, Pinocchio turns into a donkey for a time.
Platero in Juan Ramon Jimenez's Platero and I
Puzzle in C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle.
In William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, the character Bottom has his head turned into that of a donkey by Puck who was told by Oberon, king of the fairies, to change it.
Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes, is one of Robert Louis Stevenson's earliest published works and is considered a pioneering classic of outdoor literature

Film
The Disney film Fantasia (1940) features a Dionysian character on a donkey.
A donkey is the central character of the film Au hasard Balthazar by Robert Bresson.
Donkey is the name of a fictional donkey (voiced by Eddie Murphy) in the animated movies Shrek, Shrek 2 and Shrek the Third, all from DreamWorks Pictures.

Proverb and idiom
A German proverb claims a donkey can wear a lion suit but its ear will still stick out and give it away.
British colloquial expressions also include "donkey's years" which means for a long time or for many years, "to talk the hind leg off a donkey" means to tire somebody with one's talk.
Speed ***ps are called in the Rioplatense Spanish of Argentina "lomos de burro", that is, "donkey's backs."
Classical Greek expressions about donkeys included: onos pros eort?n = "a donkey at the festival" (gets all the work); onos hyetai = "a donkey is rained on" (i.e. he is unaffected or insensitive), onos pros phatn?n = "a donkey at a feed trough" (like the English expression "in clover").
English proverbs include "better be the head of an *** than the tail of a horse", "if an *** goes a-traveling, he'll not come back a horse", and "better ride on an *** that carries me home than a horse that throws me" (though all these are now obsolete).

Advertising
Budweiser used a donkey in advertising during Super Bowl in 2004, called the Budweiser donkey he trains to be a Budweiser Clydesdale complete with hair extensions.
The Jack and Jenny is a pub name seen in Britain.

Insult and vulgarity
In Arabic, ???? (?imar), meaning "donkey", is a derogatory term that refers to someone of very limited intelligence. Another usage is ???? ??? (?imar shu?l, literally "work donkey"), roughly equivalent in meaning to workaholic but with a distinct derogatory note and typically implying that the work is routine and non-creative; for example, someone might say, "Give that job to Ali, he's a work donkey anyway and he won't mind."
Because of its connection with ignorance, in modern slang, referring to someone as a dumbass means that they are unintelligent. Many people would find this term vulgar and rude.
In contrast, to refer to someone as a jackass in modern slang provides a connotation of being obnoxious, rude, and thoughtless, with or without the added connotation of stupidity. This usage is also considered vulgar. A less vulgar substitute is donkey itself.
In football, especially in the United Kingdom, a player who is considered unskilful, and to rely overly on his physical attributes to cover up his technical shortcomings, is often dubbed a "donkey."
The term "donkey" in British English is used in horse racing to refer to unsuccessful horses.
The donkey has long been a symbol of ignorance. Examples can be found in Aesop's Fables, Apuleius's The Golden *** (The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius) and Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream.
The term "donkey" is frequently used to refer to unskilled poker players, especially those playing in a predictably loose and unthinking fashion. Compare "patzer" in chess.
The unmodified word *** and the adjectival form asinine have entered common use in the English language as terms used to describe a person who is stubborn, foolish, or disagreeable.

Politics
In an election under a preferential voting system, a vote that simply writes down preferences in the order of the candidates (1 at the top, then 2, and so on) is called a donkey vote.
The "ruc català" or "burro català" (Catalan donkey) is a relatively recent symbol of Catalonia. It was chosen when the need was felt in Catalonia to produce something genuinely Catalan to oppose to the Spanish Osborne bull. The bull was perceived by Catalans as a centralistic symbol, alien to their culture.[23]
The donkey is also the symbol for the Democratic Party of the United States, originating in a cartoon by Thomas Nast of Harper's Weekly (Nast also originated the elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party (United States).

See also
Baudet de Poitou
Burro Racing
Exploding donkey
Hinny
Jenny (donkey) ("Jennet" was a type of medieval horse)
Mule
Ponui donkey
Safe Haven for Donkeys in the Holy Land
Asses' milk

Notes
^ Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder, ed (2005). "Equus asinus". Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/b....asp?s=y&id=14100004 (http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?s=y&id=14100004).
^ a b International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003). "Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010).". Bull.Zool.Nomencl. 60 (1): 81-84. http://www.iczn.org/BZNMar2003...ions.htm#opinion2027 (http://www.iczn.org/BZNMar2003opinions.htm#opinion2027).
^ Rossel S, Marshall F et al. "Domestication of the donkey: Timing, processes, and indicators." PNAS 105(10):3715-3720. March 11, 2008. Abstract
^ ""The Donkey; Gestation and Care of Jennet During Gestation"". Agriculture and Rural Development. Government of Alerta. November 1990. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$d...l/agdex598#Gestation (http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex598#Gestation). Retrieved on 2009-06-09.
^ a b c Grose Dict. Vulg. Tongue, "Donkey or Donkey ****, a he or Jack-***", Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, 1989 (OED Online, subscription, accessed 8th May 2008)
^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged (MWU). (Online subscription-based reference service of Merriam-Webster, based on Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.) Headword donkey. Accessed 2007-09-13.
^ a b Houghton Mifflin (2000). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed ed.). Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 535. ISBN 978-0-395-82517-4. http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/epub/ahd4.shtml.
^ J. Clutton-Brook, J. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals 1999.
^ Albano Beja-Pereira, "African Origins of the Domestic Donkey," in Science, 2004
^ http://www.abc.net.au/creature...es/facts/donkeys.htm (http://www.abc.net.au/creaturefeatures/facts/donkeys.htm)
^ Donkeys
^ a b c Starkey, P. and M. Starkey. 1997. Regional and World trends in Donkey Populations. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA)
^ Blench, R. 2000. The History and Spread of Donkeys in Africa. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA)
^ The Donkey Sanctuary (DS). 2006. Website. (accessed December 2, 2006).
^ Fort, Matthew (2005-06-20). Eating Up Italy: Voyages on a Vespa. HarperPerennial. ISBN 0007214812.
^ "Afghan Police Stop Bombing Attack From Explosives-laden Donkey". Fox News. 2006-06-08. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,198637,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-04.
^ American Donkey and Mule Society: Zebra Hybrids
^ All About Zebra Hybrids
^ [1]
^ Al-Nawawi, Sahih Muslim, 3-4:450-1; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, 5:194, 197, 202, 208; Abu Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi, ‘Aridat al-Ahwadhi bi Sharh Sahih al-Tirmidhi (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, n.d.), 1:133. All reported in El-Fadl.
^ Sahih al-Bukhari 4:54:522
^ The word "rucio" (in Spanish).
^ Ruc català - (Catalan donkey)

References
Blench, R. 2000. The History and Spread of Donkeys in Africa. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA)
Clutton-Brook, J. 1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521634954
The Donkey Sanctuary (DS). 2006. Website. [2] (accessed December 2, 2006).
Huffman, B. 2006. The Ultimate Ungulate Page: Equus asinus. (accessed December 2, 2006).
International Museum of the Horse (IMH). 1998. Donkey. (accessed December 3, 2006).
Nowak, R. M., and J. L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland, USA : The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801825253
Oklahoma State University (OSU). 2006. Breeds of Livestock. (accessed December 3, 2006).
Starkey, P. and M. Starkey. 1997. Regional and World trends in Donkey Populations. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA) [3]

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Equus asinus
Breeds of livestock - Poitou Donkey
National Wild Horse and Burro Program
[show]v • d • eExtant Perissodactyla (Odd-toed ungulates) species by suborder

Kingdom Animalia · Phylum Chordata · Class Mammalia · Infraclass Eutheria · Superorder Laurasiatheria

Hippomorpha


Equidae
(Horse family) Equus
(including Zebras) Subgenus Equus: Wild horse (E. ferus) · Domestic Horse (E. caballus)
Subgenus Asinus: African Wild *** (E. africanus) · Donkey (E. asinus) · Onager (E. hemionus) · Kiang (E. kiang)
Subgenus Dolichohippus: Grévy's Zebra (E. grevyi)
Subgenus Hippotigris: Plains Zebra (E. quagga) · Mountain Zebra (E. zebra)


Ceratomorpha


Rhinocerotidae
(Rhinoceros) Rhinoceros Indian Rhinoceros (R. unicornis) · Javan Rhinoceros (R. sondaicus)

Dicerorhinus Sumatran Rhinoceros (D. sumatrensis)

Ceratotherium White Rhinoceros (C. simum)

Diceros Black Rhinoceros (D. bicornis)


Tapiridae
(Tapirs) Tapirus Baird's Tapir (T. bairdii) · Malayan Tapir (T. indicus) · Mountain Tapir (T. pinchaque) · Black Lowland Tapir (T. pygmaeus) · South American Tapir (T. terrestris)


Category

[show]v • d • eSpecies and hybrids of genus Equus, both extant and extinct

Species Equus africanus · (Equus africanus asinus) · Equus burchelli · Equus complicatus · Equus conversidens · Equus crinidens · Equus cumminsii · Equus excelsus · Equus ferus (Equus ferus ferus, Equus ferus przewalskii · Equus ferus caballus) · Equus francisci · Equus fraternus · Equus giganteus · Equus grevyi · Equus hemionus · Equus hydruntinus · Equus kiang · Equus lambei · Equus namadicus · Equus niobrarensis · Equus occidentalis · Equus pacificus · Equus parastylidens · Equus pectinatus · Equus quagga (Equus quagga quagga) · Equus scotti · Equus simplicidens · Equus sivalensis · Equus stenonis · Equus yunnanensis · Equus zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae, Equus zebra zebra)

Hybrids Hinny · Mule · Zebroid · Zonkey · Zony · Zorse

Evolution Equidae · Equus · Evolution of the horse · Wild horse · Domestication of the horse


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donkey"
Categories: Domesticated animals | Donkeys | Catalan symbols | Pet mammals
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Monkey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Monkey (disambiguation).
Monkeys


A young male White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Primates

Suborder: Haplorrhini

Infraorder: Simiiformes
in part



Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. Old World monkeys in red, New World in orange.
Families
Cebidae
Aotidae
Pitheciidae
Atelidae
Cercopithecidae


A monkey is any cercopithecoid (Old World monkey) or platyrrhine (New World monkey) primate. All primates that are not prosimians (lemurs and tarsiers) or apes are monkeys. The 264 known extant monkey species represent two of the three groupings of simian primates (the third group being the 21 species of apes). Monkeys are usually smaller and/or longer-tailed than apes.

The New World monkeys are classified within the parvorder Platyrrhini, whereas the Old World monkeys (superfamily Cercopithecoidea) form part of the parvorder Catarrhini, which also includes the apes. Thus, scientifically speaking, monkeys are paraphyletic (not a single coherent group), and Old World monkeys are actually more closely related to the apes than they are to the New World monkeys.

Due to its size (up to 1 m/3 ft) the Mandrill is often thought to be an ape, but it is actually an Old World monkey. Also, a few monkey species have the word "ape" in their common name.

Contents [hide]
1 Characteristics
2 Etymology
3 Classification
4 Relationship with humans
4.1 As service animals for the disabled
4.2 In experiments
4.2.1 In space
4.3 As food
4.4 Literature
4.5 Religion and worship
4.6 Entertainment
4.7 Zodiac
5 See also
6 References
7 External links



Characteristics

Bonnet Macaque in Nelliampathi mountains, Kerala, South IndiaMonkeys range in size from the Pygmy Marmoset, at 140 to 160 millimetres (5–6 in) long (plus tail) and 120 to 140 grams (4–5 oz) in weight, to the male Mandrill, almost 1 metre (3.3 ft) long and weighing 35 kilograms (77 lb). Some are arboreal (living in trees) while others live on the savanna; diets differ among the various species but may contain any of the following: fruit, leaves, seeds, nuts, flowers, eggs, and small animals (including insects and spiders).

Some characteristics are shared among the groups; most New World monkeys have prehensile tails while Old World monkeys have non-prehensile tails or no visible tail at all. Some have trichromatic color vision like that of humans, others are dichromats or monochromats. Although both the New and Old World monkeys, like the apes, have forward facing eyes, the faces of Old World and New World monkeys look very different, though again, each group shares some features such as the types of noses, cheeks, and rumps.


Etymology
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "monkey" may originate in a German version of the Reynard the Fox fable, published circa 1580. In this version of the fable, a character named Moneke is the son of Martin the Ape. The word Moneke may have been derived from the Italian monna, which means "a female ape". The name Moneke likely persisted over time due to the popularity of Reynard the Fox.

A group of monkeys may be referred to as a mission or a tribe.


Classification

Common Squirrel Monkey
Crab-eating Macaque in ThailandThe following list shows where the various monkey families (bolded) are placed in the Primate classification.

ORDER PRIMATES
Suborder Strepsirrhini: non-tarsier prosimians
Suborder Haplorrhini: tarsiers, monkeys and apes
Infraorder Tarsiiformes
Family Tarsiidae: tarsiers
Infraorder Simiiformes: simians
Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys
Family Cebidae: marmosets, tamarins, capuchins, and squirrel monkeys (56 species)
Family Aotidae: night monkeys, owl monkeys, douroucoulis (8 species)
Family Pitheciidae: titis, sakis and uakaris (41 species)
Family Atelidae: howler, spider and woolly monkeys (24 species)
Parvorder Catarrhini
Superfamily Cercopithecoidea
Family Cercopithecidae: Old World monkeys (135 species)
Superfamily Hominoidea: apes
Family Hylobatidae: gibbons ("lesser apes") (13 species)
Family Hominidae: great apes including humans (7 species)
Note that the smallest grouping that contains them all is the Simiiformes, the simians, which also contains the apes. Calling apes "monkeys" is considered scientifically incorrect as apes are distinctly defined as different from monkeys.[1] Apes were included in earlier use of the term, predating modern classifications.[2] Including some or all apes (other than humans) remained the common usage in the early 20th century[3] and is still in colloquial use.[4] Calling either a simian is correct.


Relationship with humans
The many species of monkey have varied relationships with humans. Some are kept as pets, others used as model organisms in laboratories or in space missions. They may be killed in monkey drives when they threatened agriculture, or serve as service animals for the disabled.

In religion and culture, the monkey often represents quick-wittedness and mischief.


As service animals for the disabled
Some organizations train capuchin monkeys as monkey helpers to assist quadriplegics and other people with severe spinal cord injuries or mobility impairments. After being socialized in a human home as infants, the monkeys undergo extensive training before being placed with a quadriplegic. Around the house, the monkeys help out by doing tasks including microwaving food, washing the quadriplegic's face, and opening drink bottles.


In experiments

Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004–05[5]Macaques, especially the Rhesus Macaque, and African Green Monkeys are widely used in animal testing facilities, either wild-caught or purpose-bred.[6] They are used primarily because of their relative ease of handling, their fast reproductive cycle (compared to apes), and their psychological and physical similarity to humans. In the United States, around 50,000 non-human primates, most of them monkeys, have been used in experiments every year since 1973;[7] 10,000 monkeys were used in the European Union in 2004.


Sam, a rhesus macaque, was flown to a height of 55 miles (89 km) by NASA in 1959.The use of monkeys in laboratories is controversial. Some claim[who?] that their use is cruel and produces little information of value, and there have been many protests, vandalism to testing facilities, and threats to workers. Others claim[who?] that it has led to many important medical breakthroughs such as the rabies vaccine, understanding of human reproduction and basic knowledge about brain function, and that the prevention of harm to humans should be a higher priority than the possible harm done to monkeys. The topic has become a popular cause for animal rights and animal welfare groups.


In space
A number of countries have used monkeys as part of their space exploration programmes, including the United States and France. The first monkey in space was Albert II who flew in the US-launched V-2 rocket in June 14, 1949.


As food
Monkey brains are eaten as a delicacy in South Asia, China, and Africa.[8] In traditional Islamic dietary laws, monkeys are forbidden to be eaten. However, monkeys are sometimes eaten in parts of Africa, where they can be sold as "bushmeat".[9]


Literature
Sun Wukong (the "Monkey King"), a character who figures prominently in Chinese mythology, is the main protagonist in the classic comic Chinese novel Journey to the West.

Monkeys are prevalent in numerous books, television programs, and movies. The television series Monkey and the literary characters Monsieur Eek and Curious George are all examples.


Simian statue at a Buddhist shrine in Tokyo, JapanHowever, pop culture often incorrectly labels apes, particularly chimpanzees, gibbons, and gorillas, as monkeys. Terry Pratchett makes use of the distinction in his Discworld novels, in which the Librarian of the Unseen University is an orangutan who gets very violent if referred to as a monkey.

The Winged monkeys are prominent characters in The Wizard of Oz.


Religion and worship
Hanuman, a prominent divine entity in Hinduism, is a monkey-like humanoid. He may bestow longevity.

In Buddhism, the monkey is an early incarnation of Buddha but may also represent trickery and ugliness. The Chinese Buddhist "mind monkey" metaphor refers to the unsettled, restless state of human mind. Monkey is also one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolizing greed, with the tiger representing anger and the deer lovesickness.

The Mizaru or three wise monkeys are revered in Japanese folklore.[10]

The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature.[11] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted monkeys in their art.[12]


Entertainment
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.

In the Tamil country, monkeys were used for entertainment. The owner trains monkeys to perform gymnastics in public. Even today, it could be practiced in remote villages.[citation needed]


Zodiac
The Monkey is the ninth in the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The next time that the monkey will appear as the zodiac sign will be in the year 2016.


See also
Mammals portal
List of monkeys

References
^ [1]
^ Definition of Monkey in Merriam Webster's Online Dictionary
^ Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911: Monkey
^ Webster's New World College Dictionary, 4th Ed: Monkey
^ "Covance Cruelty", People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.
^ "The supply and use of primates in the EU", European Biomedical Research Association.
^ [2]PDF (136 KiB)[dead link]
^ Some bravery as a side dish
^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.../04/020403025234.htm (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020403025234.htm)
^ Cooper, JC (1992). Symbolic and Mythological Animals. London: Aquarian Press. pp. 161–63. ISBN 1-85538-118-4.
^ Benson, Elizabeth, The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. New York, NY: Praeger Press. 1972
^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1997.

External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: monkeys
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Monkey
"The Impossible Housing and Handling Conditions of Monkeys in Research Laboratories", by Viktor Reinhardt, International Primate Protection League, August 2001
The Problem with Pet Monkeys: Reasons Monkeys Do Not Make Good Pets, an article by veterinarian Lianne McLeod on About.com
Helping Hands: Monkey helpers for the disabled, a U.S. national non-profit organization based in Boston Massachusetts that places specially trained capuchin monkeys with people who are paralyzed or who live with other severe mobility impairments
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkey"
Categories: Monkeys | Pet mammals
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Ant
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation).
Ants
Fossil range: 130–0 Ma Pre??OSDCPTJKPgNCretaceous - Recent


Meat eater ant feeding on honey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Hymenoptera

Suborder: Apocrita

Superfamily: Vespoidea

Family: Formicidae
Latreille, 1809

Subfamilies
Aenictogitoninae
Agroecomyrmecinae
Amblyoponinae (incl. "Apomyrminae")
Aneuretinae
Brachymyrmex
Cerapachyinae
Dolichoderinae
Ecitoninae (incl. "Dorylinae" and "Aenictinae")
Ectatomminae
Formicinae
Heteroponerinae
Leptanillinae
Leptanilloidinae
Martialinae
Myrmeciinae (incl. "Nothomyrmeciinae")
Myrmicinae
Paraponerinae
Ponerinae
Proceratiinae
Pseudomyrmecinae
Cladogram of ant subfamilies[show]


Martialinae




Leptanillinae




Amblyoponinae




Paraponerinae




Agroecomyrmecinae




Ponerinae




Proceratiinae







Ecitoninae




Aenictinae





Dorylini




Aenictogitoninae










Cerapachyinae*




Leptanilloidinae










Dolichoderinae




Aneuretinae








Pseudomyrmecinae




Myrmeciinae












Ectatomminae




Heteroponerinae







Myrmicinae




Formicinae
















A phylogeny of the extant ant subfamilies.[1][2]
*Cerapachyinae is paraphyletic

Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae (pronounced /f?r?m?s??di?/), and along with the related wasps and bees, they belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. Today, more than 12,000 species are classified with upper estimates of about 14,000 species.[3][4] They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist.

Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies which may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals. These larger colonies consist mostly of sterile wingless females forming castes of "workers", "soldiers", or other specialised groups. Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called "drones" and one or more fertile females called "queens". The colonies are sometimes described as superorganisms because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity, collectively working together to support the colony.[5]

Ants have colonised almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antarctica and certain remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems, and may form 15–25% of the terrestrial animal biomass.[6] Their success has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats, tap resources, and defend themselves. Their long co-evolution with other species has led to mimetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic relationships.[7]

Ant societies have division of labour, communication between individuals, and an ability to solve complex problems.[8] These parallels with human societies have long been an inspiration and subject of study.

Many human cultures make use of ants in cuisine, medication and rituals. Some species are valued in their role as biological pest control agents.[9] However, their ability to exploit resources brings ants into conflict with humans, as they can damage crops and invade buildings. Some species, such as the red imported fire ant, are regarded as invasive species, since they have established themselves in new areas where they have been accidentally introduced.[10]

Contents [hide]
1 Taxonomy and evolution
1.1 Etymology
2 Distribution and diversity
3 Morphology
3.1 Polymorphism
4 Development and reproduction
5 Behaviour and ecology
5.1 Communication
5.2 Defence
5.3 Learning
5.4 Nest construction
5.5 Food cultivation
5.6 Navigation
5.7 Locomotion
5.8 Cooperation and competition
5.9 Relationships with other organisms
6 Relationship with humans
6.1 As food
6.2 As pests
6.3 In science and technology
6.4 In culture
7 See also
8 Footnotes
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links



Taxonomy and evolution

Ants fossilised in Baltic amberThe family Formicidae belongs to the order Hymenoptera, which also includes sawflies, bees and wasps. Ants evolved from a lineage within the vespoid wasps. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ants arose in the mid-Cretaceous period about 110 to 130 million years ago. After the rise of flowering plants about 100 million years ago they diversified and assumed ecological dominance around 60 million years ago.[11][12][13] In 1966, E. O. Wilson and his colleagues identified the fossil remains of an ant (Sphecomyrma freyi) that lived in the Cretaceous period. The specimen, trapped in amber dating back to more than 80 million years ago, has features of both ants and wasps.[14] Sphecomyrma was probably a ground forager but some suggest on the basis of groups such as the Leptanillinae and Martialinae that primitive ants were likely to have been predators under the soil surface.[2]


Vespoidea
Sierolomorphidae






Tiphiidae





Sapygidae




Mutillidae












Pompilidae




Rhopalosomatidae








Formicidae





Vespidae




Scoliidae



















Phylogenetic position of the Formicidae.[15]
During the Cretaceous period, a few species of primitive ants ranged widely on the Laurasian super-continent (the northern hemisphere). They were scarce in comparison to other insects, representing about 1% of the insect population. Ants became dominant after adaptive radiation at the beginning of the Tertiary period. By the Oligocene and Miocene ants had come to represent 20–40% of all insects found in major fossil deposits. Of the species that lived in the Eocene epoch, approximately one in ten genera survive to the present. Genera surviving today comprise 56% of the genera in Baltic amber fossils (early Oligocene), and 92% of the genera in Dominican amber fossils (apparently early Miocene).[11][16]

Termites, though sometimes called white ants, are not ants and belong to the order Isoptera. Termites are actually more closely related to cockroaches and mantids. The fact that ants and termites are both eusocial came about by convergent evolution. Velvet ants look like large ants, but are wingless female wasps.[17][18]


Etymology
The word ant is derived from ante of Middle English which is derived from æmette of Old English and is related to the Old High German ?meiza, hence the modern German Ameise. All of these words come from West Germanic *amaitjo, and the original meaning of the word was "the biter" (from Proto-Germanic *ai-, "off, away" + *mait- "cut"). [19] [20] The family name Formicidae is derived from the Latin form?ca ("ant")[21] from which the words in other Romance languages such as the Portuguese formiga, Spanish hormiga, Romanian furnic? and French fourmi are derived.


Distribution and diversity
Region Number of
species [22]
Neotropics 2162
Nearctic 580
Europe 180
Africa 2500
Asia 2080
Melanesia 275
Australia 985
Polynesia 42
Ants are found on all continents except Antarctica and only a few large islands such as Greenland, Iceland, parts of Polynesia and the Hawaiian Islands lack native ant species.[23][24] Ants occupy a wide range of ecological niches, and are able to exploit a wide range of food resources either as direct or indirect herbivores, predators and scavengers. Most species are omnivorous generalists but a few are specialist feeders. Their ecological dominance may be measured by their biomass, and estimates in different environments suggest that they contribute 15–20% (on average and nearly 25% in the tropics) of the total terrestrial animal biomass, which exceeds that of the vertebrates.[6]

Ants range in size from 0.75 to 52 millimetres (0.030–2.0 in).[25][26] Their colours vary; most are red or black, green is less common, and some tropical species have a metallic lustre. More than 12,000 species are currently known (with upper estimates of about 14,000), with the greatest diversity in the tropics. Taxonomic studies continue to resolve the classification and systematics of ants. Online databases of ant species, including AntBase and the Hymenoptera Name Server, help to keep track of the known and newly described species.[27] The relative ease with which ants can be sampled and studied in ecosystems has made them useful as indicator species in biodiversity studies.[28][29]


Morphology
Ants are distinct in their morphology from other insects in having elbowed antennae, metapleural glands, and a strong constriction of their second abdominal segment into a node-like petiole. The head, mesosoma and metasoma or gaster are the three distinct body segments. The petiole forms a narrow waist between their mesosoma (thorax plus the first abdominal segment, which is fused to it) and gaster (abdomen less the abdominal segments in the petiole). The petiole can be formed by one or two nodes (the second alone, or the second and third abdominal segments).[30]


Bull ant showing the powerful mandibles and the relatively large compound eyes that provide excellent visionLike other insects, ants have an exoskeleton, an external covering that provides a protective casing around the body and a point of attachment for muscles, in contrast to the internal skeletons of humans and other vertebrates. Insects do not have lungs; oxygen and other gases like carbon dioxide pass through their exoskeleton through tiny valves called spiracles. Insects also lack closed blood vessels; instead, they have a long, thin, perforated tube along the top of the body (called the "dorsal aorta") that functions like a heart, and pumps haemolymph towards the head, thus driving the circulation of the internal fluids. The nervous system consists of a ventral nerve cord that runs the length of the body, with several ganglia and branches along the way reaching into the extremities of the appendages.[31]


Diagram of a worker ant (Pachycondyla verenae)An ant's head contains many sensory organs. Like most insects, ants have compound eyes made from numerous tiny lenses attached together. Ants' eyes are good for acute movement detection but do not give a high resolution. They also have three small ocelli (simple eyes) on the top of the head that detect light levels and polarisation.[32] Compared to vertebrates, most ants have poor-to-mediocre eyesight and a few subterranean species are completely blind. Some ants such as Australia's bulldog ant, however, have exceptional vision. Two antennae ("feelers") are attached to the head; these organs detect chemicals, air currents and vibrations; they are also used to transmit and receive signals through touch. The head has two strong jaws, the mandibles, used to carry food, manipulate objects, construct nests, and for defence.[31] In some species a small pocket (infrabuccal chamber) inside the mouth stores food, so it can be passed to other ants or their larvae.[33]

All six legs are attached to the mesosoma ("thorax"). A hooked claw at the end of each leg helps ants to climb and hang onto surfaces. Most queens and male ants have wings; queens shed the wings after the nuptial flight, leaving visible stubs, a distinguishing feature of queens. However, wingless queens (ergatoids) and males occur in a few species.[31]

The metasoma (the "abdomen") of the ant houses important internal organs, including those of the reproductive, respiratory (tracheae) and excretory systems. Workers of many species have their egg-laying structures modified into stings that are used for subduing prey and defending their nests.[31]


Polymorphism

Seven Leafcutter ant workers of various castes (left) and two Queens (right)In the colonies of a few ant species, there are physical castes—workers in distinct size-classes, called minor, median, and major workers. Often the larger ants have disproportionately larger heads, and correspondingly stronger mandibles. Such individuals are sometimes called "soldier" ants because their stronger mandibles make them more effective in fighting, although they are still workers and their "duties" typically do not vary greatly from the minor or median workers. In a few species the median workers are absent, creating a sharp divide between the minors and majors.[34] Weaver ants, for example, have a distinct bimodal size distribution.[35] [36] Some other species show continuous variation in the size of workers. The smallest and largest workers in Pheidologeton diversus show nearly a 500-fold difference in their dry-weights.[37] Workers cannot mate; however, because of the haplodiploid ***-determination system in ants, workers of a number of species can lay unfertilised eggs that become fully fertile haploid males. The role of workers may change with their age and in some species, such as honeypot ants, young workers are fed until their gasters are distended, and act as living food storage vessels. These food storage workers are called repletes.[38] This polymorphism in morphology and behaviour of workers was initially thought to be determined by environmental factors such as nutrition and hormones which led to different developmental paths; however, genetic differences between worker castes have been noted in Acromyrmex sp.[39] These polymorphisms are caused by relatively small genetic changes; differences in a single gene of Solenopsis invicta can decide whether the colony will have single or multiple queens.[40] The Australian jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula), has only a single pair of chromosomes (males have just one chromosome as they are haploid), the lowest number known for any animal, making it an interesting subject for studies in the genetics and developmental biology of social insects.[41][42]


Development and reproduction

Meat eater ant nest during swarmingThe life of an ant starts from an egg. If the egg is fertilised, the progeny will be female (diploid); if not, it will be male (haploid). Ants develop by complete metamorphosis with the larval stages passing through a pupal stage before emerging as an adult. The larva is largely immobile and is fed and cared for by workers. Food is given to the larvae by trophallaxis, a process in which an ant regurgitates liquid food held in its crop. This is also how adults share food, stored in the "social stomach", among themselves. Larvae may also be provided with solid food such as trophic eggs, pieces of prey and seeds brought back by foraging workers and may even be transported directly to captured prey in some species. The larvae grow through a series of moults and enter the pupal stage. The pupa has the appendages free and not fused to the body as in a butterfly pupa.[43] The differentiation into queens and workers (which are both female), and different castes of workers (when they exist), is determined by the nutrition the larvae obtain. Larvae and pupae need to be kept at fairly constant temperatures to ensure proper development, and so are often moved around the various brood chambers within the colony.[44]

A new worker spends the first few days of its adult life caring for the queen and young. It then graduates to digging and other nest work, and later to defending the nest and foraging. These changes are sometimes fairly sudden, and define what are called temporal castes. An explanation for the sequence is suggested by the high casualties involved in foraging, making it an acceptable risk only for ants that are older and are likely to die soon of natural causes.[45][46]


Fertilised meat eater ant queen beginning to dig a new colonyMost ant species have a system in which only the queen and breeding females have the ability to mate. Contrary to popular belief, some ant nests have multiple queens while others can exist without queens. Workers with the ability to reproduce are called "gamergates" and colonies that lack queens are then called gamergate colonies; colonies with queens are said to be queen-right.[47] The winged male ants, called drones, emerge from pupae along with the breeding females (although some species, like army ants, have wingless queens), and do nothing in life except eat and mate. During the short breeding period, the reproductives, excluding the colony queen, are carried outside where other colonies of similar species are doing the same. Then, all the winged breeding ants take flight. Mating occurs in flight and the males die shortly afterwards. Females of some species mate with multiple males. Mated females then seek a suitable place to begin a colony. There, they break off their wings and begin to lay and care for eggs. The females store the sperm they obtain during their nuptial flight to selectively fertilise future eggs. The first workers to hatch are weak and smaller than later workers, but they begin to serve the colony immediately. They enlarge the nest, forage for food and care for the other eggs. This is how new colonies start in most species. Species that have multiple queens may have a queen leaving the nest along with some workers to found a colony at a new site,[48] a process akin to swarming in honeybees.


Ants mating.A wide range of reproductive strategies have been noted in ant species. Females of many species are known to be capable of reproducing asexually through thelytokous parthenogenesis[49] and one species, Mycocepurus smithii is known to be all-female.[50]

Ant colonies can be long-lived. The queens can live for up to 30 years, and workers live from 1 to 3 years. Males, however, are more transitory, and survive only a few weeks.[51] Ant queens are estimated to live 100 times longer than solitary insects of a similar size.[52]

Ants are active all year long in the tropics but, in cooler regions, survive the winter in a state of dormancy or inactivity. The forms of inactivity are varied and some temperate species have larvae going into the inactive state (diapause), while in others, the adults alone pass the winter in a state of reduced activity.[53]


Behaviour and ecology

Communication

Weaver ants collaborating to dismember a red ant (the two at the extremities are pulling the red ant, while the middle one cuts the red ant until it snaps)Ants communicate with each other using pheromones.[54] These chemical signals are more developed in ants than in other hymenopteran groups. Like other insects, ants perceive smells with their long, thin and mobile antennae. The paired antennae provide information about the direction and intensity of scents. Since most ants live on the ground, they use the soil surface to leave pheromone trails that can be followed by other ants. In species that forage in groups, a forager that finds food marks a trail on the way back to the colony; this trail is followed by other ants, these ants then reinforce the trail when they head back with food to the colony. When the food source is exhausted, no new trails are marked by returning ants and the scent slowly dissipates. This behaviour helps ants deal with changes in their environment. For instance, when an established path to a food source is blocked by an obstacle, the foragers leave the path to explore new routes. If an ant is successful, it leaves a new trail marking the shortest route on its return. Successful trails are followed by more ants, reinforcing better routes and gradually finding the best path.[55]

Ants use pheromones for more than just making trails. A crushed ant emits an alarm pheromone that sends nearby ants into an attack frenzy and attracts more ants from further away. Several ant species even use "propaganda pheromones" to confuse enemy ants and make them fight among themselves.[56] Pheromones are produced by a wide range of structures including Dufour's glands, poison glands and glands on the hindgut, pygidium, ******, sternum and hind tibia.[52] Pheromones are also exchanged mixed with food and passed by trophallaxis, transferring information within the colony.[57] This allows other ants to detect what task group (e.g., foraging or nest maintenance) other colony members belong to.[58] In ant species with queen castes, workers begin to raise new queens in the colony when the dominant queen stops producing a specific pheromone.[59]

Some ants produce sounds by stridulation, using the gaster segments and their mandibles. Sounds may be used to communicate with colony members or with other species.[60][61]


Defence

A weaver ant in fighting position, mandibles wide openAnts attack and defend themselves by biting and, in many species, by stinging, often injecting or spraying chemicals like formic acid. Bullet ants (Paraponera), located in Central and South America, are considered to have the most painful sting of any insect, although it is usually not fatal to humans. This sting is given the highest rating on the Schmidt Sting Pain Index. The sting of Jack jumper ants can be fatal,[62] and an antivenin has been developed.[63] Fire ants, Solenopsis spp., are unique in having a poison sac containing piperidine alkaloids.[64] Their stings are painful and can be dangerous to hypersensitive people.[65]

Trap-jaw ants of the genus Odontomachus are equipped with mandibles called trap-jaws, which snap shut faster than any other predatory appendages within the animal kingdom.[66] One study of Odontomachus bauri recorded peak speeds of between 126 and 230 km/h (78 - 143 mph), with the jaws closing within 130 microseconds on average. The ants were also observed to use their jaws as a catapult to eject intruders or fling themselves backwards to escape a threat.[66] Before the strike, the ant opens its mandibles extremely widely and locks them in this position by an internal mechanism. Energy is stored in a thick band of muscle and explosively released when triggered by the stimulation of sensory hairs on the inside of the mandibles. The mandibles also permit slow and fine movements for other tasks. Trap-jaws are also seen in the following genera: Anochetus, Orectognathus, and Strumigenys,[66] plus some members of the Dacetini tribe[67], which are viewed as examples of convergent evolution.


Ant mound holes prevent water from entering the nest during rain.In addition to defence against predators, ants need to protect their colonies from pathogens. Some worker ants maintain the hygiene of the colony and their activities include undertaking or necrophory, the disposal of dead nest-mates.[68] Oleic acid has been identified as the compound released by dead ants that triggers undertaking behaviour in Atta mexicana.[69]

Nests may be protected from physical threats such as flooding and over-heating by elaborate nest architecture.[70][71] Workers of Cataulacus muticus, an arboreal species that lives in plant hollows, respond to flooding by drinking water inside the nest, and excreting it outside.[72]


Learning
Many animals can learn behaviours by imitation but ants may be the only group apart from mammals where interactive teaching has been observed. A knowledgeable forager of Temnothorax albipennis leads a naive nest-mate to newly discovered food by the excruciatingly slow process of tandem running. The follower obtains knowledge through its leading tutor. Both leader and follower are acutely sensitive to the progress of their partner with the leader slowing down when the follower lags, and speeding up when the follower gets too close.[73]

Controlled experiments with colonies of Cerapachys biroi suggest that individuals may choose nest roles based on their previous experience. An entire generation of identical workers was divided into two groups whose outcome in food foraging was controlled. One group was continually rewarded with prey, while it was made certain that the other failed. As a result, members of the successful group intensified their foraging attempts while the unsuccessful group ventured out less and less. A month later, the successful foragers continued in their role while the others moved to specialise in brood care.[74]


Nest construction
Main article: Ant colony

Leaf nest of weaver ants, Pamalican, PhilippinesComplex nests are built by many ants, but other species are nomadic and do not build permanent structures. Ants may form subterranean nests or build them on trees. These nests can be found in the ground, under stones or logs, inside logs, hollow stems or even acorns. The materials used for construction include soil and plant matter,[48] and ants carefully select their nest sites; Temnothorax albipennis will avoid sites with dead ants, as these may indicate the presence of pests or disease. They are quick to abandon established nests at the first sign of threats.[75]

The army ants of South America and the driver ants of Africa do not build permanent nests, but instead alternate between nomadism and stages where the workers form a temporary nest (bivouac) from their own bodies, by holding each other together.[76]

Weaver ant (Oecophylla spp.) workers build nests in trees by attaching leaves together, first pulling them together with bridges of workers and then inducing their larvae to produce silk as they are moved along the leaf edges. Similar forms of nest construction are seen in some species of Polyrhachis.[77]


Food cultivation
Main article: Ant-fungus mutualism

Myrmecocystus (Honeypot) ants store food to prevent colony famine.Most ants are generalist predators, scavengers and indirect herbivores,[13] but a few have evolved specialised ways of obtaining nutrition. Leafcutter ants (Atta and Acromyrmex) feed exclusively on a fungus that grows only within their colonies. They continually collect leaves which are taken to the colony, cut into tiny pieces and placed in fungal gardens. Workers specialise in tasks according to their sizes. The largest ants cut stalks, smaller workers chew the leaves and the smallest tend the fungus. Leafcutter ants are sensitive enough to recognise the reaction of the fungus to different plant material, apparently detecting chemical signals from the fungus. If a particular type of leaf is toxic to the fungus the colony will no longer collect it. The ants feed on structures produced by the fungi called gongylidia. Symbiotic bacteria on the exterior surface of the ants produce antibiotics that kill bacteria that may harm the fungi.[78]


Navigation
Foraging ants travel distances of up to 200 metres (700 ft) from their nest[79] and usually find their way back using scent trails. Some ants forage at night. Day foraging ants in hot and arid regions face death by desiccation, so the ability to find the shortest route back to the nest reduces that risk. Diurnal desert ants (Cataglyphis fortis) use visual landmarks in combination with other cues to navigate.[80] In the absence of visual landmarks, the closely related Sahara desert ant (Cataglyphis bicolor) navigates by keeping track of direction as well as distance travelled, like an internal pedometer that counts how many steps they take in each direction. They integrate this information to find the shortest route back to their nest.[81] Several species of ants are able to use the Earth's magnetic field.[82] Ants' compound eyes have specialised cells that detect polarised light from the Sun, which is used to determine direction.[83][84] These polarization detectors are sensitive in the ultraviolet region of the light spectrum.[85]


Locomotion

Harpegnathos saltator, a jumping antWorker ants do not have wings and reproductive females lose their wings after their mating flights in order to begin their colonies. Therefore, unlike their wasp ancestors, most ants travel by walking. Some species are capable of leaping. For example, Jerdon's jumping ant (Harpegnathos saltator) is able to jump by synchronising the action of its mid and hind pairs of legs.[86] There are several species of gliding ant including Cephalotes atratus; this may be a common trait among most arboreal ants. Ants with this ability are able to control the direction of their descent while falling.[87]

Other species of ants can form chains to bridge gaps over water, underground, or through spaces in vegetation. Some species also form floating rafts that help them survive floods. These rafts may also have a role in allowing ants to colonise islands.[88] Polyrhachis sokolova, a species of ant found in Australian mangrove swamps, can swim and live in underwater nests. Since they lack gills, they breathe in trapped pockets of air in the submerged nests.[89]


Cooperation and competition

These meat eater ants are feeding on honey. Social ants cooperate and collectively gather food.Not all ants have the same kind of societies. The Australian bulldog ants are among the biggest and most basal (primitive) of ants. Like virtually all ants they are eusocial, but their social behaviour is poorly developed compared to other species. Each individual hunts alone, using its large eyes instead of its chemical senses to find prey.[90][91]

Some species (such as Tetramorium caespitum) attack and take over neighbouring ant colonies. Others are less expansionist but just as aggressive; they invade colonies to steal eggs or larvae, which they either eat or raise as workers/slaves. Extreme specialists among these slave-raiding ants, such as the Amazon ants, are incapable of feeding themselves and need captured workers to survive.[92] Captured workers of the enslaved species Temnothorax have evolved a counter strategy, destroying just the female pupae of the slave-making Protomognathus americanus, but sparing the males (who don't take part in slave-raiding as adults).[93]

Ants identify kin and nestmates through their scent, which comes from hydrocarbon-laced secretions that coat their exoskeletons. If an ant is separated from its original colony, it will eventually lose the colony scent. Any ant that enters a colony without a matching scent will be attacked.[94]

Parasitic ant species enter the colonies of host ants and establish themselves as social parasites; species like Strumigenys xenos are entirely parasitic and do not have workers, but instead rely on the food gathered by their Strumigenys perplexa hosts.[95][96] This form of parasitism is seen across many ant genera, but the parasitic ant is usually a species that is closely related to its host. A variety of methods are employed to enter the nest of the host ant. A parasitic queen can enter the host nest before the first brood has hatched, establishing herself prior to development of a colony scent. Other species use pheromones to confuse the host ants or to trick them into carrying the parasitic queen into the nest. Some simply fight their way into the nest.[97]

A conflict between the sexes of a species is seen in some species of ants with the reproductives apparently competing to produce offspring that are as closely related to them as possible. The most extreme form involves the production of clonal offspring. An extreme of sexual conflict is seen in Wasmannia auropunctata, where the queens produce diploid daughters by thelytokous parthenogenesis and males produce clones by a process where a diploid egg loses its maternal contribution to produce haploid males that are clones of the father.[98]


Relationships with other organisms

The spider Myrmarachne plataleoides (here a female) mimics weaver ants to avoid predators.Ants form symbiotic associations with a range of species, including other ant species, other insects, plants, and fungi. They are preyed on by many animals and even certain fungi. Some arthropod species spend part of their lives within ant nests, either preying on ants, their larvae and eggs, consuming the ants' food stores, or avoiding predators. These inquilines can bear a close resemblance to ants. The nature of this ant mimicry (myrmecomorphy) varies, with some cases involving Batesian mimicry, where the mimic reduces the risk of predation. Others show Wasmannian mimicry, a form of mimicry seen only in inquilines.[99][100]


An ant collects honeydew from an aphid.Aphids and other hemipteran insects secrete a sweet liquid called honeydew when they feed on plant sap. The sugars in honeydew are a high-energy food source, which many ant species collect.[101] In some cases the aphids secrete the honeydew in response to the ants' tapping them with their antennae. The ants in turn keep predators away and will move the aphids between feeding locations. On migrating to a new area, many colonies will take the aphids with them, to ensure a continued supply of honeydew. Ants also tend mealybugs to harvest their honeydew. Mealybugs can become a serious pest of pineapples if ants are present to protect mealybugs from their natural enemies.[102]

Myrmecophilous (ant-loving) caterpillars of the family Lycaenidae (e.g., blues, coppers, or hairstreaks) are herded by the ants, led to feeding areas in the daytime, and brought inside the ants' nest at night. The caterpillars have a gland which secretes honeydew when the ants massage them. Some caterpillars produce vibrations and sounds that are perceived by the ants.[103] Other caterpillars have evolved from ant-loving to ant-eating: these myrmecophagous caterpillars secrete a pheromone that makes the ants act as if the caterpillar is one of their own larvae. The caterpillar is then taken into the ants' nest where it feeds on the ant larvae.[104]

Fungus-growing ants that make up the tribe Attini, including leafcutter ants, cultivate certain species of fungus in the Leucoagaricus or Leucocoprinus genera of the Agaricaceae family. In this ant-fungus mutualism, both species depend on each other for survival. The ant Allomerus decemarticulatus has evolved a three-way association with the host plant Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae), and a sticky fungus which is used to trap their insect prey.[105]

Lemon ants make devil's gardens by killing surrounding plants with their stings and leaving a pure patch of lemon ant trees (Duroia hirsuta). This modification of the forest provides the ants with more nesting sites inside the stems of the Duroia trees.[106] Some trees have extrafloral nectaries that provide food for ants, which in turn protect the plant from herbivorous insects.[107] Species like the bullhorn acacia (Acacia cornigera) in Central America have hollow thorns that house colonies of stinging ants (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea) that defend the tree against insects, browsing mammals, and epiphytic vines. Isotopic labelling studies suggest that plants also obtain nitrogen from the symbiotic ants.[108] In return, the ants obtain food from protein-lipid Beltian bodies. Another example of this type of ectosymbiosis comes from the Macaranga tree, which has stems adapted to house colonies of Crematogaster ants.

Many tropical tree species have seeds that are dispersed by ants.[109] Seed dispersal by ants or myrmecochory is widespread particularly in Africa and Australia.[110] Some plants in fire-prone grassland systems are particularly dependent on ants for their survival and dispersal. Many ant-dispersed seeds have special external structures, elaiosomes, that are sought after by ants as food.[111] A convergence, possibly a form of mimicry, is seen in the eggs of stick insects. They have an edible elaiosome-like structure and are taken into the ant nest where the young hatch.[112]


A Meat ant tending a common leafhopper nymphAnts prey on and obtain food from a number of social insects including other ants. Some species specialise in preying on termites (Megaponera and Termitopone) while a few Cerapachyinae prey on other ants.[79] Some termites form associations with certain ant species to keep away other predatory ant species.[113] The tropical wasp Mischocyttarus drewseni coats the pedicel of its nest with an ant-repellant chemical.[114] It is suggested that many tropical wasps may build their nests in trees and cover them to protect themselves from ants. Stingless bees (Trigona and Melipona) use chemical defences against ants.[79]

Flies in the Old World genus Bengalia (Calliphoridae) prey on ants and are kleptoparasites, snatching prey or brood from the mandibles of adult ants.[115] Wingless and legless females of the Malaysian phorid fly (Vestigipoda myrmolarvoidea) live in the nests of ants of the genus Aenictus and are cared for by the ants.[115]

Fungi in the genera Cordyceps and Ophiocordyceps infect ants, causing them to climb up plants and sink their mandibles into plant tissue. The fungus kills the ant, grows on its remains, and produces a fruiting body. It appears that the fungus alters the behaviour of the ant to help disperse its spores[116] in a microhabitat that best suits the fungus.[117] Strepsipteran parasites also manipulate their ant host to climb grass stems, to help the parasite find mates.[118] A nematode (Myrmeconema neotropicum) that infects canopy ants (Cephalotes atratus) causes the black coloured gasters of workers to turn red. The parasite also alters the behaviour of the ant, and makes them carry their gasters high. The conspicuous red gasters are mistaken by birds for ripe fruits such as Hyeronima alchorneoides and eaten. The droppings of the bird are collected by other ants and fed to their young leading to the further spread of the nematode.[119]

South American poison dart frogs in the genus Dendrobates feed mainly on ants, and the toxins in their skin may come from the ants.[120] Several South American antbirds follow army ants to feed on the insects that are flushed from cover by the foraging ants.[121] This behaviour was once considered mutualistic, but later studies show that it is instead kleptoparasitic, with the birds stealing prey.[122] Birds indulge in a peculiar behaviour called anting that is as yet not fully understood. Here birds rest on ant nests, or pick and drop ants onto their wings and feathers; this may remove ectoparasites. Anteaters, pangolins and several marsupial species in Australia have special adaptations for living on a diet of ants. These adaptations include long, sticky tongues to capture ants and strong claws to break into ant nests. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) have been found to feed on ants, and about 12%, 16%, and 4% of their faecal volume in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, is composed of ants.[123]


Relationship with humans

Weaver ants are used as a biological control for citrus cultivation in southern China.Ants perform many ecological roles that are beneficial to humans, including the suppression of pest populations and aeration of the soil. The use of weaver ants in citrus cultivation in southern China is considered one of the oldest known applications of biological control.[9] On the other hand, ants can become nuisances when they invade buildings, or cause economic losses.

In some parts of the world (mainly Africa and South America), large ants, especially army ants, are used as surgical sutures. The wound is pressed together and ants are applied along it. The ant seizes the edges of the wound in its mandibles and locks in place. The body is then cut off and the head and mandibles remain in place to close the wound.[124][125][126]

Some ants of the family Ponerinae have toxic venom and are of medical importance. The species include Paraponera clavata (Tocandira) and Dinoponera spp. (false Tocandiras) of South America[127] and the Myrmecia ants of Australia.[128]

In South Africa, ants are used to help harvest rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), which are small seeds used to make a herbal tea. The plant disperses its seeds widely, making manual collection difficult. Black ants collect and store these and other seeds in their nest, where humans can gather them en masse. Up to half a pound (200 g) of seeds can be collected from one ant-heap.[129][130]


As food
Main article: Entomophagy

Ant larvae on sale in Isaan, ThailandAnts and their larvae are eaten in different parts of the world. The eggs of two species of ants are the basis for the dish in Mexico known as escamoles. They are considered a form of insect caviar and can sell for as much as USD 40 per pound (USD 90/kg) because they are seasonal and hard to find. In the Colombian department of Santander, hormigas culonas (roughly interpreted as "large-bottomed ants") Atta laevigata are toasted alive and eaten.[131]

In areas of India, and throughout Burma and Thailand, a paste of the green weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) is served as a condiment with curry.[132] Weaver ant eggs and larvae as well as the ants themselves may be used in a Thai salad, yum (??), in a dish called yum khai mod daeng (??????????) or red ant egg salad, a dish that comes from the Issan or north-eastern region of Thailand. Saville-Kent, in the Naturalist in Australia wrote "Beauty, in the case of the green ant, is more than skin-deep. Their attractive, almost sweetmeat-like translucency possibly invited the first essays at their consumption by the human species". Mashed up in water, after the manner of lemon squash, "these ants form a pleasant acid drink which is held in high favor by the natives of North Queensland, and is even appreciated by many European palates".[133]

In his First Summer in the Sierra, John Muir notes that the Digger Indians of California ate the tickly acid gasters of the large jet-black carpenter ants. The Mexican Indians eat the replete workers, or living honey-pots, of the honey ant (Myrmecocystus).[133]


As pests

The tiny pharaoh ant is a major pest in hospitals and office blocks; it can make nests between sheets of paper.Some ant species are considered pests,[10] and because of the adaptive nature of ant colonies, eliminating the entire colony is nearly impossible. Pest management is therefore a matter of controlling local populations, instead of eliminating an entire colony, and most attempts at control are temporary solutions.

Ants classified as pests include the pavement ant, yellow crazy ant, sugar ants, the Pharaoh ant, carpenter ants, Argentine ant, odorous house ants, red imported fire ant and European fire ant. Populations are controlled using insecticide baits, either in granule or liquid formulations. Bait is gathered by the ants as food and brought back to the nest where the poison is inadvertently spread to other colony members through trophallaxis. Boric acid and borax are often used as insecticides that are relatively safe for humans. Bait may be broadcast over a large area to control species like the red fire ant that occupy large areas. Nests of red fire ants may be destroyed by following the ants' trails back to the nest and then pouring boiling water into it to kill the queen. This works in about 60% of the mounds and requires about 14 litres (3 imp gal; 4 US gal) per mound.[134]


In science and technology
See also: Myrmecology, Biomimetics, and Ant colony optimisation
Myrmecologists study ants in the laboratory and in their natural conditions. Their complex and variable social structures have made ants ideal model organisms. Ultraviolet vision was first discovered in ants by Sir John Lubbok in 1881.[135] Studies on ants have tested hypotheses in ecology, sociobiology and have been particularly important in examining the predictions of theories of kin selection and evolutionarily stable strategies.[136] Ant colonies can be studied by rearing or temporarily maintaining them in formicaria, specially constructed glass framed enclosures.[137] Individuals may be tracked for study by marking them with colours.[138]

The successful techniques used by ant colonies have been studied in computer science and robotics to produce distributed and fault-tolerant systems for solving problems. This area of biomimetics has led to studies of ant locomotion, search engines that make use of "foraging trails", fault-tolerant storage and networking algorithms.[8]


In culture

Aesop's ants: picture by Milo Winter, 1888–1956Ants have often been used in fables and children's stories to represent industriousness and cooperative effort. They are also mentioned in religious texts.[139][140] In the Book of Proverbs in the Bible, ants are held up as a good example for humans for their hard work and cooperation. Aesop did the same in his fable The Ant and the Grasshopper. In the Quran, Sulayman(Arabic: ???????) is said to have heard and understood an ant warning other ants to return home to avoid being accidentally crushed by Sulayman and his marching army.[Qur'an 27:18][141] In parts of Africa, ants are considered to be the messengers of the gods. Ant bites are often said to have curative properties. The sting of some species of Pseudomyrmex is claimed to give fever relief.[142] Some Native American mythology, such as the Hopi mythology, considers ants as the very first animals. Others use ant bites in initiation ceremonies as a test of endurance.[143][144]

Ant society has always fascinated humans and has been written about both humorously and seriously. Mark Twain wrote about ants in his A Tramp Abroad.[145] Some modern authors have used the example of the ants to comment on the relationship between society and the individual. Examples are Robert Frost in his poem "Departmental" and T. H. White in his fantasy novel The Once and Future King. The plot in French entomologist and writer Bernard Werber's Les Fourmis science-fiction trilogy is divided between the worlds of ants and humans; ants and their behaviour is described using contemporary scientific knowledge. In more recent times, animated cartoons and 3D animated movies featuring ants have been produced include Antz, A Bug's Life, The Ant Bully, The Ant and the Aardvark, Atom Ant, and there is a comic book superhero called Ant-Man.

The Chinese character for ant (?/?) is a combination of logograms that may be interpreted as "insect (?) which behaves properly (?/?)".[146] The Japanese character for ant (?) also shares this etymology.[147]

From the late 1950s through the late 1970s, ant farms were popular educational children's toys in the United States. Later versions use transparent gel instead of soil allowing greater visibility.[148] In the early 1990s, the video game SimAnt, which simulated an ant colony, won the 1992 Codie award for "Best Simulation Program".[149]

Ants are also quite popular inspiration for many science-fiction creatures, such as the Formics of Ender's Game, the Bugs of Starship Troopers, the giant ants in the film Them!, and ants mutated into super intelligence in Phase IV. In strategy games, ant-based species often benefit from increased production rates due to their single-minded focus, such as the Klackons in the Master of Orion series of games or the ChCht in Deadlock II. These characters are often credited with a hive mind, a common misconception about ant colonies.[150]


See also
Ant stings
Task allocation and partitioning of social insects
International Union for the Study of Social Insects

Footnotes
^ Ward, Philip S (2007). "Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa 1668: 549–563. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01668p563.pdf.
^ a b Rabeling C, Brown JM & Verhaagh M (2008). "Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution". PNAS 105: 14913. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806187105. PMID 18794530.
^ Wade, Nicholas (15 July 2008). "Taking a Cue From Ants on Evolution of Humans". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/science/15wils.html. Retrieved on 15 July 2008.
^ "Hymenoptera name server. Formicidae species count.". Ohio State University. http://atbi.biosci.ohio-state....the_taxon=Formicidae (http://atbi.biosci.ohio-state.edu:210/hymenoptera/tsa.sppcount?the_taxon=Formicidae).
^ Oster GF, Wilson EO (1978). Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University

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08-08-2009, 04:36 AM
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Donald Duck
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Donald Duck

First appearance The Wise Little Hen (Silly Symphonies), 1934[1]
Created by **** Lundy
Voiced by Clarence Nash (1934–1985)
Tony Anselmo (1985–present)
Aliases Paperinik
Donald Duck is a cartoon character from The Walt Disney Company. Donald is a white anthropomorphic duck with a yellow-orange bill, legs, and feet. He usually wears a sailor shirt, cap, and a red or black bow tie, but no trousers (except when he goes swimming). Donald's most famous personality trait is his easily provoked and explosive temper.

According to the Disney canon, particularly in the 1942 short Donald Gets Drafted, Donald's full name is Donald Fauntleroy Duck. Donald's birthday is officially recognized as June 9, 1934,[2] the day his debut film, The Wise Little Hen, was released. However, in The Three Caballeros (1944), his birthday is given as simply "Friday the 13th", which is in reference to the bad luck he experiences in almost all his cartoon appearances. Donald's Happy Birthday (short) gives his birthday as March 13. Donald Duck is a well-known and very popular character especially in Scandinavian countries.

Donald's voice, one of the most identifiable voices in all of animation, was performed by voice actor Clarence "Ducky" Nash up to his death in 1985. It was largely this semi-intelligible speech that would cement Donald's image into audiences' minds and help fuel both Donald's and Nash's rise to stardom.[citation needed]In 1969, Disney On Parade which toured all over the United States and Canada, hired Ellard Davis as the live voice of Donald Duck. Mr. Davis did the voice for 3 years. Since 1985, Donald has been voiced by Tony Anselmo, who was trained by Nash for the role.[citation needed] Donald is a V.I.P. member of the Mickey Mouse Club.

Contents [hide]
1 Donald in animation
1.1 Early appearances
1.2 Wartime Donald
1.3 Post-war animation
2 Characterization
2.1 Personality
2.2 Rivalry with Mickey Mouse
3 Donald in comics
3.1 Early development
3.2 Developments under Taliaferro
3.3 Developments under Barks
3.4 Further developments
4 Donald Duck outside America
4.1 Scandinavia
4.2 Germany
5 Disney Theme Parks
6 Beyond Disney
7 Appearances
7.1 Cartoon shorts
7.2 Movies
7.3 Television series
7.4 Video games
7.5 Famous illustrators
8 Further reading
9 References
10 External links



[edit] Donald in animation

[edit] Early appearances
For more details on this topic, see Donald Duck filmography.

Donald Duck as he first appeared in The Wise Little HenAccording to Leonard Maltin in his introduction to The Chronological Donald - Volume 1, Donald was created by Walt Disney when he heard Clarence Nash doing his "duck" voice while reciting "Mary had a little lamb". Mickey Mouse had lost some of his edge since becoming a role model for children and Disney wanted a character that could portray some of the more negative character traits he could no longer bestow on Mickey.

Donald Duck first appeared in the Silly Symphonies cartoon The Wise Little Hen on June 9, 1934 (though he is mentioned in a 1931 Disney storybook). Donald's appearance in the cartoon, as created by animator **** Lundy, is similar to his modern look—the feather and beak colors are the same, as is the blue sailor shirt and hat—but his features are more elongated, his body plumper, and his feet bigger. Donald's personality is not developed either; in the short, he only fills the role of the unhelpful friend from the original story.

Bert Gilett, director of The Wise Little Hen, brought Donald back in his Mickey Mouse cartoon, Orphan's Benefit on August 11, 1934. Donald is one of a number of characters who are giving performances in a benefit for Mickey's Orphans. Donald's act is to recite the poems Mary Had a Little Lamb and Little Boy Blue, but every time he tries, the mischievous orphans eat his specially made pie, leading the duck to fly into a squawking fit of anger. This explosive personality would remain with Donald for decades to come.

Donald continued to be a hit with audiences. The character began appearing in most Mickey Mouse cartoons as a regular member of the ensemble with Mickey, Minnie, Goofy, and Pluto. Cartoons from this period, such as the 1935 cartoon The Band Concert—in which Donald repeatedly disrupts the Mickey Mouse Orchestra's rendition of The William Tell Overture by playing Turkey in the Straw—are regularly hailed by critics as exemplary films and classics of animation. Animator Ben Sharpsteen also minted the classic Mickey, Donald, and Goofy comedy in 1935, with the cartoon Mickey's Service Station.

In 1936, Donald was redesigned to be a bit fuller, rounder, and cuter. He also began starring in solo cartoons, the first of which was the January 9, 1937 Ben Sharpsteen cartoon, Don Donald. This short also introduced a love interest of Donald's, Donna Duck[3]. Donald's nephews, Huey, Dewey and Louie, would make their first animated appearance a year later in the April 15, 1938 film, Donald's Nephews, directed by Jack King (they had been earlier introduced in the Donald Duck comic strip by Al Taliaferro, see below). By 1938, at most, polls showed that Donald was more popular than Mickey Mouse.[4] Disney could, however, help Mickey regain popularity by redesigning giving him his most appealing design as production for the Fantasia segment The Sorcerer's Apprentice began in 1938.[5]


[edit] Wartime Donald
During World War II, film audiences were looking for brasher, edgier cartoon characters. It is no coincidence that the same era that saw the birth and rise of Bugs Bunny also saw Donald Duck's popularity soar. Before 1941, Donald Duck had appeared in about 50 cartoons. Between 1941 and 1965, Donald would star in over 100.


Donald in Der Fuehrer's FaceSeveral of Donald's shorts during the war were propaganda films, most notably Der Fuehrer's Face, released on January 1, 1943. In it, Donald plays a worker in an artillery factory in "Nutzi Land" (Nazi Germany). He struggles with long working hours, very small food rations, and having to salute every time he sees a picture of the Führer (Adolf Hitler). These pictures appear in many places, such as on the assembly line in which he is screwing in the detonators of various sizes of shells. In the end he becomes little more than a small part in a faceless machine with no choice but to obey until he falls, suffering a nervous breakdown. Then Donald wakes up to find that his experience was in fact a nightmare. At the end of the short Donald looks to the Statue of Liberty and the American flag with renewed appreciation. Der Fuehrer's Face won the 1942 Academy Award for Animated Short Film. Other notable shorts from this period include the Army shorts, seven films that follow Donald's life in the US Army from his drafting to his life in basic training under sergeant Pete to his first actual mission as a commando having to sabotage a Japanese air base. Titles in the series include:

Donald Gets Drafted - (May 1, 1942).
The Vanishing Private - (September 25, 1942).
Sky Trooper - (November 8, 1942).
Fall Out Fall In - (April 23, 1943).
The Old Army Game - (November 5, 1943).
Home Defense - (November 26, 1943).
Commando Duck - (June 2, 1944).
Donald Gets Drafted also featured Donald having a physical examination before joining the army. According to it Donald has flat feet and is unable to distinguish between the colors green and blue, which is a type of color blindness. Also in this cartoon sergeant Pete comments on Donald's lack of discipline.

It is also noteworthy that thanks to these films, Donald graced the nose artwork of virtually every type of WWII Allied combat aircraft, from the L-4 Grasshopper to the B-29 Superfortress.

Donald also appears as a mascot—such as in the Army Air Corps 309th Fighter Squadron[6] and the U.S Coast Guard Auxiliary, which showed Donald as a fierce-looking pirate ready to defend the American coast from invaders.[7] Donald also appeared as a mascot emblem for: 415th Fighter Squadron; 438th Fighter Squadron; 479th Bombardment Squadron; 531th Bombardment Squadron.

During World War II, Disney cartoons were not allowed to be imported into Occupied Europe. Since this cost Disney a lot of money, he decided to create a new audience for his films in South America. He decided to make a trip through various Latin American countries with his assistants, and use their experiences and impressions to create two feature length animation films. The first was Saludos Amigos, which consisted of four short segments, two of them with Donald Duck. In the second, he meets his parrot pal Jose Carioca. The second film was The Three Caballeros, in which he meets his rooster friend Panchito.


[edit] Post-war animation
Many of Donald's films made after the war recast the duck as the brunt of some other character's pestering. Donald is repeatedly attacked, harassed, and ridiculed by his nephews, by the chipmunks Chip 'n Dale, or by other one-shot characters such as Humphrey the Bear, Spike the Bee, Bootle Beetle, the Aracuan Bird, Louie the Mountain Lion or a colony of ants. In effect, the Disney artists had reversed the classic screwball scenario perfected by Walter Lantz and others in which the main character is the instigator of these harassing behaviors, rather than the butt of them.

The post-war Donald also starred in educational films, such as Donald in Mathmagic Land and How to have an Accident at Work (both 1959), and made cameos in various Disney projects, such as The Reluctant Dragon (1941) and the Disneyland television show (1959). For this latter show, Donald's uncle Ludwig von Drake was created in 1961.

Clarence Nash voiced Donald for the last time in Mickey's Christmas Carol (1983), making Donald the only character in the film to be voiced by his original actor. Since Nash's death in 1985, Donald's voice has been provided by Tony Anselmo, who was mentored by Nash. Anselmo's voice is heard for the first time in Who Framed Roger Rabbit. In this movie, Donald has a piano duel scene with the Warner Brothers duck Daffy Duck.

Donald has since appeared in a lot of different television shows and (short) animated movies. He played roles in Mickey's Christmas Carol and The Prince and the Pauper and made a cameo appearance in A Goofy Movie.

Donald had a rather small part in the animated television series DuckTales. There, Donald joins the Navy, and leaves his nephews Huey, Dewey and Louie with their Uncle Scrooge, who then has to take care of them. Donald's role in the overall series was fairly limited, as he only ended up appearing in a handful of episodes. Some of the stories in the series were loosely based on the comics by Carl Barks.

Donald made some cameo appearances in Bonkers, before getting his own television show Quack Pack. This series featured a modernized Duck family. Donald was no longer wearing his sailor suit and hat, but a Hawaiian shirt. Huey, Dewey and Louie now are teenagers, with distinct clothing, voices and personalities. Daisy Duck has lost her pink dress and bow and has a new hairdo. Oddly enough, no other family members, besides Ludwig von Drake, appear in 'Quack Pack', and all other Duckburg citizens are humans, and not dogs.

He made a comeback as the star of the Noah's Ark segment of Fantasia 2000, as first mate to Noah. Donald musters the animals to the Ark and attempts to control them. He tragically believes that Daisy has been lost, while she believes the same of him, but they are reunited at the end. All this to Edward Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance Marches 1o4.

In an alternate opening for the 2005 Disney film Chicken Little, Donald would have made a cameo appearance as "Ducky Lucky". This scene can be found on the Chicken Little DVD.

Donald also played an important role in Mickey Mouse Works and House of Mouse. In the latter show, he is the co-owner of Mickey's night club.


[edit] Characterization

[edit] Personality
Donald's dominant personality trait is his short temper and, in contrast, his positive look on life. Many Donald shorts starts with Donald in a happy mood, without a care in the world, until something comes and spoils his day. His anger is a great cause of suffering in the duck's life, and he has on multiple occasions got in over his head and lost competitions because of it. There are times when he fights to keep his temper, and he has succeeded a few times, but he always returns to his well known, aggressive self at the end of the day. Donald's aggressive nature is a double-edged sword however, and while it at times is a hindrance and even a handicap for him, it has also helped him in times of need. When faced against a threat of some kind, Donald may get frightened and even intimidated (mostly by Big Bad Pete), but rather than getting scarred, he gets mad and has taken up fights with ghosts, sharks, mountain goats and even the forces of nature. And, more often than never, Donald has come out on top.

Donald can at times be a bit of a bully and a tease, especially against his nephews and Chip and Dale. As animator Fred Spencer once wrote:

The Duck gets a big kick out of imposing on other people or annoying them, but he immediately loses his temper when the tables are turned. In other words, he can dish it out, but he can’t take it.

[8]

However, there is seldom any malice in Donald's pranks. He’s never out to hurt anyone, and if he ever goes to far in his pranks he is always very regretful. In Truant Officer Donald, for example, when he’s tricked into believing he accidentally killed Huey, Dewey and Louie he shows great remorse, blaming himself and willingly takes a kick handed out by one of the “angel” nephews. That is, of course, until he realizes he’s been played a sap and directly loses his temper.

Deep down Donald is a goodhearted and helpful person, always willing to lend a helping hand. He cares deeply for those around him and if anyone else than him threats his near and dear he’s there to defend them no matter what. And even though he can be a teaser at times, in many cases, he’s not the one starting the fights he gets in, but rather a victim of circumstances. Thanks to this Donald can be, like his Uncle Scrooge, both a hero or a villain depending on the story.

Donald has also been shown to be a bit of a show-off. He likes to brag, especially when he’s very skilled at something. This has a tendency to get him into trouble, however, as he also tends to get in over his head. Still, Donald has proven that he is a Jack of all Trades and are, among other things, a good fisher and hockeyplayer.

Last, but not least, among his personality trates is his stubbornness and commitment. Even though Donald at times can be lazy, and he has stated many times that his favorite place is in the hammock, once he’s committed to something he goes in for it 100%, sometimes going to extreme measures to reach his goal. Cause even though Donald isn’t the most lucky character there is, in fact, he has a tendency to “get stuck with all the bad luck”, he never gives up and if someone knocks him down, he always gets right up again.


[edit] Rivalry with Mickey Mouse
Through out his career Donald has shown that he's jealous of Mickey and wants his job as Disney's greatest star. In the early Disney shorts Mickey and Donald were partners, but by the time The Mickey Mouse Club aired on television, it was shown that Donald always wanted the spotlight. One animated short that rivaled the famous Mickey Mouse song was showing Huey, Dewey, and Louie as Boy Scouts and Donald as their Scoutmaster at a cliff near a remote forest and Donald leads them in a song mirroring the Mouseketeers theme "D-O-N-A-L-D D-U-C-K-! Donald Duck!" The rivalry would cause Donald some problems, in a 1988 TV special where Mickey is cursed by a sorcerer to become unnoticed, the world believes Mickey to be kidnapped. Donald Duck is then arrested for the kidnapping of Mickey, as he is considered to be the chief suspect due to their rivalry. However, Donald did later get the charges dismissed due to lack of evidence. Walt Disney, in his Wonderful World of Color, would sometimes make reference to the rivalry. Walt one time had presented Donald with a gigantic birthday cake and commented how it was "even bigger than Mickey's", which pleased Donald. The clip was rebroadcast in November 1984 during a TV special honoring Donald's 50th birthday.

The rivalry between Mickey and Donald has also been shown in Disney's House of Mouse. It was shown that Donald wanted to be the Club's founder and wanted to change the name from House of Mouse to House of Duck. However, in later episodes Donald accepted that Mickey was the founder and worked with Mickey as a partner to make the club profitable.

Mickey Mouse has failed to realize how much Donald does not like him at times, and always counts him as one of his best friends. Despite the rivalry, Donald seems to be an honest friend of Mickey's, and will be faithful to him in tough situations, such as working with Mickey and Goofy as a team akin to the Three Musketeers. In the Kingdom Hearts games, Donald is quite loyal to Mickey, even briefly leaving Sora to follow King Mickey's orders.

The rivalry between Mickey and Donald is not unlike that of Warner Bros. characters Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck, and many animation fans have commented on the parallels present among the four characters.


[edit] Donald in comics
Main article: Donald Duck in comics
While Donald's cartoons enjoy vast popularity in the United States and around the world, his weekly and monthly comic books enjoy their greatest popularity in many European countries, especially Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland, but also Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Greece, and Sweden. Most of them are produced and published by the Italian branch of the Walt Disney Company in Italy and by Egmont in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. In Germany, the comics are published by Ehapa which has since become part of the Egmont empire. Donald-comics are also being produced in The Netherlands and France. Donald also has been appeared in Japanese comics published by Kodansha and Tokyopop.

According to the INDUCKS, which is a database about Disney comics worldwide, American, Italian and Danish stories have been reprinted in the following countries. In most of them, publications still continue: Australia, Austria, Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark (Faroe Islands), Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guyana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the former Yugoslavia.


[edit] Early development
Though a 1931 Disney publication called Mickey Mouse Annual mentioned a character named Donald Duck, the character's first appearance in comic-strip format was a newspaper cartoon that was based on the short The Wise Little Hen and published in 1934. For the next few years, Donald made a few more appearances in Disney-themed strips, and by 1936, he had grown to be one of the most popular characters in the Silly Symphonies comic strip. Ted Osborne was the primary writer of these strips, with Al Taliaferro as his artist. Osborne and Taliaferro also introduced several members of Donald's supporting cast, including his nephews, Huey, Dewey, and Louie.

In 1937, an Italian publisher named Mondadori created the first Donald Duck story intended specifically for comic books. The eighteen-page story, written by Federico Pedrocchi, is the first to feature Donald as an adventurer rather than simply a comedic character. Fleetway in England also began publishing comic-book stories featuring the duck.


[edit] Developments under Taliaferro
A daily Donald Duck comic strip drawn by Taliaferro and written by Bob Karp began running in the United States on February 2, 1938; the Sunday strip began the following year. Taliaferro and Karp created an even larger cast of characters for Donald's world. He got a new St. Bernard named Bolivar, and his family grew to include cousin Gus Goose and grandmother Elvira Coot. Donald's new rival girlfriends were Donna and Daisy Duck. Taliaferro also gave Donald his very own automobile, a 1934 Belchfire Runabout, in a 1938 story.


[edit] Developments under Barks

Carl Barks (1994)In 1942, Western Publishing began creating original comic-book stories about Donald and other Disney characters. Bob Karp worked on the earliest of these, a story called "Donald Duck Finds Pirate Gold". The new publisher meant new illustrators, however: Carl Barks and Jack Hannah. Barks would later repeat the treasure-hunting theme in many more stories.

Barks soon took over the major development of the comic-book version of the duck as both writer and illustrator. Under his pen, the comic version of Donald diverged even further from his animated counterpart, becoming more adventurous, less temperamental, and more eloquent. Black Pete was the only other major character from the Mickey Mouse comic strip to feature in Barks' new Donald Duck universe.

Barks placed Donald in the city of Duckburg, which he populated with a host of supporting players, including Gladstone Gander (1948), Gyro Gearloose (1952), Uncle Scrooge McDuck (1947), Magica de Spell (1961), Flintheart Glomgold (1956), the Beagle Boys (1951), April, May and June (1953), Neighbour Jones (1944) and John D. Rockerduck (1961). Many of Taliaferro's characters made the move to Barks' world as well, including Huey, Dewey, and Louie. Barks placed Donald in both domestic and adventure scenarios, and Uncle Scrooge became one of his favorite characters to pair up with Donald. Scrooge's popularity grew, and by 1952, the character had a comic book of his own. At this point, Barks concentrated his major efforts on the Scrooge stories, and Donald's appearances became more focused on comedy or he was recast as Scrooge's reluctant helper, following his rich uncle around the globe.


[edit] Further developments

A picture of several packaged products displaying pictures of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck dressed in traditional Japanese attire.Dozens of writers continued to utilize Donald in their stories around the world.

For example the Disney Studio artists, who made comics directly for the European market. Two of them, **** Kinney (1917–1985) and Al Hubbard (1915–1984) created Donald's cousin Fethry Duck.

The American artists Vic Lockman and Tony Strobl (1915–1991), who were working directly for the American comic books, created Moby Duck. Strobl was one of the most productive Disney artists of all time, and drew a lot of stories which Barks wrote after his retirement. In the 1990s, these scripts were re-drawn by Dutch artist Daan Jippes.

Italian publisher Mondadori created many of the stories that were published throughout Europe. They also introduced numerous new characters who are today well known in Europe. One example is Donald Duck's alter-ego, a superhero called Paperinik in Italian, created by Guido Martina (1906–1991) and Giovan Battista Carpi (1927–1991).

Giorgio Cav***ano and Carlo Chendi created Honkey Go-Kart (Umperio Bogarto in Italian), a detective whose name is an obvious parody on Humphrey Bogart. They also created O.K Quack, an extraterrestrial Duck who landed on earth in a spaceship in the shape of a coin. He however lost his spaceship, and befriended Scrooge, and now is allowed to search through his moneybin time after time, looking for his ship.

Romano Scarpa (1927–2005), who was a very important and influential Italian Disney artist, created Brigitta McBridge, a female Duck who is madly in love with Scrooge. Her affections are never answered by him, though, but she keeps trying. Scarpa also came up with ****ie Duck, the granddaughter of Glittering Goldie (Scrooge's possible love-interest from his days in the Klondike) and Kildare Coot, a nephew of Grandma Duck.

Italian artist Corrado Mastantuono created *** *** Ghigno, a cynical, grumpy and not too good looking Duck who teams up with Donald and Gyro a lot.

The American artist William van Horn also introduced a new character: Rumpus McFowl, an old and rather corpulent Duck with a giant appetite and laziness, who is first said to be a cousin of Scrooge. Only later, Scrooge reveals to his nephews Rumpus is actually his half-brother. Later, Rumpus also finds out.

Working for the Danish editor Egmont, artist Daniel Branca (1951–2005) and script-writers Paul Halas and Charlie Martin created Sonny Seagull, an orphan who befriends Huey, Dewey and Louie, and his rival, Mr. Phelps.

The most productive Duck-artist today is Victor Arriagada Rios, who is better known under the name Vicar. He has his own studio where he and his assistants draw the stories sent in by Egmont. Vicar created the character Oono, a prehistoric princess who traveled to Duckburg in the 1990s by using Gyro's time-machine.

The best-known and most popular Duck-artist of this time is Keno Don Rosa. He started doing Disney comics in 1987 for the American publisher Gladstone. He later worked briefly for the Dutch editors, but moved to work directly for Egmont soon afterwards. He created a lot of sequels to Barks' stories, and even a 12-part series of stories about the life of Scrooge McDuck, which won him two Eisner awards. Not all Barks-fans are happy with his work, though, and some claim he's destroying Barks' carefully built world.

Other important artists who have worked with Donald are Freddy Milton and Daan Jippes, who made 18 ten-pagers which experts claim are as good as Barks' work.

Japanese artist Shiro Amano worked with Donald on the graphic novel Kingdom Hearts based on the Disney-Squaresoft videogame.


[edit] Donald Duck outside America
Donald Duck has a worldwide presence, wherever Disney characters can be found, but in some countries he is very popular and takes on a unique character.


[edit] Scandinavia
Donald Duck (Kalle Anka in Sweden, Aku Ankka in Finland, Anders And in Denmark, Andrés Önd in Iceland and Donald Duck in Norway) is a very popular character in Scandinavian countries. In the mid-1930s, Robert S. Hartman, a German who served as a representative of Walt Disney, visited Sweden to supervise the merchandise distribution of Sagokonst (The Art of Fables). Hartman found a studio called L'Ateljé Dekoratör, which produced illustrated cards that were published by Sagokonst. Since the Disney characters on the cards appeared to be exactly 'on-model', Hartman asked the studio to create a local version of the English-language Mickey Mouse Weekly. In 1937 L'Ateljé Dekoratör began publishing Musse Pigg Tidningen (Mickey Mouse Magazine), which had high production values and spanned 23 issues; most of the magazine's content came from local producers, while some material consisted of reprints from Mickey Mouse Weekly. The comic anthology ended in 1938. Hartman helped Disney establish offices in all Scandinavian countries before he left Disney in 1941. Donald became the most popular of the Disney characters in Scandinavia. Kalle Anka & Co, Donald's first dedicated Swedish anthology, started in September 1948. In 2001 the Finnish Post Office issued a stamp set to commemorate the 50th year anniversary of Donald's presence in Finland. By 2005 around one out of every four Norwegians read the Norwegian edition Donald Duck & Co. per week, translating to around 1.3 million regular readers. During the same year, every week 434,000 Swedes read Kalle Anka & Co. By 2005 in Finland the Donald Duck anthology Aku Ankka sold 270,000 copies per issue. Tim Pilcher and Brad Books, authors of The Essential Guide to World Comics, described the Donald anthologies as "the Scandinavian equivalent of the UK's Beano or Dandy, a comic that generations have grown up with, from grandparents to grandchildren."[9]

Hannu Raittila, an author, says that Finnish people recognize an aspect of themselves in Donald; Raittila cites that Donald attempts to retrieve himself from "all manner of unexpected and unreasonable scrapes using only his wits and the slim resources he can put his hands on, all of which meshes nicely with the popular image of Finland as driftwood in the crosscurrents of world politics." Scandinavian voters placing "protest votes" typically write "Donald Duck" as the candidate.[10]


[edit] Germany
Donald Duck is very popular in Germany, where Donald themed comics sell an average of 250,000 copies each week, mostly published in the kids’ weekly Micky Maus and the monthly Donald Duck Special (for adults).[11] The Wall Street Journal called Donald Duck "The Jerry Lewis of Germany", a reference to American star Jerry Lewis's popularity in France.[11] Donald's dialogue in German tends to be more sophisticated and philosophical, he "quotes from German literature, speaks in grammatically complex sentences and is prone to philosophical musings, while the stories often take a more political tone than their American counterparts."[11] Christian Pfeiler - president of D.O.N.A.L.D., a German acronym which stands for "German Organization for Non-commercial Followers of Pure Donaldism" - says Donald is popular in Germany because "almost everyone can identify with him. He has strengths and weaknesses, he lacks polish but is also very cultured and well-read."[11] It is through this everyman persona that Donald is able to voice philosophical truths about Germany society that appeal to both children and adults.[11]


[edit] Disney Theme Parks

Steve Martin and Donald Duck in Disneyland: The First 50 Magical YearsDonald Duck has played a major role in many Disney theme parks over the years. He has actually been seen in more attractions and shows at the parks than Mickey Mouse has. He has appeared over the years in such attractions as Mickey Mouse Revue, Mickey's PhilharMagic, Disneyland: The First 50 Magical Years, Gran Fiesta Tour Starring the Three Caballeros and the updated version of It's a Small World. He also is seen in the parks as a meet-and-greet character.

One long-ago-scrapped idea was also to have a ***per boat ride themed to Donald Duck.


[edit] Beyond Disney

The University of Oregon uses Donald as its Fighting Duck mascotDonald is the only popular film and television cartoon character to appear as a mascot for a major American university: a licensing agreement between Disney and the University of Oregon allows the school's sports teams to use Donald's image as its "Fighting Duck" mascot. In 1984, Donald Duck was named an honorary alumnus of the University of Oregon during his 50th birthday celebration. During a visit to the Eugene Airport, 3,000 to 4,000 fans gathered for the presentation of an academic cap and gown to Donald. Thousands of area residents signed a congratulatory scroll for Donald, and that document is now part of Disney's corporate archives.
In the 1940s, Donald was adopted as an unofficial mascot by Brazilian sports club Botafogo after argentinian cartoonist Lorenzo Mollas, who was working in Brazil at the time, drew him with the club's soccer uniform. Mollas chose Donald because he complains and fights for his rights, like the club's managers at those years, and also because, being a duck, he doesn't lose his ellegance while moving in the water (an allusion to rowing).
Donald's name and image are used on numerous commercial products, one example being Donald Duck brand orange juice, introduced by Citrus World in 1940.
In the 1950s, an early Mad Magazine parody of Mickey Mouse (called "Mickey Rodent", written by "Walt Dizzy") featured "Darnold Duck", whose quacky voice had to be "translated" for the readers, and who was shamed into finally wearing pants.
Although Donald's military service has most been recognized as him in the US Army from his wartime cartoons (and to a lesser extent having Donald in the US Navy from Duck Tales), Walt Disney had authorized Donald to be used as a mascot for the US Coast Guard. The Coast Guard image shows a fierce-looking Donald Duck dressed in a pirate's outfit, appearing vigilant against any potential threats to the coastal regions in the United States. This image is still often used on many Coast Guard bases and Coast Guard cutters today.
In Sweden, a comic book artist named Charlie Christensen got into a legal dispute with Disney when his creation Arne Anka looked similar to Donald Duck (albeit Arne is a pessimistic drunkard). However Charlie made a mockery of the legal action, and staged a fake death for his character, who then had plastic surgery performed and reappeared as Arne X with a more crow-like beak. He later purchased a strap-on duck beak from a novelty gift shop, pointing out that "If Disney are planning to give me any legal action all I have to do is remove my fake beak."
In 1991, the Disney Corporation sued the Israeli caricaturist Dudu Geva for copyright infringement, claiming his character "Donald Dach" in the story "Moby Duck" was a ripoff of Donald.[12] The Courts found in their favor and forced Geva to pay for the legal expenses and remove his book from the shelves. More mildly, the character Howard The Duck's original design was modified to include pants allegedly due to pressure from Disney.
In 2005, Donald received his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6840 Hollywood Blvd[13] joining other fictional characters such as Mickey Mouse, Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Woody Wood******, The Simpsons, Winnie the Pooh, Kermit the Frog, Big Bird, Godzilla and Snow White.
Donald's fame has led Disney to license the character for a number of video games, such as the Kingdom Hearts series, where Donald is the court magician of Disney Castle. He accompanies Goofy and a young boy named Sora on a quest to rescue King Mickey Mouse and defeat the Heartless. He is voiced by Tony Anselmo in the English version and K?ichi Yamadera in the Japanese version.

[edit] Appearances

[edit] Cartoon shorts
see Donald Duck filmography

[edit] Movies
The Reluctant Dragon (1941)
Saludos Amigos (1942)
The Three Caballeros (1944)
Fun and Fancy Free (1947)
Melody Time (1948)
Mickey's Christmas Carol (1983)
Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988)
Mickey's 60th Birthday (1988)
The Prince and the Pauper (1990)
A Goofy Movie (1995)
Fantasia 2000 (1999)
Mickey's Once Upon a Christmas (1999)
Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse (2001)
Mickey's House of Villains (2002)
Mickey's PhilharMagic (2003)
Mickey's Twice Upon a Christmas (2004)
Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers (2004)
The Lion King 1½ (2004)

[edit] Television series
DuckTales (1987–1990) (recurring guest)
Donald Duck Presents (compilation of classic Disney shorts)
Donald's Quack Attack (compilation of classic Disney shorts)
Bonkers (1993–1995) (cameo)
Quack Pack (1996–1997)
Mickey Mouse Works (1999–2000)
House of Mouse (2001–2003)
Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006)

[edit] Video games
Donald Duck
Donald Duck's Playground (1984)
Donald's Alphabet Chase (1988)
Quackshot (1991)
The Lucky Dime Caper starring Donald Duck (1991)
World of Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck (1992)
Deep Duck Trouble Starring Donald Duck (1993)
Disney's Magical Quest 3 Starring Mickey and Donald (1995), (2005)
Maui Mallard in Cold Shadow (1996)
Disney's Donald Duck: Goin' Quackers (2000)
Mickey's Speedway USA (2000)
Disney Golf (2002)
Disney's PK: Out of the Shadows (2002)
Kingdom Hearts (2002)
Kingdom Hearts Final Mix (2002)
Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories (2004)
Kingdom Hearts II (2006)
Kingdom Hearts II Final Mix+ (2007)
Disney TH!NK Fast: The Ultimate Trivia Showdown (2008)
Kingdom Hearts coded (2008, 2009)
Kingdom Hearts Birth by Sleep (TBA 2009)
Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days (2009)

[edit] Famous illustrators
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2009)

Carl Barks
Luciano Bottaro
Giovan Battista Carpi
Giorgio Cav***ano
William Van Horn
Daan Jippes
Don Rosa
Marco Rota
Romano Scarpa
Tony Strobl
Al Taliaferro
Vicar
Tetsuya Nomura
Shiro Amano
Naci Ta?dö?en

[edit] Further reading
Ariel Dorfman, Armand Mattelart, David Kunzle (trans.), How to Read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic ISBN 0-88477-023-0 (Marxist Critique)
Walt Disney Productions, Walt Disney's Donald Duck: 50 Years of Happy Frustration, Courage Books, May 1990 ISBN 978-0894715303.

[edit] References
^ "Donald Duck". Disney Archives. Disney. http://disney.go.com/vault/arc...d/donald/donald.html (http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/characterstandard/donald/donald.html). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
^ "When is Donald Duck's birthday? When did he debut?". Guest Services. Disney. http://home.disney.go.com/gues...qs#history_archives9 (http://home.disney.go.com/guestservices/faqs#history_archives9). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
^ Although the Walt Disney Company claimed Donna Duck to be the same character as Donald's long-time love interest Daisy Duck, this is not so in Karp/Taliaferro comics (1951), where she is a separate character, appearing together with Daisy in a couple of daily newspaper strips. Early illustrations of Daisy also show a clear distinction between the two, Donna having Mexican accent, contrary to Daisy.
^ http://www.bcdb.com/bcdb/cartoon.cgi?film=15&m=r
^ The Golden Age of Mickey Mouse
^ "309th Fighter Squadron". 31st Fighter Group. http://www.31stfightergroup.co...e/history/309th.html (http://www.31stfightergroup.com/31stReference/history/309th.html). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
^ Noble, Dennis L. (2001-06). "The Corsair Fleet". The Beach Patrol and Corsair Fleet. Coast Guard. http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/hi...y/h_beachpatrol.html (http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/history/h_beachpatrol.html). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
^ The Chronological Donald Volume One
^ Pilcher, Tim and Brad Brooks. (Foreword: Dave Gibbons). The Essential Guide to World Comics. Collins and Brown. 2005. 244.
^ Kallionpää, Katri. "Donald Duck holds his own in the north." Helsingin Sanomat. March 7, 2007. Retrieved on March 4, 2009.
^ a b c d e "Why Donald Duck Is the Jerry Lewis of Germany", Susan Bernofsky, Wall Street Journal, May 23 2009
^ Becher, Nir. "The Duck". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/p...ContrassID=14&title= (http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArtStEngPE.jhtml?itemNo=710399&contrassID=2&subContrassID=14&title=)'The%20Duck'. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
^ "Donald Duck". Hollywood Icons. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. http://www.tibp.com/cgi-bin/fo...xdirectory?cc=WOFAME (http://www.tibp.com/cgi-bin/foxweb.dll/wlx/dir/wlxdirectory?cc=WOFAME). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Donald Duck
Donald Duck at the INDUCKS
Donald Duck's family tree
Toonopedia: Donald Duck
Donald Duck shorts anthology
Aku Ankka (Finnish)
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Mickey Mouse universe Mickey Mouse · Minnie Mouse · Oswald the Lucky Rabbit · Goofy · Pluto · Pete · Clarabelle Cow · Horace Horsecollar · Clara Cluck · Chip 'n Dale · Mortimer Mouse · Max Goof · PJ · Morty and Ferdie Fieldmouse · Eli Squinch · The Phantom Blot · Sylvester Shyster · Chief O'Hara · Detective Casey · Eega Beeva · Dinah the Dachshund · Butch the Bulldog · Fifi the Peke · Figaro the Kitten

Donald Duck universe Donald Duck · Daisy Duck · Scrooge McDuck · Huey, Dewey, and Louie · Ludwig Von Drake · Beagle Boys · Humphrey the Bear • Gladstone Gander · Gyro Gearloose · Grandma Duck · Gus Goose · Goldie O'Gilt · Flintheart Glomgold · Darkwing Duck · Launchpad McQuack · Magica De Spell · April, May and June · Webby Vanderquack · Bentina Beakley · Fenton Crackshell · Brigitta MacBridge · Fethry Duck · José Carioca · Panchito Pistoles · Peter Pig · Madam Mim · J. Audubon Woodlore

[show]v • d • eDisney's DuckTales

Characters Main characters: Scrooge McDuck · Huey, Dewey, and Louie · Launchpad McQuack · Webby Vanderquack · Mrs. Beakley · Duckworth · Gyro Gearloose · Doofus · Bubba · Fenton Crackshell/GizmoDuck
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Minor characters: Donald Duck · Mrs. Featherby · Goldie O'Gilt · Gandra Dee · Little Helper · Gladstone Gander · Ludwig Von Drake

Misc Duckburg · Calisota · Money Bin · Scrooge's Number One Dime · The Junior Woodchucks(Guidebook)

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See also Scrooge McDuck universe · Carl Barks · Darkwing Duck · Quack Pack · The Disney Afternoon

[show]v • d • eWalt Disney Consumer Products

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Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Duck"
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Mickey Mouse
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Mickey Mouse

First appearance Plane Crazy (May 15, 1928)
Created by Walt Disney
Ub Iwerks
Voiced by Walt Disney
(1928–1947)
Jimmy MacDonald (1947–1977)
Wayne Allwine (1977-2009)
Mickey Mouse is a comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. Mickey Mouse was created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks[1] and voiced by Walt Disney. The Walt Disney Company celebrates his birth as November 18, 1928 upon the release of Steamboat Willie.[2] The anthropomorphic mouse has evolved from being simply a character in animated cartoons and comic strips to become one of the most recognizable symbols in the world. Mickey is currently the main character in the Disney Channel's Playhouse Disney series "Mickey Mouse Clubhouse." Mickey is the leader of The Mickey Mouse Club.

Contents [hide]
1 Creation and debut
1.1 Plane Crazy
2 Early landmarks
2.1 First encounter with Black / Peg Leg Pete
2.2 Addition of sound to the series
3 Roles and design
3.1 Mickey as a suitor
3.2 First gloved appearance
3.3 Depiction as a regular mouse
3.4 Mickey as a soldier
4 Mouse in transition
4.1 Mickey Mouse Club
4.2 First comic strip appearance
4.3 Classical music performances
4.4 Departure of a co-creator and consequences
4.5 Appearances in comics
5 Later Mickey History
5.1 Recent history
5.2 Video games
5.3 Toys and games
6 Design and voice
7 Social impact
7.1 Use in politics
7.2 Pejorative use of Mickey's name
8 Legal issues
8.1 Walt Disney Productions v. Air Pirates
8.2 Censorship
9 Criticism of Mickey Mouse
10 Filmography
11 See also
12 References
13 External links



Creation and debut

One of the first MickeysMickey was created as a replacement for Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, an earlier cartoon character created by the Disney studio for Charles Mintz of Universal Studios.[3]

When Disney asked for a larger budget for his popular Oswald series, Mintz announced he had hired the bulk of Disney's staff, but that Disney could keep doing the Oswald series, as long as he agreed to a budget cut and went on the payroll. Mintz owned Oswald and thought he had Disney over a barrel. Angrily, Disney refused the deal and returned to produce the final Oswald cartoons he contractually owed Mintz. Disney was dismayed at the betrayal by his staff, but determined to restart from scratch. The new Disney Studio initially consisted of animator Ub Iwerks and a loyal apprentice artist, Les Clark. One lesson Disney learned from the experience was to thereafter always make sure that he owned all rights to the characters produced by his company.

In the spring of 1928, Disney asked Ub Iwerks to start drawing up new character ideas. Iwerks tried sketches of various animals, such as dogs and cats, but none of these appealed to Disney. A female cow and male horse were also rejected. They would later turn up as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar. (A male frog, also rejected, would later show up in Iwerks own Flip the Frog series.)[4] Walt Disney got the inspiration for Mickey Mouse from his old pet mouse he used to have on his farm. In 1925, Hugh Harman drew some sketches of mice around a photograph of Walt Disney. These inspired Ub Iwerks to create a new mouse character for Disney.[5] "Mortimer Mouse" had been Disney's original name for the character before his wife, Lillian convinced him to change it, and ultimately Mickey Mouse came to be.[6][7] Actor Mickey Rooney has claimed that, during his Mickey McGuire days, he met cartoonist Walt Disney at the Warner Brothers studio, and that Disney was inspired to name Mickey Mouse after him.[8] Said Disney:

"We felt that the public, and especially the children, like animals that are cute and little. I think we are rather indebted to Charlie Chaplin for the idea. We wanted something appealing, and we thought of a tiny bit of a mouse that would have something of the wistfulness of Chaplin — a little fellow trying to do the best he could. When people laugh at Mickey Mouse, it's because he's so human; and that is the secret of his popularity. I only hope that we don't lose sight of one thing — that it was all started by a mouse."[9]

Plane Crazy
Mickey and Minnie debuted in the cartoon short Plane Crazy, first released on May 15, 1928. The cartoon was co-directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. Iwerks was also the main animator for this short, and reportedly spent six weeks working on it. In fact, Iwerks was the main animator for every Disney short released in 1928 and 1929. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising also assisted Disney during those years. They had already signed their contracts with Charles Mintz, but he was still in the process of forming his new studio and so for the time being they were still employed by Disney. This short would be the last they animated under this somewhat awkward situation.

The plot of Plane Crazy was fairly simple. Mickey is apparently trying to become an aviator in emulation of Charles Lindbergh. After building his own aircraft, he proceeds to ask Minnie to join him for its first flight, during which he repeatedly and unsuccessfully attempts to kiss her, eventually resorting to force. Minnie then parachutes out of the plane. While distracted by her, Mickey loses control of the plane. This becomes the beginning of an out-of-control flight that results in a series of humorous situations and eventually in the crash-landing of the aircraft.

Mickey as portrayed in Plane Crazy was mischievous, amorous, and has often been described as a rogue. At the time of its first release, however, Plane Crazy apparently failed to impress audiences, and to add insult to injury, Walt could not find a distributor. Though understandably disappointed, Walt went on to produce a second Mickey short: The Gallopin' Gaucho.


Early landmarks

First encounter with Black / Peg Leg Pete
The Gallopin' Gaucho was again co-directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, with the latter serving as the sole animator in this case. The short was intended as a parody of Douglas Fairbanks's The Gaucho, a film first released on November 21, 1928. Following the original film, the events of the short take place in the Pampas of Argentina. The gaucho of the title was Mickey himself. He is first seen riding on a rhea, instead of a horse as would be expected (or an ostrich as is often reported). He soon encounters "Cantina Argentina", apparently serving as the local bar and restaurant. Mickey proceeds to enter the establishment and take a seat. He apparently just wants to relax with some drinking and tobacco smoking. Also present at the establishment are Pegleg Pete (later renamed Black Pete, or just Pete), a wanted outlaw and fellow customer for the time being, and Minnie Mouse, the barmaid and dancer of the establishment, at the time performing a tango. Both customers soon begin to flirt with Minnie and to rival one another. At some point Pete proceeds in kidnapping Minnie and attempts to escape on his horse. Mickey gives chase on his rhea. He soon catches up to his rival and they proceed to fight with swords. Mickey emerges the victor of this joust. The finale of the short has Mickey and Minnie riding the rhea into the distance.

In later interviews, Iwerks would comment that Mickey as featured in The Gallopin' Gaucho was intended to be a swashbuckler, an adventurer modeled after Fairbanks himself. This short marks the first encounter between Mickey and Black Pete, a character already established as an antagonist in both the Alice Comedies and the Oswald series. Based on Mickey and Minnie acting as strangers to each other before the finale, it was presumably intended to feature their original acquaintance to each other as well. Modern audiences have commented that all three characters seem to be coming out of rough, lower class backgrounds that little resemble their later versions. Consequently the short is arguably of some historical significance.

At the time of its original production though, Walt again failed to find a distributor. It would be first released on December 30, 1928, following the release of another Mickey short. Reportedly Mickey was at first thought to be much too similar to Oswald and this resulted in the apparent lack of interest in him. Walt would soon start to contemplate ways to distinguish the Mickey Mouse series from his previous work and that of his rivals. The result of his contemplations would be the third Mickey short to be produced, the second to be released and the first to really draw the attention of the audiences: Steamboat Willie.


Addition of sound to the series

Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie (1928)Steamboat Willie was first released on November 18, 1928. It was co-directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. Iwerks again served as the head animator, assisted by Johnny Cannon, Les Clark, Wilfred Jackson and **** Lundy. This short was intended as a parody of Buster Keaton's Steamboat Bill Jr., first released on May 12 of the same year. Although it was the third Mickey cartoon produced, it was the first to find a distributor, and thus has been cited as Mickey's debut. Willie featured changes to Mickey's appearance (in particular, simplifying his eyes to large dots) that established his look for later cartoons.

The cartoon was not the first cartoon to feature a soundtrack connected to the action. Fleischer Studios, headed by brothers Dave and Max Fleischer, had already released a number of sound cartoons using the DeForest system in the mid-1920s. However, these cartoons did not keep the sound synchronized throughout the film. For Willie, Disney had the sound recorded with a click track that kept the musicians on the beat. This precise timing is apparent during the "Turkey in the Straw" sequence, when Mickey's actions exactly match the accompanying instruments. Animation historians have long debated who had served as the composer for the film's original music. This role has been variously attributed to Wilfred Jackson, Carl Stalling and Bert Lewis, but identification remains uncertain. Walt Disney himself was voice actor for both Mickey and Minnie.

The script had Mickey serving aboard Steamboat Willie under Captain Pete. At first he is seen piloting the steamboat while whistling. Then Pete arrives to take over piloting and angrily throws him out of the boat's bridge. They soon have to stop for cargo to be transferred on board. Almost as soon as they leave, Minnie arrives. She was apparently supposed to be their only passenger but was late to board. Mickey manages to pick her up from the river shore. Minnie accidentally drops her sheet music for the popular folk song "Turkey in the Straw". A goat which was among the animals transported on the steamboat proceeds to eat the sheet music. Consequently Mickey and Minnie use its tail to turn it into a phonograph which is playing the tune. Through the rest of the short, Mickey uses various other animals as musical instruments. Captain Pete is eventually disturbed by all this noise and places Mickey back to work. Mickey is reduced to peeling potatoes for the rest of the trip. A parrot attempts to make fun of him but is then thrown to the river by Mickey. This served as the final scene of this short.

Audiences at the time of Steamboat Willie's release were reportedly impressed by the use of sound for comedic purposes. Sound films were still considered innovative. The first feature-length movie with dialogue sequences, The J*** Singer starring Al Jolson, was released on October 6, 1927. Within a year of its success, most United States movie theaters had installed sound film equipment. Walt Disney apparently intended to take advantage of this new trend and, arguably, managed to succeed. Most other cartoon studios were still producing silent products and so were unable to effectively act as competition to Disney. As a result Mickey would soon become the most prominent animated character of the time. Walt Disney soon worked on adding sound to both Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho (which had originally been silent releases) and their new release added to Mickey's success and popularity. A fourth Mickey short, The Barn Dance, was also put into production; however, Mickey does not actually speak until The Karnival Kid in 1929 when his first spoken words were "Hot dogs, Hot dogs!" After Steamboat Willie was released, Mickey became a close competitor to Felix the Cat, and his popularity would grow as he was continuously featured in sound cartoons. By 1929, Felix would lose popularity among theater audiences, and Pat Sullivan decided to produce all future Felix cartoons in sound as a result.[10] Unfortunately, audiences did not respond well to Felix's transition to sound and by 1930, Felix had faded from the screen [11]


Roles and design

Mickey as a suitor
The Barn Dance, first released on March 14, 1929, was the first of twelve Mickey shorts released during that year. It was directed by Walt Disney with Ub Iwerks as the head animator. This short is notable for featuring Mickey turned down by Minnie in favor of Pete. It is also an unusual appearance of the Pete character; previously depicted as a menacing villain, he is portrayed here as a well-mannered gentleman. In addition, Mickey was not depicted as a hero but as a rather ineffective young suitor. In his sadness and crying over his failure, Mickey appears unusually emotional and vulnerable. It has been commented, however, that this only serves to add to the audience's empathy for the character.


First gloved appearance
"Ever wonder why we always wear these white gloves?" - Various characters (with minor variations)


Mickey in gloves.The Opry House, first released on March 28, 1929, was the second short released during the year. This short introduced Mickey's gloves. Mickey can be seen wearing them in most of his subsequent appearances. Supposedly one reason for adding the white gloves was to allow audiences to distinguish the characters' hands when they appeared against their bodies, as both were black (Mickey did not appear in color until The Band Concert in 1935). The three black lines on the backs of the gloves represent darts in the gloves' fabric extending from between the digits of the hand, typical of kid glove design of the era.


Depiction as a regular mouse
When the Cat's Away, first released on April 18, 1929, was the third Mickey short to be released that year. It was essentially a remake of one of the Alice Comedies, Alice Rattled by Rats, which had been first released on January 15, 1926. Kat Nipp makes his second appearance, though his name is given as "Tom Cat" (this describes his being a tom cat, and the character should not be confused with the co-star of the Tom and Jerry series). He is seen getting drunk on alcoholic beverages. Then he leaves his house to go hunting. In his absence an army of mice invade his house in search of food. Among them are Mickey and Minnie, who proceed to turn this gathering into a party. This short is unusual in depicting Mickey and Minnie as having the size and partly the behavior of regular mice. The set standard both before and after this short was to depict them as having the size of rather short human beings. On another note, since this short was released during the Prohibition era, the alcoholic beverages would probably have been products of bootlegging.[citation needed]


Mickey as a soldier
The next Mickey short to be released is also considered unusual. It was The Barnyard Battle, first released on April 25, 1929. This short is notable as the first to depict Mickey as a soldier and the first to place him in combat.


Mouse in transition

Mickey Mouse Club
In 1929, Disney began the first of what would later be many Mickey Mouse Clubs, which were located in hundreds of movie theaters across the United States.[12]


First comic strip appearance
By this point Mickey had appeared in fifteen commercially successful animated shorts and was easily recognized by the public. So Walt Disney was approached by King Features Syndicate with the offer to license Mickey and his supporting characters for use in a comic strip. Walt accepted and Mickey made his first comic strip appearance on January 13, 1930. The comical plot was credited to Walt Disney himself, art to Ub Iwerks and inking to Win Smith. The first week or so of the strip featured a loose adaptation of Plane Crazy. Minnie soon became the first addition to the cast. The strips first released between January 13, 1930 and March 31 1930 have been occasionally reprinted in comic book form under the collective title "Lost on a Desert Island". Animation historian Jim Korkis notes "After the eighteenth strip[s], Iwerks left and his inker, Win Smith, continued drawing the gag-a-day format..."[13]


Classical music performances
Meanwhile in animation, two more Mickey shorts had been released. The first of them was The Barnyard Concert, first released on March 3, 1930. It featured Mickey conducting an orchestra. The only recurring characters among its members were Clarabelle as a flutist and Horace as a drummer. Their rendition of the Poet and Peasant Overture (by Franz von Suppé) is humorous enough; but it has been noted that several of the gags featured were repeated from previous shorts. The second, was originally released on March 14, 1930 under the title Fiddlin' Around but has since been renamed to Just Mickey. Both titles give an accurate enough description of the short which has Mickey performing a violin solo. It is only notable for Mickey's emotional renditions of the finale to the "William Tell Overture", Robert Schumann's "Träumerei" ("Reverie"), and Franz Liszt's "Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2", the latter which would appear on a regular basis in shorts starring Bugs Bunny, Tom and Jerry and Woody Wood******.

In The Band Concert, the first Mickey Mouse cartoon filmed in Technicolor, Mickey conducted the William Tell Overture, but in the cartoon is swept up by a tornado, along with his orchestra. It is said that conductor Arturo Toscanini so loved this short that, upon first seeing it, he asked the projectionist to run it again.

Mickey made his most famous classical music appearance in 1940 in the classic Disney film Fantasia. His screen "role" as The Sorcerer's Apprentice, set to the symphonic poem of the same name by Paul Dukas, is perhaps the most famous segment of the film. The segment features no dialogue at all, only the music. The apprentice (Mickey), not willing to do his chores, puts on the sorcerer's magic hat after the sorcerer goes to bed and casts a spell on a broom, which causes the broom to come to life and perform the most tiring chore—filling up a deep well using two buckets of water. When the well eventually overflows, Mickey finds himself unable to control the broom, leading to a near-flood. After the segment ends, Mickey is seen in silhouette shaking hands with Leopold Stokowski, who conducts all the music heard in Fantasia.


Departure of a co-creator and consequences
They were followed by Cactus Kid, first released on April 11, 1930. As the title implies the short was intended as a Western movie parody. But it is considered to be more or less a remake of The Gallopin' Gaucho set in Mexico instead of Argentina. Mickey was again cast as a lonely traveler who walks into the local tavern and starts flirting with its dancer. The latter is again Minnie. The rival suitor to Mickey is again Pete though using the alias Peg-Leg Pedro. For the first time in a Mickey short, Pete was depicted as having a peg-leg. This would become a recurring feature of the character. The rhea of the original short was replaced by Horace Horsecollar. This is considered to be his last non-anthropomorphic appearance. The short is considered significant for being the last Mickey short to be animated by Ub Iwerks.

Shortly before its release, Iwerks left the Studio to start his own bankrolled by Disney's then-distributor Pat Powers. Powers and Disney had a falling out over money due Disney from the distribution deal. It was in response to losing the right to distribute Disney's cartoons that Powers made the deal with Iwerks, who had long harbored a desire to head his own studio. The departure is considered a turning point to the careers of both Walt Disney and Mickey Mouse. The former lost the man who served as his closest colleague and confidant since 1919. The latter lost the man responsible for his original design and for the direction and/or animation of several of the shorts released till this point, and some would argue Mickey's creator. Walt Disney has been credited for the inspiration to create Mickey, but Iwerks was the one to design the character and the first few Mickey Mouse cartoons were mostly or entirely drawn by Iwerks. Consequently some animation historians have suggested that Iwerks should be considered the actual creator of Mickey Mouse. It has been pointed that advertising for the early Mickey Mouse cartoons credit them as "A Walt Disney Comic, drawn by Ub Iwerks". Later Disney Company reissues of the early cartoons tend to credit Walt Disney alone.

Disney and his remaining staff continued the production of the Mickey series, and he was able to eventually find a number of animators to replace Iwerks. As the Great Depression progressed and Felix the Cat faded from the movie screen, Mickey's popularity would rise, and by 1932, the Mickey Mouse Club would have one million members[14] and Walt would receive a special Oscar for creating Mickey Mouse as well; in 1935, Disney would also begin to phase out the Mickey Mouse Clubs, due to administration problems.[15] Despite being eclipsed by the Silly Symphonies short The Three Little Pigs in 1933, Mickey still maintained great popularity among theater audiences too, until 1935, when polls showed that Popeye the Sailor was more popular than Mickey.[16] By 1934, Mickey merchandise had also earned $600,000.00 a year.[17]

In 1994, The Band Concert was voted the third-greatest cartoon of all time in a poll of animation professionals. By colorizing and partially redesigning Mickey, Walt would put Mickey back on top once again, and Mickey would also reach popularity he never reached before as audiences now gave him more appeal;[14] in 1935, Walt would also receive a special award from the League of Nations for creating Mickey as well. However, by 1938, the more manic Donald Duck would surpass the passive Mickey, resulting in a redesigned of the mouse;[18] the redesign between 1938 and 1940 also put Mickey at the peak of his popularity we all.[14] However, after 1940, Mickey's popularity would decline.[19] Despite this, the character continued to appear regularly in animated shorts until 1943 (winning his only competitive Academy Award—with Pluto—for a short subject for Lend a Paw) and again from 1946 to 1952.


Appearances in comics
Main article: Mickey Mouse (comics)
In early 1930, after Iwerks' departure, Disney was at first content to continue scripting the Mickey Mouse comic strip, assigning the art to Win Smith. However, Walt's focus had always been in animation and Smith was soon assigned with the scripting as well. Smith was apparently discontent at the prospect of having to script, draw, and ink a series by himself as evidenced by his sudden resignation.

Walt proceeded to search for a replacement among the remaining staff of the Studio. For unknown reasons he selected Floyd Gottfredson, a recently hired employee. At the time Floyd was reportedly eager to work in animation and somewhat reluctant to accept his new assignment. Walt had to assure Floyd that the assignment was only temporary and that he would eventually return to animation. Floyd accepted and ended up holding this "temporary" assignment from May 5, 1930, to November 15, 1975.

Walt Disney's last script for the strip appeared May 17, 1930.[13] Gottfredson's first task was finish the storyline Disney had started on April 1, 1930. The storyline was completed on September 20, 1930 and later reprinted in comic book form as Mickey Mouse in Death Valley. This early adventure expanded the cast of the strip which to this point only included Mickey and Minnie. Among the characters who had their first comic strip appearances in this story were Clarabelle Cow, Horace Horsecollar and Black Pete as well as the debuts of corrupted lawyer Sylvester Shyster and Minnie's uncle Mortimer Mouse. The Death Valley narrative was followed by Mr. Slicker and the Egg Robbers, first printed between September 22 and December 26, 1930, which introduced Marcus Mouse and his wife as Minnie's parents.

Starting with these two early comic strip stories, Mickey's versions in animation and comics are considered to have diverged from each other. While Disney and his cartoon shorts would continue to focus on comedy, the comic strip effectively combined comedy and adventure. This adventurous version of Mickey would continue to appear in comic strips and later comic books throughout the 20th and into the 21st century.

Floyd Gottfredson left his mark with stories such as Mickey Mouse Joins the Foreign Legion (1936) and The Gleam (1942). He also created the Phantom Blot, Eega Beeva, Morty and Ferdie, Captain Churchmouse, and Butch. Besides Gottfredson artists for the strip over the years included Roman Arambula, Rick Hoover, Manuel Gonzales, Carson Van Osten, Jim Engel, Bill Wright, Ted Thwailes and Daan Jippes; writers included Ted Osborne, Merrill De Maris, Bill Walsh, **** Shaw, Roy Williams, Del Connell, and Floyd Norman.

The next artist to leave his mark on the character was Paul Murry in Dell Comics. His first Mickey tale appeared in 1950 but Mickey didn't become a speciality until Murry's first serial for Walt Disney's Comics and Stories in 1953 ("The Last Resort"). In the same period Romano Scarpa in Italy for the magazine Topolino began to revitalize Mickey in stories that brought back the Phantom Blot and Eega Beeva along with new creations such as the Atomo Bleep-Bleep. While the stories at Western Publishing during the Silver Age emphasized Mickey as a detective in the style of Sherlock Holmes, in the modern era several editors and creators have consciously undertaken to depict a more vigorous Mickey in the mold of the classic Gottfredson adventures. This reinnasance has been spearheaded by Byron Erickson, David Gerstein, Noel Van Horn, Michael T. Gilbert and Cesar Ferioli.

Mickey was the main character for the series MM Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, published in Italy from 1999 to 2001.


Later Mickey History

Recent history
On November 18, 1978, in honor of his 50th anniversary, he became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The star is located on 6925 Hollywood Blvd.

Melbourne (Australia) runs the annual Moomba festival involving a street procession and appointed Mickey Mouse as their King of Moomba (1977).[20] Although immensely popular with children, there was controversy with the appointment: some Melburnians wanted a 'home-grown' choice, e.g. Blinky Bill; when it was revealed that Patricia O'Carroll (from Disneyland's Disney on Parade show) was performing the mouse, Australian newspapers reported "Mickey Mouse is really a girl!"[21]

Throughout the decades, Mickey Mouse competed with Warner Bros.' Bugs Bunny for animated popularity. But in 1988, in a historic moment in motion picture history, the two rivals finally shared screen time in the Robert Zemeckis film Who Framed Roger Rabbit. Warner and Disney signed an agreement stating that each character had exactly the same amount of screen time, right down to the micro-second.

Similar to his animated inclusion into a live-action film on Roger Rabbit, Mickey made a featured cameo appearance in the 1990 television special The Muppets at Walt Disney World where he met Kermit the Frog. The two are established in the story as having been old friends. The Muppets have otherwise spoofed and referenced Mickey over a dozen times since the 1970s.

Mickey appeared on several animated logos for Walt Disney Home Entertainment, starting with the "Neon Mickey" logo and then to the "Sorcerer Mickey" logos used for regular and Classics release titles. He also appeared on the video boxes in the 1980s.

His most recent theatrical cartoon was 1995's short Runaway Brain, while in 1999-2004, he appeared in made-for-video features, like Mickey's Once Upon a Christmas, Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers, and the computer-animated Mickey's Twice Upon a Christmas. He has yet to appear in an original Disney film that wasn't based on a classical work.

Many television programs have centered around Mickey, such as the recent shows Mickey Mouse Works (1999—2000), Disney's House of Mouse (2001—2003) and Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006). Prior to all these, Mickey was also featured as an unseen character in the Bonkers episode "You Oughta Be In Toons".

Mickey was the Grand Marshal of the Tournament of Roses Parade on New Year's Day 2005.

In the Disney on Ice play, Disney Presents Pixar's The Incredibles in a Magic Kingdom/Disneyland Adventure, Mickey and Minnie are kidnapped by an android replica of Syndrome, who seeks to create "his" own theme park in Walt Disney World/Disneyland's place. They are briefly imprisoned in the Pirates of the Caribbean attraction's prison cell before an assault on the robot Syndrome by the Incredible Family forces "him" to place them in laser prisons, but not without using a flamethrower in a botched attempt to incinerate their would-be superhuman saviors. After the robot Syndrome is congealed by Frozone, Mickey and Minnie are finally liberated, the magic and happiness of the Walt Disney World/Disneyland Resort is restored, and the Incredibles become Mickey and Minnie's newest friends.


Video games

King Mickey in Kingdom Hearts II.Like many popular characters, Mickey has starred in many video games, including Mickey Mousecapade on the Nintendo Entertainment System, Mickey Mania: The Timeless Adventures of Mickey Mouse, Mickey's Ultimate Challenge, and Disney's Magical Quest on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Castle of Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse on the Sega Genesis, Mickey Mouse: Magic Wands on the Game Boy, and many others. In the 2000s, the Disney's Magical Quest series were ported to the Game Boy Advance, while Mickey made his sixth generation era debut in Disney's Magical Mirror Starring Mickey Mouse, a Nintendo GameCube title aimed at younger audiences. Mickey plays a role in the Kingdom Hearts series, as the king of Disney Castle and aide to the protagonist, Sora. King Mickey wields the Keyblade, a weapon in the form of a key that has the power to open any lock and combat darkness.


Toys and games
In 1989, Milton Bradley released the electronic-talking game titled Mickey Says, with three modes featuring Mickey Mouse as its host. Mickey also appeared in other toys and games, including the Worlds of Wonder-released Talking Mickey Mouse.


Design and voice
The character has gone through some major changes through his existence. The first one happened with The Pointer in 1939, where he was given pupils in his eyes, a skin colored face, and a pear-shaped body. In the 40's, he changed once more in The Little Whirlwind, where he used his trademark pants for the last time in decades, lost his tail, got more realistic ears that changed with perspective and a different body anatomy. But this change would only last for a short period of time before returning to the one in The Pointer, with the exception of his pants. In his final theatrical cartoons in the 50's, he was given eyebrows, which were removed in the more recent cartoons.

Mickey's top trademark is his ears, and they have also become a trademark of the Disney company in general. Basic design of Mickey's ears is two very round ears that are attached to a very round head. Other than the 1940s Mickey, he and Minnie's ears have had the unusual characteristic of always being viewable with the same symmetry despite which direction that their respective head is facing. In other words, the ears are always generally in the same position as they are in a frontal view of the character, and appear to be sideways on their head when facing left or right.

A large part of Mickey's screen persona is his famously shy, falsetto voice. From his first speaking role in The Karnival Kid onward, Mickey was voiced by Walt Disney himself, a task in which Disney took great personal pride. (Carl Stalling and Clarence Nash allegedly did some uncredited ADR for Mickey in a few early shorts as well.) However, by 1946, Disney was becoming too busy with running the studio to do regular voice work (and it is speculated his cigarette habit had damaged his voice over the years), and during the recording of the Mickey and the Beanstalk section of Fun and Fancy Free, Mickey's voice was handed over to veteran Disney musician and actor Jimmy MacDonald. (Both Disney's and MacDonald's voices can be heard on the final soundtrack.) MacDonald voiced Mickey in the remainder of the theatrical shorts, and for various television and publicity projects up until his retirement in the mid-1970s, although Walt voiced Mickey again for the introductions of the original 1954—1959 "Mickey Mouse Club" TV series and the "Fourth Anniversary Show" episode of the "Disneyland" TV series aired on September 11, 1958. 1983's Mickey's Christmas Carol marked the theatrical debut of the late Wayne Allwine as Mickey Mouse, who was the voice of Mickey until his death in 2009[22]. Allwine was, incidentally, married to Russi Taylor, the current voice of Minnie Mouse. Les Perkins did the voice of Mickey in the TV special Down and Out with Donald Duck released in 1987.


Social impact

A picture of several packaged products displaying pictures of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck dressed in traditional Japanese attire.
Use in politics
In the United States, protest votes are often made in order to indicate dissatisfaction with the slate of candidates presented on a particular ballot, or to highlight the inadequacies of a particular voting procedure. Since most states' electoral systems do not provide for blank balloting or a choice of "None of the Above", most protest votes take the form of a clearly non-serious candidate's name entered as a write-in vote[citation needed]. Cartoon characters are typically chosen for this purpose[citation needed]; as Mickey Mouse is the best-known and most-recognized character in America, his name is frequently selected for this purpose. (Other popular selections include Donald Duck and Bugs Bunny.) This phenomenon has the humorous effect of causing Mickey Mouse to be a minor but perennial contestant in nearly all U.S. presidential elections.[citation needed] A similar phenomenon occurs in the parliament elections in Finland and Sweden, although Finns and Swedes usually write Donald Duck or Donald Duck Party as a protest vote.[citation needed]

Mickey Mouse's name has also been known to appear fraudulently on voter registration lists, most recently in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election.[1][2]


Pejorative use of Mickey's name
"Mickey Mouse" is a slang expression meaning small-time, amateurish or trivial. In the UK and Ireland, it also means poor quality or counterfeit.

In The Godfather: Part II, Fredo's justification of betraying Michael is that his orders in the family usually were "Send Fredo off to do this, send Fredo off to do that! Let Fredo to take care of some Mickey Mouse night club somewhere!" as opposed to more meaningful tasks.
In 1984, just after an ice hockey game in which Wayne Gretzky's Edmonton Oilers beat the New Jersey Devils 13-4, Gretzky is quoted as saying to a reporter, "Well, it's time they got their act together, they're ruining the whole league. They had better stop running a Mickey Mouse organization and put somebody on the ice."[23] Reacting to Gretzky's comment, Devils fans wore Mickey Mouse apparel when the Oilers returned to New Jersey.
In the 1989 film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, a butler at Brunwald castle says to Indy, "Yes, we have tapestries. But if you are a Scottish lord, then I am Mickey Mouse!"
In the 1993 Warner Bros. film Demolition Man, as Sylvester Stallone's character is fighting the malfunctioning AI of his out-of-control police car, he shouts for the system to "Brake! Brake! Brake, now, you Mickey Mouse piece of ****!"[24]
In the 1996 Warner Bros. film Space Jam, Bugs Bunny derogatorily referred to Daffy Duck's idea for the name of their basketball team, asking, "What kind of Mickey Mouse organization would call themselves 'The Ducks?'" (This also referenced the Anaheim Mighty Ducks, a NHL team that was owned by Disney.)
In the United States armed forces, actions that produce good looks, but have little practical use, (such as the specific manner of making beds in basic training or the polishing of brass fittings onboard ship) are commonly referred to as "Mickey Mouse work".
In schools a "Mickey Mouse course" or "Mickey Mouse major" is a class or college major where very little effort is necessary in order to attain a good grade (especially an A) and/or one where the subject matter of such a class is not of any importance in the labor market.[25]
Musicians often refer to a film score that directly follows each action on screen as Mickey Mousing (also mickey-mousing and mickeymousing).[26]
"Mickey Mouse money" is a derogatory term for foreign currency, often used by Americans to describe indigenous currency in a foreign country in which they are traveling. The term also refers to fake banknotes, especially in UK.[citation needed] (Disney theme parks and resorts have an actual kind of Mickey Mouse money, Disney Dollars. This money is worthless outside the Disney property and stores).
The software company Microsoft has been derogatorily called "Mickeysoft".[27]
In card games, it is common for a "Mickey Mouse hand" to be played for instructional purposes. In such a hand all cards of all players that would normally be concealed are displayed, to demonstrate to new players the rules and procedures of the game.[citation needed]
In motorsports, short road courses with tight corners, short straightways and no overtaking spots are sometimes called "Mickey Mouse tracks".[citation needed]
In rhyming slang, a "Mickey" refers to a Liverpudlian or Liverpool FC supporter (ie. Mickey Mouser = Scouser). It may also refer to someone's home (house = Mickey Mouse).[citation needed]
The Los Angeles Mafia was known as the "Mickey Mouse Mafia," due to their disorganized behavior and mess-ups.[citation needed]
In the beginning of the 1980s, then-British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher once called the European Parliament a "Mickey Mouse parliament", meaning a discussion club without influence.[28]
Britons call the MLS, or Major League Soccer, the "Mickey Mouse League."[citation needed]
In the British sitcom Red Dwarf: After the team's substandard equipment nearly cost them their lives, one character pointed out, "We're a real Mickey Mouse operation, aren't we?" Another replied, "Mickey Mouse? We ain't even Betty Boop!"
Because of Mickey's status as Disney's signature character, he is often jokingly referred to as the boss of The Walt Disney Company. Disney employees sometimes say they "work for the Mouse." [29][30] In the South Park season 13 episode "The Ring," Mickey is portrayed as a greedy, sadistic and foul-mouthed head of the studio, who berates and beats the Jonas Brothers after they complain that their purity rings are overshadowing their music.
The 2009 NBA Finals between the Los Angeles Lakers and Orlando Magic are being dubbed the "Mickey Mouse Series"[31] due to the Disney theme parks located near Los Angeles (Disneyland) and Orlando (Walt Disney World), plus the fact that the Finals will air on ABC, which Disney also owns.
In an episode of the American sitcom Full House that guest starred Jaleel White as Steve Urkel (from fellow sitcom Family Matters), Michelle Tanner (played by Mary-Kate & Ashley Olsen) asks Urkel, "Why do you talk like a Mickey Mouse?".

Legal issues

A typical style of sign in Walt Disney World, showing one of many uses by Disney of the Mickey ears logo.It is sometimes erroneously stated that the Mickey Mouse character is only copyrighted. In fact, the character, like all major Disney characters, is also trademarked, which lasts in perpetuity as long as it continues to be used commercially by its owner. So, whether or not a particular Disney cartoon goes into the public domain, the characters themselves may not be used as trademarks without authorization. However, within the United States, European Union and some other jurisdictions, the Copyright Term Extension Act (sometimes called the 'Mickey Mouse Protection Act' due to extensive lobbying by the Disney corporation) and similar legislation has ensured that works such as the early Mickey Mouse cartoons will remain under copyright until at least 2023. However a Los Angeles Times article explains that ambiguity and "imprecision" in early film credits copyright claims could invalidate Disney's copyright on the earliest version of the character.[32]

The Walt Disney Company has become well known for protecting its trademark on the Mickey Mouse character, whose likeness is so closely associated with the company, with particular zeal. In 1989, Disney threatened legal action against three daycare centers in Florida for having Mickey Mouse and other Disney characters painted on their walls. The characters were removed, and rival Universal Studios replaced them with Universal cartoon characters. [33]


Walt Disney Productions v. Air Pirates
In 1971, a group of underground cartoonists calling themselves "The Air Pirates," after a group of villains from early Mickey Mouse films, produced a comic called Air Pirates Funnies. In the first issue, cartoonist Dan O'Neill depicted Mickey and Minnie Mouse engaging in explicit sexual behavior and consuming drugs. As O'Neill explained, "The air pirates were...some sort of bizarre concept to steal the air, pirate the air, steal the media...Since we were cartoonists, the logical thing was Disney."[34]. Rather than change the appearance or name of the character, which O'Neill felt would dilute the parody, the mouse depicted in Air Pirates Funnies looks like and is named "Mickey Mouse." Disney sued for copyright infringement, and after a series of appeals, O'Neill eventually lost and was ordered to pay Disney $1.9 million. The outcome of the case remains controversial amongst free-speech advocates. New York Law School professor Edward Samuels said, "[The Air Pirates] set parody back twenty years."[35]


Censorship
In 1930, The German Board of Film Censors prohibited showing a Mickey Mouse film because they felt the kepi-wearing mouse negatively portrayed the Germans and would "reawaken the latest anti-German feeling existing abroad since the War".[36] A mid 1930s German newspaper article even stated :

"Mickey Mouse is the most miserable ideal ever revealed...Healthy emotions tell every independent young man and every honorable youth that the dirty and filfth-covered vermin, the greatest bacteria carrier in the animal kingdom, cannot be the ideal type of animal...Away with Jewish brutalization of the people! Down with Mickey Mouse! Wear the Swastika Cross!"[37][38][39]

Art Spiegelman used this quote on the opening page of the second volume of his comic Maus II.

The 1935 Romanian authorities banned Mickey Mouse films from cinemas after they feared that children would be scared to see a ten-foot mouse in the movie theatre.[40] In 1938, based on the Ministry of Popular Culture's recommendation that a reform was necessary "to raise children in the firm and imperialist spirit of the Fascist revolution," the Italian Government banned Mickey and other foreign Children's literature.[41]


Criticism of Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse's global fame has made him both a symbol of The Walt Disney Company and as of the United States itself. For this reason Mickey has been used frequently in anti-American satire, such as the infamous underground cartoon Mickey Mouse in Vietnam. There have been numerous parodies of Mickey Mouse, such as the Mad Magazine parody "Mickey Rodent" by Will Elder in which the mouse walks around unshaven and jails Donald Duck out of jealousy over the duck's larger popularity. (http://johnglenntaylor.blogspot.com/2008_12_28_archive.html) The grotesque Rat Fink character was created by Ed "Big Daddy" Roth over his hatred of Mickey Mouse. In The Simpsons Movie, Bart Simpson puts a black bra on his head to mimic Mickey Mouse and says: "I'm the mascot of an evil corporation!".[42]. In the South Park episode The Ring Mickey Mouse is depicted as the sadistic, greedy boss of The Walt Disney Company, only interested in money.

On September 20, 2008 Sheikh Muhammad Al-Munajid claimed that the sharia considers mice to be harmful vermin and that characters like Mickey Mouse and Jerry from Tom & Jerry are to be blamed for making mice such loveable characters. He issued a fatwa against Mickey, which made international headline news and was the subject of much controversy and ridicule. Sheikh Muhammed Al-Munajid issued a statement afterwards in which he stated that he was misquoted and translated badly.


Filmography
Main articles: List of Mickey Mouse cartoons and List of Mickey Mouse films and appearances

See also
Minnie Mouse, best known as the fellow Disney character, often portrayed as Mickey's significant other in animated shorts and features.
Pluto, a canine character of the Disney series who is often portrayed as Mickey's dog in the animated shorts and features.
Mickey Mouse universe, the phenomenon that has spawned from the Mickey Mouse series and other related characters.
Mouse Museum, a Russian museum featuring artifacts and memorabilia relating to Mickey Mouse.
Mickey Mouse Adventures A short-lived comic starring Mickey Mouse as the protagonist.
Hidden Mickey, a phenomenon featuring throughout Disney films, theme parks and merchandise involving hiding images that are similar to a silhouette of Mickey's head and ears, another trademark of the Disney series, in non-related places.
Celebration Mickey, a two foot tall, 100 lb (45 kg)., 24-karat gold authentic Mickey Mouse sculpture, designed by Disney artist Marc Delle and produced in 2001 to commemorate Walt Disney's 100th birthday. Certified an authentic and one-of-a-kind piece by Disneyland Resort, it is the largest gold sculpture ever cast in the history of the Disney Company.

References
^ Kenworthy, John The Hand Behind the Mouse, Disney Editions: New York, 2001. p.54.
^ "Disney Online Guest Services". Disney Online. http://psc.disney.go.com/guestservices/8699.html. Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
^ Michael Barrier, The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney, University of California Press, 2008, p. 56. ISBN 978-0520256194.
^ Kenworthy, John The Hand Behind the Mouse, Disney Editions: New York, 2001. p. 53.
^ Kenworthy, John The Hand Behind the Mouse, Disney Editions: New York, 2001. p. 54
^ Mickey Mouse's Magic- Tweentimes - Indiatimes
^ » Mickey Mouse was going to be Mortimer Mo ... Useless Knowledge
^ Albin, Kira. Mickey Rooney: Hollywood, Religion and His Latest Show. GrandTimes.com Senior Magazine. 1995.
^ justdisney.com
^ toontracker.com
^ Felix the Cat | St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture |
^ Disney Timeline: A mouse is born!!
^ a b Korkis, Jim. "The Uncensored Mouse".
^ a b c Charles Solomon. "The Golden Age of Mickey Mouse". Disney.com guest services. http://disney.go.com/disneyato...goldenage/index.html (http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/mickeymousegoldenage/index.html).
^ Chronology of the Walt Disney Company (1935)
^ GAC Forums - Popeye's Popularity - Article from 1935
^ The Golden Age of Mickey Mouse
^ http://www.bcdb.com/bcdb/cartoon.cgi?film=15&m=r
^ Charles Solomon. "Mickey in the Post-War Era". Disney.com guest services. http://disney.go.com/disneyato...sepostwar/index.html (http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/mickeymousepostwar/index.html).
^ Craig Bellamy, Gordon Chisholm, Hilary Eriksen (17 February 2006). "Moomba: A festival for the people (pp 17-22)" (PDF). http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.a...ry%20of%20Moomba.pdf (http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/rsrc/PDFs/Moomba/History%20of%20Moomba.pdf).
^ Craig Bellamy, Gordon Chisholm, Hilary Eriksen (17 February 2006). "Moomba: A fes

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08-08-2009, 04:38 AM
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Grendizer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For titular mecha, see Grendizer (mecha).
UFO Robot Grendizer

UFO?? ???????
(UFO Robo Gurendaiz?)
Genre Mecha
Manga
Author Go Nagai
Publisher Kodansha
[show]Other publishers:
Rippu Shobo
Daitosha
ebookjapan
Freeman Holdings Ltd.
Dynamic Italia
Daran

Demographic Sh?nen
Magazine TV Magazine
Original run October 1975 (1975-10) – May 1976 (1976-05)
Volumes 2*
Notes
*While the first two tank?bon publications consist of two volumes, only the first volume contains the manga done by Nagai. The other parts are done by Gosaku Ota and Ken Ishikawa. Ishikawa's manga consists of a manga version of the movie Grendizer tai Great Mazinger and has been included in all republications of Nagai's version.

Manga
Author Go Nagai
Illustrator Yu Okazaki*
Publisher Kodansha
Demographic Sh?nen
Magazine TV Magazine
Original run June 1976 (1976-06) – March 1977 (1977-03)
Notes
*The version of Yu Okazaki is part of the same serialization of the one done by Nagai. It, however, has never appeared in tank?bon format. Only the part of Go Nagai has been compiled in tank?bon.

Manga
Author Go Nagai
Illustrator Gosaku Ota
Publisher Akita Shoten / Kodansha
[show]Other publishers:
Asahi Sonorama
Futabasha
Dynamic Europa
d/visual

Magazine Boken Oh / Otomodachi
Original run October 1975 (1975-10) – March 1977 (1977-03)
Volumes 5
Manga
Author Go Nagai
Illustrator Eiji Imamichi
Publisher Tokuma Shoten
Demographic Kodomo
Magazine TV Land
Original run October 1975 (1975-10) – March 1977 (1977-03)
Volumes 1
TV anime
Director Tomoharu Katsumata
Studio Toei Doga / Dynamic Planning
Network Fuji TV
English network Syndicated (Jim Terry Productions)
TVA
[show]Other networks:
Antenne 2
M6
TF1
Rete Due
CTS(1987)
The Big Channel
Telecinco
Canal Sur (1990)
Spacetoon
2×2

Original run October 5, 1975 (1975-10-05) – February 27, 1977 (1977-02-27)
Episodes 74
Anime film
Director Yoichi Kominato
Producer Masahisa Saeki
Writer Shozo Uehara
Composer Shunsuke Kikuchi
Studio Toei Doga
Released 1975-12-20
Runtime 24 minutes
Anime film
UFO Robot Grendizer: Akai Yuuhi no Taiketsu
Director Tokiji Kaburagi
Producer Chiaki Imada
Writer Tatsuo Tamura
Composer Shunsuke Kikuchi
Studio Toei Doga
Released 1976-12-19
Runtime 24 minutes
Notes
The two films are regular episodes of the TV series shown as short films in theaters.

Anime and Manga Portal
UFO Robot Grendizer (UFO??·???????, UFO Robo Gurendaiz??, sometimes romanized as UFO Robo Grendizer) is a super robot TV anime and manga created by manga artist Go Nagai. It was broadcast on Japanese television from October 5, 1975, to February 27, 1977, and lasted 74 episodes.[1][2] The robot's first appearance in the United States was as a part of the Shogun Warriors line of super robot toys imported in the late 1970s by Mattel, then in Jim Terry's Force Five series, both under the title Grandizer. It was especially popular in continental Europe.

Contents [hide]
1 Plot
2 Production
3 DVD releases
4 Production information & staff
5 See also
6 References
7 External links



[edit] Plot
The Vega homeworld has become unstable due to the exploiting of Vegatron, a powerful radioactive ore. Seeking to expand his militaristic empire and find a substitute planet to settle upon, the ruthless King Vega unleashes his armies — composed of flying saucers and giant robotic monsters — and turns first against neighbors such as Fleed, a highly advanced but peaceful world. In a tragically ironic twist, the invaders' blitzkrieg turns against them: the once verdant, idyllic Fleed is turned into a radioactive wasteland. Too late, the only known survivor of the royal family, Prince Duke Fleed, manages to steal the Grendizer, the robotic embodiment of the Fleedian God of War, from the Vegan invaders who plan to use it to spearhead their invasion fleet. Grendizer is a giant robot that interfaces with Spazer, a flying saucer that enables the robot to fly.

Fleeing Vegan space by flying at faster than light speed, Duke enters our solar system and switches course to Earth, making a rough landing in Japan, on the slopes of Mount Fuji. He is befriended by Doctor Umon, a noted scientist who oversees a research laboratory called the Space Science Lab near a small ranch. The kindly Umon takes in the young humanoid alien as his son, under the assumed name of Daisuke, and assists him in hiding Grendizer. Taking the name Daisuke Umon, Duke Fleed works at the ranch run by Danbei Makiba (based on Abashiri Daemon of Go Nagai's manga Abashiri Ikka).

Roughly two years later, Kouji Kabuto returns to Japan after studying abroad in a flying saucer he personally designed and built (called the TFO). He heads to the Space Science Lab after hearing of multiple sightings of "flying saucers". He plans to contact the aliens if possible and make peace with them. Daisuke, however, scoffs at the notion and fears that these aliens, the Vegans, led by generals Blaki and Gandal, are preparing to attack Earth. Kouji ignores his warnings and flies out to meet the incoming saucers, only to discover the horrible truth. In order to save Kouji and protect his adoptive homeworld from destruction, Daisuke is forced to return to his true identity as Duke Fleed. He unearths Grendizer from its hiding place under the lab and sets off to fight his enemies.

The Vegans establish a base on the dark side of the moon and start to attack Earth from there. Kouji discovers Duke Fleed’s true identity and their bitter rivalry soon turns to friendship. The daughter of Danbei Makiba, Hikaru, also discovers Daisuke’s secret and becomes a pilot in order to assist him despite his objections. Later on, it is revealed that there were two more survivors from planet Fleed: Duke’s younger sister Maria Grace Fleed and a man who had rescued her and fled to Earth, raising her under the guise of her grandfather. Caught in a crossfire between Grendizer and a Vegan beast, he reveals to Maria that she is the last survivor of the royal family of Fleed (under the belief that Duke was killed) before dying from his wounds. Maria swears revenge on Grendizer and its pilot. She tries to ambush Duke, Kouji and Hikaru at the Space Science Lab, but the fight is short lived. Maria’s attacks brings Duke’s necklace (which is the same as the one she wore) into view and the truth is revealed. The lost siblings are reunited at last and Maria becomes the last addition to the team.

As the conflict nears the end, it is shown that Duke Fleed was engaged to King Vega’s daughter, Princess Rubina, prior to the attack on Fleed. When Rubina discovers that planet Fleed is no longer polluted with Vegatron radiation and that her fiancé is alive and well, she rushes to Earth to bring him the good news. Unfortunately, one of King Vega’s generals uses this opportunity to ambush Duke Fleed, and Rubina is killed when she takes a shot aimed at Duke. This makes Duke even more determined to wipe out the Vegan menace once and for all.

King Vega decides to gather his remaining forces and make an all-out attack on Earth, destroying the Moon Base to coax his troops into fighting to the end and finally succeed in invading Earth and taking it as their new home planet. Duke and company go out to intercept them in Grendizer and the newly-designed space combat Spazers. After a fierce battle, they finally manage to destroy the Vegan mothership along with King Vega himself. Soon afterwards, Duke and Maria bid a tearful farewell to Earth and their friends and return to help reconstruct planet Fleed.


[edit] Production
See also: Uchu Enban Daisenso
The original concept was shown in a 1975 30-minute pilot movie War of the Flying Saucers. The movie had the same basic plot, with a few changes: Daisuke appears as the Professor's biological son, the enemy was Princess Teronna from Planet Yarban, and the robot's original name was Gattaiger (gattai is Japanese for "combine"). The series, which started later the same year, is considered another sequel to the Mazinger series, partly because of the inclusion of Mazinger Z's pilot Koji Kabuto, and having giant robots, which made it a "Super Robot" mecha anime.

The Grendizer robot and Daisuke have been included in two short Go Nagai cross-over features: UFO Robot Grendizer vs. Great Mazinger, and Great Mazinger, Grendizer, Getter Robot G: Decisive Showdown! Great Sea Beast., in which the various super-robots combine forces to take on a seemingly indestructible beast which emerges from the sea and proceeds to destroy Tokyo — even Boss Borot makes an appearance.

Grendizer is best remembered as one of the first anime shows to have a huge success in central Europe and Canada, particularly in France and Quebec (titled Goldorak), Italy and Malta (titled Goldrake), where it holds a strong following even today. Grendizer was also one of the most popular anime series ever shown in Arabic countries. Grandizer is also popular in Russia.

The French version of the show has the characters named after stars, planets and galaxies: Duke Fleed becomes Actarus (from the star Arcturus), as both his alien and Earth name; Kouji Kabuto is Alcor, Doctor Umon is Professeur Procyon etc. The Italian version, witch use the french adaptation, use quite all the same name.

Although set in Japan, which can be seen from the air on several occasion, the series was given an American Western feel by including a ranch where Duke Fleed and Kouji Kabuto would work in their spare time. The ranch owner, Danbei Makiba, and his children would dress in cowboy/girl outfits (though they also appeared in traditional Japanese clothes on occasion) and even had a neighbour who wore a Mexican sombrero. In spite of this the series was not a success in the US. Only twenty-six episodes of Grendizer were shown on American TV as part of the multi-mecha show Force Five, out of the total of 74 in the original series. Many character's names were changed: Grendizer spelling was changed to Grandizer; Duke Fleed was Orion Quest, and his alias was Johnny Bryant; Planet Fleed's name was changed to Antares, and so on. This corresponds to the first season and story arc (ending with the death of one of the main villains, who is replaced afterwards). Although Mazinger Z was later imported to the United States, Kouji's character appearing in both Tranzor Z and Grandizer was not acknowledged.


[edit] DVD releases
The licensed dubbed version for some French-speaking countries was officially announced in 2006. In 2005, a major crisis led Toei to take legal actions against DVD customers, all French megastores, and two major French anime publishers in France, Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg. The crisis started with the official release of unlicensed Goldorak DVD by Manga Distribution and Déclic Image websites and on Ebay. By November 28 2005 the Manga Distribution and Déclic Images publishers were sentenced to pay €7,200,000 to Toei and Dynamic Planning for selling unlicensed DVD boxset.[3][4]


[edit] Production information & staff
Episodes: 74
Airtime: Sunday, 19:00 - 19:30
Network: Fuji TV
Production: Toei Doga
Original: Go Nagai, Dynamic Production
Producer: Masahisa Saeki
Planning: Higashi Kasuga, Mineo Kachita, Koji Bessho
Series director: Tomoharu Katsumata
Episode director: Tomoharu Katsumata, Yoichi Kominato, Yasuo Yamayoshi, Tsunekiyo Otani, Hidenori Yamaguchi, Kazukiyo Shigeno, Yoshikatsu Kasai, Takenori Kawada, Masamune Ochiai, Hiroshi ****ara, Kazuya Miyazaki, Johei Matsuura, Osamu Kasai, Tokiji Kaburaki, Kozo Mori****a, Masayuki Akehi, Kazumi Fukushima
Character design: Kazuo Komatsubara
Art designer: Tadanao Tsuji, Iwamitsu Ito
Music: Shunsuke Kikuchi
Lyrics: Kogo Hotomi
Theme song performance: Isao Sasaki
Opening Theme: "Tobe! Grendizer" (??!???????, Tobe! Gurendaiz??, translated as "Fly! Grendizer") by Isao Sasaki, Columbia Yurikago-kai and Koorogi '73
Ending Theme: "Uchuu no Yuusha Grendizer" (????????????, Uch? no Y?sha Gurendaiz??, translated as "Grendizer, hero of the space") by Isao Sasaki
Cast: Kei Tomiyama (Daisuke Umon / Duke Fleed), Hiroya Ishimaru (Koji Kabuto), Kosei Tomita (Danbei Makiba), Joji Yanami (Dr. Genzo Umon / Emperor Vega), Kazuko Sawada (Goro Makiba), Chiyoko Kawashima (Hikaru Makiba), Kenichi Ogata (Banta Arano / Blacky), Rihoko Yoshida (Grace Maria Fleed), Kazuko Sawada (Lady Gandal), Kazuko Sugiyama (Naida), Noriko Ohara (Rubina), Ryoichi Tanaka (Zuril Jr), Keiichi Noda (Captain Gorman), Nobuyo Tsuda (Hara Arano), Hiroshi Otake (Boss)
Source(s)[1][2][5][6][7][8]


[edit] See also
UFO Robot Grendizer tai Great Mazinger
Grendizer, Getter Robot G, Great Mazinger: Kessen! Daikaijuu

[edit] References
^ a b "UFO Robot Grendizer - Toei Animation" (in Japanese). Japan: Toei Animation. http://www.toei-anim.co.jp/lineup/tv/grendaizer/. Retrieved on 2009-05-18.
^ a b "UFO Robot Grendizer (1975's anime TV series) - animemorial.net". animemorial. http://www.animemorial.net/en/185-UFO-Robot-Grendizer. Retrieved on 2009-05-18.
^ "Toei Animation And Dynamic Planning Wins!!". Toei Animation. 2005-11-28. http://www.toei-anim.co.jp/eng...press_goldorak7.html (http://www.toei-anim.co.jp/english/press/press_goldorak7.html). Retrieved on 2008-10-15.
^ "Goldorak DVD Animation Box". Toei Animation. http://www.toei-anim.co.jp/eng...press_goldorak4.html (http://www.toei-anim.co.jp/english/press/press_goldorak4.html). Retrieved on 2008-10-15.
^ "UFO Robo Grendizer (TV) - Anime News Network". USA: Anime News Network. http://www.animenewsnetwork.co...ia/anime.php?id=1198 (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/anime.php?id=1198). Retrieved on 2009-05-22.
^ "UFO Robot Grendizer - allcinema" (in Japanese). Japan: Stingray. http://www.allcinema.net/prog/show_c.php?num_c=89517. Retrieved on 2009-05-22.
^ "Goldrake credits - Enciclo'Robopedia" (in Italian). Italy: Enciclo'Robopedia. http://www.encirobot.com/gold/gold-cred.asp. Retrieved on 2009-05-22.
^ "Goldrake, I Doppiatori della serie Giapponese - Enciclo'Robopedia" (in Italian). Italy: Enciclo'Robopedia. http://www.encirobot.com/gold/...dop.asp?criterio=jap (http://www.encirobot.com/gold/gold-dop.asp?criterio=jap). Retrieved on 2009-05-22.

[edit] External links
UFO Robot Grendizer (Japanese) at Toei Animation website
UFO Robot Grendizer at Toei's corporative website
UFO Robo Grendizer (anime) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia
UFO Robot Grendizer (Japanese) at The World of Go Nagai webpage
Goldrake - Atlas UFO Robot (Italian) at the Enciclo'Robopedia website
UFO Robot Grendizer (Japanese) at Animemorial
UFO Robot Grendizer (animated film) (Japanese) at Animemorial
UFO Robo Grendizer (movie) (anime) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia
UFO Robot Grendizer: Akai Yuuhi no Taiketsu (animated film) (Japanese) at Animemorial
UFO Robot Grendizer: Akai Yuuhi no Taiketsu (animated film) (Japanese) at allcinema
[show]v • d • eMazinger by Go Nagai

Franchise Mazinger Z (episodes) • Great Mazinger • Grendizer • God Mazinger • Mazinger U.S.A. Version • MazinSaga • Z Mazinger • Mazinger Angels • Shin Mazinger Shougeki! Z Hen • Mazinkaiser • Mazinger Z Vs. Devilman • Mazinger Z Vs. The Great General of Darkness • Great Mazinger tai Getter Robot • Great Mazinger tai Getter Robot G: Kuchu Daigekitotsu • UFO Robot Grendizer tai Great Mazinger • Grendizer, Getter Robot G, Great Mazinger: Kessen! Daikaijuu

Characters

Mecha Mazingers Mazinger Z • Great Mazinger • Mazinkaiser • Grendizer

Female mecha Aphrodite A • Diana A • Venus A • Minerva X

Other robots Boss Borot • Robot Junior • Million Alpha, Baion Beta, Daion Gamma

Evil mecha Mechanical Beasts • Warrior Beasts


Mazinger Z Koji Kabuto • Sayaka Yumi • Boss • Dr. Hell • Baron Ashura • Count Brocken • Viscount Pygman • Archduke Gorgon

Great Mazinger Jun Hono • Mikene Empire • Great General of Darkness • Minister Argos • Archduke Gorgon • Marquis Yanus • General Julicaesar • General Scarabeth • General Angoras • General Ligern • General Hadias

Grendizer Duke Fleed • King Vega • Gandal & Lady Gandal • Blaki • Zuril

Shin Mazinger Shougeki! Z Hen Tsubasa Nishikiori

Concepts/Related Fortresses • Mazinger Toy Lines • Super Robot Wars



Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grendizer"
Categories: Manga series | Anime series | Anime films | Mecha anime and manga | Shunsuke Kikuchi | Super Robots | Anime of 1975 | Anime of 1976 | Anime featured in the Super Robot Wars series | Manga of 1975
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Tom and Jerry
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This article is about the cat and mouse duo. For other uses, see Tom and Jerry (disambiguation).
Tom and Jerry

Tom and Jerry title card used in the early 1950s, and some reissues of 1940s shorts. A modified version of this card was used on the CinemaScope releases in 1954 and 1955.
Directed by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera
Produced by Rudolf Ising
(first short)
Fred Quimby
(95 shorts)
William Hanna and Joseph Barbera
(18 shorts)
Written by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera
Music by Scott Bradley
(113 shorts)
Edward Plumb
(73rd short)
Distributed by MGM Cartoon studio
Release date(s) 1940 - 1958
(114 shorts)
Running time approx. 6 to 10 minutes (per short)
Country United States
Language English
Budget approx. US$ 30,000.00 to US$ 75,000.00 (per short)
Tom and Jerry is a series of animated theatrical shorts created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer that centered on a never-ending rivalry between a housecat (Tom) and a mouse (Jerry) whose chases and battles often involved comic violence. Hanna and Barbera ultimately wrote and directed one hundred and fourteen Tom and Jerry cartoons at the MGM cartoon studio in Hollywood, California between 1940 and 1957, when the animation unit was closed. The original series is notable for having won the Academy Awards for Best Short Subject (Cartoons) seven times, tying it with Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies as the theatrical animated series with the most Oscars.

Beginning in 1960, in addition to the originals MGM had new shorts produced by Rembrandt Films, led by Gene Deitch in Eastern Europe. Production of Tom and Jerry shorts returned to Hollywood under Chuck Jones's Sib-Tower 12 Productions in 1963; this series lasted until 1967, making it a total of 161 shorts. The cat and mouse stars later resurfaced in television cartoons produced by Hanna-Barbera and Filmation Studios during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, a feature film, Tom and Jerry: The Movie, in 1992 and released domestically in 1993 and in 2000, their first made-for TV short, Tom and Jerry: The Mansion Cat for Cartoon Network. The most recent Tom and Jerry theatrical short, The KarateGuard, was written and co-directed by co-creator Joe Barbera and debuted in Los Angeles cinemas on September 27, 2005.

Today, Time Warner (via its Turner Entertainment division) owns the rights to Tom and Jerry (with Warner Bros. handling distribution). Since the merger, Turner has produced the series, Tom and Jerry Tales for The CW's Saturday morning "The CW4Kids" lineup, as well as the recent Tom and Jerry short, The KarateGuard, in 2005 and a string of Tom and Jerry direct-to-video films - all in collaboration with Warner Bros. Animation.

There are a total of 162 theatrical shorts starring Tom and Jerry. For a list of all the Tom and Jerry theatrical shorts, see list of Tom and Jerry cartoons. For a list of all the Tom and Jerry Tales episodes, see list of Tom and Jerry Tales episodes.

Contents [hide]
1 Plot and format
2 Characters
2.1 Main Characters
2.1.1 Tom
2.1.2 Jerry
2.2 Recurring characters
2.2.1 Spike and Tyke
2.2.2 Butch and Toodles Galore
2.2.3 Mammy Two Shoes
2.2.4 Tuffy, formerly Nibbles
2.2.5 Quacker
3 History and evolution
3.1 Hanna-Barbera era (1940 – 1958)
3.2 Gene Deitch era (1960 – 1962)
3.3 Chuck Jones era (1963 – 1967)
3.4 Tom and Jerry hit television
3.5 Tom and Jerry's new owners
3.6 Tom and Jerry outside the United States
3.7 Controversy
4 Later shows, specials and shorts
5 Reception
6 Feature films
7 Other formats
8 Cultural influences
9 Tom and Jerry on DVD
10 Filmography
10.1 Notable shorts
10.2 Television shows
10.3 Packaged shows and programming blocks
10.4 Television specials
10.5 Theatrical films
10.6 Direct-to-video films
11 See also
12 References
13 Notes



[edit] Plot and format
The plots of each short usually center on Tom's numerous attempts to capture Jerry and the mayhem and destruction that ensues. Since Tom rarely attempts to eat Jerry and because the pair actually seem to get along in some cartoon shorts, it is unclear why Tom chases Jerry so much. Some reasons given may include normal feline/murine enmity, duty according to his owner, Jerry's attempt at ruining a task that Tom is entrusted with, Jerry eating Tom's master's food which Tom has been entrusted with safeguarding, revenge, Jerry saving other potential prey (such as ducks, canaries, or goldfish) from being eaten by Tom or competition with another cat, and attempts to seduce feline femme fatales, among other reasons.


The second Tom and Jerry title card, which was used from 1943 to 1944. These cards are no longer seen on re-issue prints or re-runs.Tom rarely succeeds in catching Jerry, mainly because of Jerry's cleverness, cunning abilities, and luck. Interestingly enough, many of the title cards show Tom and Jerry smiling at each other which seems to depict a love-hate relationship rather than the extreme annoyance each displays towards the other in each cartoon. There are also several instances within the cartoons where they display genuine friendship ("Springtime for Thomas") and concern for each other's well-being (such as in "Jerry and the Lion" where Jerry in one instance tricks Tom into thinking he has shot Jerry, and Tom comes running with the first aid kit).


Tom and Jerry title card used in the early 1950s, and some reissues of 1940s shorts. A modified version of this card was used on the CinemaScope releases in 1954 and 1955.The short episodes are famous for some of the most violent gags ever devised in theatrical animation: Jerry slicing Tom in half, shutting his head in a window or a door, Tom using everything from axes, pistols, explosives, traps and poison to try to murder Jerry, Jerry stuffing Tom's tail in a waffle iron (and also into what it seems as an old washing machine once), kicking him into a refrigerator, plugging his tail into an electric socket, pounding him with a mace, club or mallet, causing a tree or an electric pole to drive him into the ground, sticking matches into his feet and lighting them, and so on.[1] Despite all its popularity, Tom and Jerry has often been criticized as excessively violent.[2]:42[3]:134 Despite the frequent violence, there is no blood or gore in any scenes in the original cartoons that made the pair a household name. However, in a very rare instance, when Tom gets sliced into pieces in the opening credits of Tom and Jerry:The Movie, blood is clearly visible. A recurring gag involves Jerry hitting Tom when he's preoccupied, with Tom initially oblivious to the pain—and only feeling the effects moments later, and vice versa; and another involves Jerry stopping Tom in midchase (as if calling for a time-out), before he does something, usually putting the hurt on Tom.


Tom and Jerry title card used in 1956.The cartoon is also noteworthy for its reliance on stereotypes, such as the blackening of characters following explosions and the use of heavy and enlarged shadows (e.g., Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Mouse). Resemblance to everyday objects and occurrences is arguably the main appeal of visual humor in the series. The characters themselves regularly transform into ridiculous but strongly associative shapes, most of the time involuntarily, in masked but gruesome ways.


The final Tom and Jerry title card used in 1956 until the final Hanna and Barbera short in 1958, all shorts with this title card had their soundtracks recorded in Perspecta, other Hanna-Barbera shorts are mono.Music plays a very important part in the shorts, emphasizing the action, filling in for traditional sound effects, and lending emotion to the scenes. Musical director Scott Bradley created complex scores that combined elements of j***, classical, and pop music; Bradley often reprised contemporary pop songs, as well as songs from MGM films, including The Wizard of Oz and Meet Me In St. Louis. Generally, there is little dialogue as Tom and Jerry almost never speak, however minor characters are not similarly limited. For example, the character Mammy Two Shoes has lines in every episode in which she appears except The Little Orphan. Most of the dialogue from Tom and Jerry are the high-pitched laughs and gasping screams, which may be provided by a horn or other musical instrument.

Before 1954, all Tom and Jerry cartoons were produced in the standard Academy ratio and format; from late 1954 to 1955, some of the output was dually produced in both Academy format and the widescreen CinemaScope process. From 1956 until the close of the MGM cartoon studio a year later, all Tom and Jerry cartoons were produced in CinemaScope, some even had their soundtracks recorded in Perspecta directional audio. The 1960s Gene Deitch and Chuck Jones shorts were all produced in Academy format, but with compositions that made them compatible to be matted to Academy widescreen format as well. All of the Hanna and Barbera cartoons were produced in three-strip Technicolor; the 1960s entries were done in Metrocolor.


[edit] Characters

[edit] Main Characters

Thomas "Tom" Cat.
[edit] Tom
Tom is a blue-grey tomcat, who lives a pampered life, while Jerry is a small brown house mouse who always lives in close proximity to him. "Tom" is a generic name for a male cat or tomcat (the Warner Bros. cartoon character Sylvester was originally called "Thomas"). Tom was originally called "Jasper" in the very first short, Puss Gets the Boot, while Jerry was named Jinx. Tom is very quick-tempered and thin-skinned, while Jerry is independent and opportunistic. Jerry also possesses surprising strength for his size, lifting items such as anvils with relative ease and withstanding considerable impacts with them. Despite being very energetic and determined, Tom is no match for Jerry's brains and wits. By the final "iris-out" or "fade-out" of each cartoon, Jerry usually emerges triumphant, while Tom is shown as the loser. However, other results may be reached; on rare occasions, Tom triumphs, usually when Jerry becomes the aggressor or when he crosses some sort of line (the best example of which occurs in The Million Dollar Cat where, after finding out that Tom's newly acquired wealth will be taken away if he harms any animal, including a mouse, he torments Tom until Tom finally loses his temper and attacks him). Sometimes, usually ironically, they both lose, usually when Jerry's last trap potentially backfires on him after it affects Tom (An example is in Chuck Jones' Filet Meow short where Jerry orders a shark to scare Tom away from eating a goldfish. Afterwards, the shark scares Jerry away as well) or when Jerry overlooks something at the end of the course. Sometimes, they both end up being friends (only for something to happen so that Tom will chase Jerry again). Both characters display sadistic tendencies, in that they are equally likely to take pleasure in tormenting each other. However, depending on the cartoon, whenever one character appears to be in mortal danger (in a dangerous situation or by a third party), the other will develop a conscience and save him. Sometimes, they bond over a mutual sentiment towards an unpleasant experience and their attacking each other is more play than serious attacks. Multiple shorts show the two getting along with minimal difficulty, and they are more than capable of working together when the situation calls for it, usually against a third party who manages to torture and humiliate them both. In one short, Tom first meets Meathead and he and the mangy mutt attempt to catch Jerry. But when Tom's devil forces him to hurt Meathead by beheading him, instead of beheading him, it causes a lump.

Despite five shorts ending with a depiction of Tom's apparent death, his demise is never permanent; he even reads about his own death in a flashback in Jerry's Diary. He appears to die in explosions in Mouse Trouble (after which he is seen in heaven) and in Yankee Doodle Mouse, while in The Two Mouseketeers he is guillotined offscreen.


[edit] Jerry

Jerry Mouse.Although many supporting and minor characters speak, Tom and Jerry rarely do so themselves. Tom, most famously, sings while wooing female cats; for example, Tom sings Louis Jordan's "Is You Is Or Is You Ain't My Baby" in the 1946 short Solid Serenade. In a couple of shorts, Tom, when romancing a female cat, woos her in a French-accented voice similar to that of screen actor Charles Boyer. Co-director William Hanna provided most of the squeaks, gasps, and other vocal effects for the pair, including the most famous sound effects from the series, Tom's leather-lunged scream (created by recording Hanna's scream and eliminating the beginning and ending of the recording, leaving only the strongest part of the scream on the soundtrack) and Jerry's nervous gulp. The only other reasonably common vocalization is made by Tom when some external reference claims a certain scenario or eventuality to be impossible, which inevitably, ironically happens to thwart Tom's plans - at which point, a bedraggled and battered Tom appears and says in a haunting, echoing voice "Don't you believe it!", a reference to some famous World War II propaganda shorts of the 1940s. In one episode, Tom hires a mouse exterminator who, after several failed attempts to dispatch Jerry, changes profession to Cat exterminator by crossing out the "Mouse" on his title and writing "Cat", resulting in Tom spelling out the word out loud before reluctantly pointing at himself. One short, 1956's Blue Cat Blues, is narrated by Jerry in voiceover (voiced by Paul Frees). Both Tom and Jerry speak more than once in the 1943 short The Lonesome Mouse. Tom and Jerry: The Movie is the first (and so far only) installment of the series where the famous cat-and-mouse duo regularly speak to both humans and other anthropomorphic animals; it is possible that Tom and Jerry do have full speech capabilities, but choose not to use them aside from a few short phrases, preferring to leave the talking to other characters.


[edit] Recurring characters

[edit] Spike and Tyke

Spike the bulldog and his son Tyke, in the 1951 Tom and Jerry short Slicked-up Pup.In his attempts to catch Jerry, Tom often has to deal with the intrusions of Butch, a scruffy black alley cat who wants to catch and eat Jerry, and Spike (sometimes billed as "Killer" or "Butch"), an angry, vicious guard bulldog who tries to attack Tom for bothering his son Tyke (sometimes called "Junior") while trying to get Jerry. Spike spoke often, using a voice and expressions (performed by Billy Bletcher and later Daws Butler) modeled after comedian Jimmy Durante. Spike's coat has altered throughout the years between grey and creamy pink. The addition of Spike's son Tyke in the late 1940s led to both a slight softening of Spike's character and a short-lived spin-off theatrical series (Spike and Tyke).


[edit] Butch and Toodles Galore

Butch and Toodles Galore, in the 1946 Tom and Jerry short Springtime for Thomas.Tom changes his love interest many times. The first love interest is Sheikie and speaks in a haughty tone in The Zoot Cat, and calls him "Tommy" in The Mouse Comes to Dinner. The second and most frequent love interest of Tom's is Toodles Galore, who never has any dialogue in Tom and Jerry cartoons.


[edit] Mammy Two Shoes

Mammy Two Shoes, the owner of Tom, who made many appearances in the 1940s and early 1950s Tom and Jerry shorts, as seen in 1947's Old Rockin' Chair Tom. Over the years, Tom and Jerry cartoons featuring Mammy have been edited, modified, or withheld from broadcast in various ways.From the beginning, Tom also has to deal with Mammy Two Shoes (voiced by Lillian Randolph), a stereotyped African-American domestic housemaid. In the earliest shorts, Mammy is depicted as the maid taking care of the often opulent home in which Tom and Jerry reside. Later Tom and Jerry shorts are set in what appears to be Mammy's own house. Her face is never seen (with the exception of 1950's Saturday Evening Puss, in which her face is very briefly seen as she runs towards the camera), and she usually wallops the cat with a broom when he misbehaves. When Mammy was not present, other humans would sometimes be seen, usually from the neck down as well. Mammy would appear in many cartoons until 1952's Push-Button Kitty. Later cartoons would instead show Tom and Jerry living with a 1950s Yuppie-style couple. Soon after, virtually all humans in the series had visible faces.


[edit] Tuffy, formerly Nibbles
Tuffy is a mouse who is close to Jerry. He sometimes poses as Jerry's nephew. In many episodes, Tuffy is seen eating a lot. In his first appearance, he was left on Jerry's doorstep, being abandoned by his parents because he eats too much. Tuffy appears frequently with Jerry. When he does, Tom enjoys chasing him as he does with Jerry. Strangely, in Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring, Tuffy, once again called Nibbles, is a random mouse in a pet shop that Jerry doesn't even know.


Nibbles, the little orphan mouse, later named "Tuffy".
[edit] Quacker

Quacker at the end of That's My Mommy.Another recurring character in the series was Quacker the duckling, who was later adapted into the Hanna-Barbera character Yakky Doodle. He appears in Little Quacker, The Duck Doctor, Just Ducky, Downhearted Duckling, Southbound Duckling, That's My Mommy, Happy Go Ducky and The Vanishing Duck. Quacker talks a lot compared to Tom and Jerry. In many episodes, he is the only one who speaks. In addition. Butch also appeared as one of Tom's pals or chums as in some cartoons, where Butch is leader of Tom's buddies, who are Meathead and Topsy. The last recurring character is a small unnamed green devil that looks like Tom but has the size of Jerry. He only appears in three episodes: Springtime for Thomas, Smitten Kitten, and Sufferin' Cats!. Whenever Tom falls in love with a female cat, the devil advises Jerry to try to break the two apart in Springtime for Thomas and Smitten Kitten. In Sufferin' Cats!, when Tom and Meathead plan to split Jerry in half with an axe, he advises Tom to instead behead Meathead and keep Jerry for himself.


[edit] History and evolution

[edit] Hanna-Barbera era (1940 – 1958)

Tom and Jerry creators/directors William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, with the seven Academy Awards for Best Short Subject (Cartoons) their Tom and Jerry shorts won.Willliam Hanna and Joseph Barbera were both part of the Rudolf Ising unit at the MGM cartoon studio in the late 1930s. Barbera, a storyman and character designer, was paired with Hanna, an experienced director, to start directing films for the Ising unit; the first of these was a cat-and-mouse cartoon called Puss Gets the Boot. Completed in late 1939, and released to theatres on February 10, 1940, Puss Gets The Boot centers on Jasper, a gray tabby cat trying to catch an unnamed rodent, but after accidentally breaking a houseplant and its stand, the African-American housemaid Mammy (Later Tom's owner) has threatened to throw Jasper out ("O-W-T, out!" [as Mammy spells it]) if he breaks one more thing in the house. Naturally, the mouse uses this to his advantage, and begins tossing wine glasses, ceramic plates, teapots, and any and everything fragile, so that Jasper will be thrown outside. Puss Gets The Boot was previewed and released without fanfare, and Hanna and Barbera went on to direct other (non-cat-and-mouse related) shorts. "After all," remarked many of the MGM staffers, "haven't there been enough cat-and-mouse cartoons already?"


A screenshot from 1940's Puss Gets the Boot, the first Tom and Jerry cartoon.The pessimistic attitude towards the cat and mouse duo changed when the cartoon became a favorite with theatre owners and with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which nominated the film for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons of 1941. It lost to another MGM cartoon, Rudolph Ising's The Milky Way.

Producer Fred Quimby, who ran the MGM animation studio, quickly pulled Hanna and Barbera off the other one-shot cartoons they were working on, and commissioned a series featuring the cat and mouse. Hanna and Barbera held an intra-studio contest to give the pair a new name by drawing suggested names out of a hat; animator John Carr won $50 with his suggestion of Tom and Jerry.[4] The Tom and Jerry series went into production with The Midnight Snack in 1941, and Hanna and Barbera rarely directed anything but the cat-and-mouse cartoons for the rest of their tenure at MGM.

Tom's physical appearance evolved significantly over the years. During the early 1940s, Tom had an excess of detail—shaggy fur, numerous facial wrinkles, and multiple eyebrow markings—all of which were streamlined into a more workable form by the end of the 1940s- and looked like a realistic cat; in addition from his quadrupedal beginnings Tom became increasingly, and eventually almost exclusively, bipedal. By contrast, Jerry's design remained essentially the same for the duration of the series. By the mid-1940s, the series had developed a quicker, more energetic (and violent) tone, due to the inspiration from the work of the colleague in the MGM cartoon studio, Tex Avery, who joined the studio in 1942.


Tom and Jerry in the 1946 Academy Award winning cartoon The Cat Concerto.Even though the theme of each short is virtually the same - cat chases mouse - Hanna and Barbera found endless variations on that theme. Barbera's storyboards and rough layouts and designs, combined with Hanna's timing, resulted in MGM's most popular and successful cartoon series. Thirteen entries in the Tom and Jerry series (including Puss Gets The Boot) were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons; seven of them went on to win the Academy Award, breaking the Disney studio's winning streak in that category. Tom and Jerry won more Academy Awards than any other character-based theatrical animated series.


A screenshot from 1958's Tot Watchers, the final of the 114 Hanna and Barbera Tom and Jerry cartoon.Tom and Jerry remained popular throughout their original theatrical run, even when the budgets began to tighten somewhat in the 1950s and the pace of the shorts slowed slightly. However, after television became popular in the 1950s, box office revenues decreased for theatrical films, and short subjects. At first, MGM combated this by going to all-CinemaScope production on the series. After MGM realized that their re-releases of the older shorts brought in just as much revenue as the new films, the studio executives decided, much to the surprise of the staff, to close the animation studio. The MGM cartoon studio was shut down in 1957, and the final of the 114 Hanna and Barbera Tom and Jerry shorts, Tot Watchers, was released on August 1, 1958. Hanna and Barbera established their own television animation studio, Hanna-Barbera Productions, in 1957, which went on to produce famous TV shows and movies.


[edit] Gene Deitch era (1960 – 1962)
Tom and Jerry

High Steaks, a 1961 Tom and Jerry short directed by Gene Deitch.
Directed by Gene Deitch
Produced by William L. Snyder
Written by Larz Bourne
Chris Jenkyns
Eli Bauer
Music by Steven Konichek
Release date(s) 1961 - 1962
(13 shorts)
Country United States
Czechoslovakia
Language English
In 1960, MGM decided to produce new Tom and Jerry shorts, and had producer William L. Snyder arrange with Czech-based animation director Gene Deitch and his studio, Rembrandt Films, to make the films overseas in Prague, Czechoslovakia. The Deitch/Snyder team turned out 13 shorts, many of which have a surrealistic quality.

Since the Deitch/Snyder team had seen only a handful of the original Tom and Jerry shorts, the resulting films were considered unusual, and, in many ways, bizarre. The characters' gestures were often performed at high speed, frequently causing heavy motion blur. As a result, the animation of the characters looked choppy and sickly. The soundtracks featured sparse music, spacey sound effects, dialogue that was mumbled rather than spoken, and heavy use of reverb. The first of the Gene Deitch shorts, Switchin' Kitten, contains an enormous amount of erratic graphical glitches, framerate errors and high-pitched, hypnotic music and sound effects that make the short almost unwatchable. These problems were never repaired, and it is widely considered today to be the absolute worst Tom and Jerry short.

Fans that typically rooted for Tom criticized Deitch's cartoons for having Tom never become a threat to Jerry. Most of the time, Tom only attempts to hurt him when he gets in his way. Tom's new owner, a corpulent white man, was also more graphically brutal in punishing Tom's mistakes as compared to Mammy Two-Shoes, such as beating and thrashing Tom repeatedly, searing his face with a grill and forcing Tom to drink an entire carbonated beverage. Surprisingly, the Gene Deitch Tom and Jerry cartoons are still rerun today on a semi-regular basis.

These shorts are among the few Tom and Jerry cartoons not to carry the "Made In Hollywood, U.S.A." phrase at the end. Due to Deitch's studio being behind the Iron Curtain, the production studio's location is omitted entirely on it.

The episodes created by Dietch have generally been less favorable by the general audience than the rest of the series, mainly because of the sloppy animation.


[edit] Chuck Jones era (1963 – 1967)
Tom and Jerry

The title card for the Chuck Jones-produced Tom and Jerry cartoons.
Directed by Chuck Jones
Maurice Noble
Ben Washam
Abe Levitow
Tom Ray
Jim Pabian
Produced by Chuck Jones
Walter Bien
Les Goldman
Earl Jonas
Written by Michael Maltese
Jim Pabian
Bob Ogle
John W. Dunn
Irv Spector
Music by Eugene Poddany
Carl Brandt
Dean Elliott
Distributed by MGM Animation/Visual Arts
(Sib Tower 12 Productions)
Release date(s) 1963 - 1967
(34 shorts)
Running time approx. 6 to 8 minutes (per short)
Country United States
Language English
Budget US$ 42000.00 (per short)
After the last of the Deitch cartoons were released, Jones, who had been fired from his thirty-plus year tenure at Warner Bros. Cartoons, started his own animation studio, Sib Tower 12 Productions, with partner Les Goldman. Beginning in 1963, Jones and Goldman went on to produce 34 more Tom and Jerry shorts, all of which carried Jones' distinctive style (and a slight psychedelic influence). However, despite being animated by essentially the same artists who worked with Jones at Warner's, these new shorts had varying degrees of critical success.

Jones had trouble adapting his style to Tom and Jerry's brand of humor, and a number of the cartoons favored poses, personality, and style over storyline. The characters underwent a slight change of appearance: Tom was given thicker, Boris Karloff-like eyebrows (resembling Jones' Grinch or Count Blood Count), a less complex look (including the color of his fur becoming gray), sharper ears, and furrier cheeks, while Jerry was given larger eyes and ears, a lighter brown color, and a sweeter, Porky Pig-like expression.


Haunted Mouse, a Tom and Jerry short directed by Chuck Jones in 1965.Some of Jones' Tom and Jerry cartoons are reminiscent of his work with Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, included the uses of blackout gags and gags involving characters falling from high places. Jones co-directed the majority of the shorts with layout artist Maurice Noble. The remaining shorts were directed by Abe Levitow and Ben Washam, with Tom Ray directing two shorts built around footage from earlier Tom and Jerry cartoons directed by Hanna and Barbera. Various vocal characteristics were made by Mel Blanc and June Foray. MGM finally ended production on Tom and Jerry in 1967, by which time Sib Tower 12 had become MGM Animation/Visual Arts, and Jones had moved on television specials and the feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth.


[edit] Tom and Jerry hit television

Mammy Two Shoes in Saturday Evening Puss was rotoscoped and replaced with a thin white woman in 1960's.Beginning in 1965, the Hanna and Barbera Tom and Jerry shows began to appear on television in heavily edited form: the Jones team was required to take the cartoons featuring Mammy (such as Saturday Evening Puss), rotoscope her out, and replace her with a thin white woman, with Lillian Randolph's original voice tracks replaced by June Foray. However, in local telecasts of the cartoons, and in the ones shown on Boomerang, Mammy, featured in the other shorts, could once again be seen, and more recently[year needed], with a new, less stereotypical black voice supplied, which is done by Thea Vidale[citation needed]. Much of the extreme violence in the cartoons were also edited out. Starting out on CBS' Saturday Morning schedule on September 25, 1965, Tom and Jerry moved to CBS Sundays two years later and remained there until September 17, 1972.


[edit] Tom and Jerry's new owners
In 1986, MGM was purchased by WTBS founder Ted Turner. Turner sold the company a short while later, but retained MGM's pre-1986 film library, thus Tom and Jerry became the property of Turner Entertainment (where the rights stand today via Warner Bros.), and have in subsequent years appeared on Turner-run stations, such as TBS, TNT, Cartoon Network, Boomerang, and Turner Classic Movies.


[edit] Tom and Jerry outside the United States
When shown on terrestrial television in the United Kingdom (from 1967 to 2000, usually on the BBC) Tom and Jerry cartoons were not cut for violence and Mammy was retained. As well as having regular slots, Tom and Jerry served the BBC in another way. When faced with disruption to the schedules (such as those occurring when live broadcasts overrun), the BBC would invariably turn to Tom and Jerry to fill any gaps, confident that it would retain much of an audience that might otherwise channel hop. This proved particularly helpful in 1993, when Noel's House Party had to be canceled due to an IRA bomb scare at BBC Television Centre - Tom and Jerry was shown instead, bridging the gap until the next programme. Recently, a mother has complained to OFCOM of the smoking scenes shown in the cartoons, since Tom often attempts to impress love interests with the habit, resulting in reports that the smoking scenes in Tom and Jerry films may be subject to censorship.[5]

Due to its lack of dialog, Tom and Jerry was easily translated into various foreign languages. Tom and Jerry began broadcast in Japan in 1964. A 2005 nationwide survey taken in Japan by TV Asahi, sampling age groups from teenagers to adults in their sixties, ranked Tom and Jerry #85 in a list of the top 100 "anime" of all time; while their web poll taken after the airing of the list ranked it at #58 - the only non-Japanese animation on the list, and beating anime classics like Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle, A Little Princess Sara, and the ultra-classics Macross, Ghost in the Shell, and Rurouni Kenshin (it should be noted that in Japan, the word "anime" refers to all animation regardless of origin, not just Japanese animation).[6]

Tom and Jerry have long been popular in Germany. However, the cartoons are overdubbed with rhyming German language verse that describes what is happening onscreen and provides additional funny content. The different episodes are usually embedded in the episode Jerry's Diary (1949), in which Tom reads about past adventures.

In India, South East Asia, the Middle East, Pakistan, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, and other Latin American countries, even in the eastern Europe, such as Romania, Cartoon Network still airs Tom and Jerry cartoons everyday. In Russia, local channels also air the show in its daytime programming slot. Tom and Jerry was one of the few cartoons of western origin broadcast in Czechoslovakia (1988) before the fall of Communism in 1989.


[edit] Controversy

The scenes featuring Tom, Jerry or other characters in blackface are often edited. Screen capture from The Truce Hurts.Like a number of other animated cartoons in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, Tom and Jerry was not considered politically correct in later years. There were at least twenty-four cartoons that featured either racism or with characters shown in blackface following an explosion, which are subsequently cut when shown on television today, although The Yankee Doodle Mouse blackface gag as well as another blackface gag at the end of Safety Second remain intact, depending on the country. The black maid, Mammy Two Shoes, is often considered racist because she is depicted as a poor black woman who has a rodent problem. Her voice was redubbed by Turner in the mid-1990s in hopes of making the character sound less stereotypical; the resulting accent sounded more Irish. One cartoon in particular, His Mouse Friday, is often completely out of television rotation due to the cannibals being seen as racist stereotypes. If shown, the cannibals' dialogue is edited out, although their mouths can be seen moving.

In 2006, United Kingdom channel Boomerang made plans to edit Tom and Jerry cartoons being aired in the UK where the characters were seen to be smoking in a manner that was "condoned, acceptable or glamorised." This followed a complaint from a viewer that the cartoons were not appropriate for younger viewers, and a subsequent investigation by UK media watchdog OFCOM.[5] It has also taken the U.S. approach by editing out blackface gags, though this seems to be random as not all scenes of this type are cut.


[edit] Later shows, specials and shorts

The title card for Hanna-Barbera's 1975 series, The Tom & Jerry Show, produced for the ABC network.In 1975, Tom and Jerry were reunited with Hanna and Barbera, who produced new Tom and Jerry cartoons for Saturday mornings. These 48 seven-minute short cartoons were paired with The Great Grape Ape and Mumbly cartoons, to create The Tom and Jerry /Grape Ape Show, The Tom and Jerry/Grape Ape/Mumbly Show, and The Tom and Jerry/Mumbly Show, all of which ran on ABC Saturday Morning from September 6, 1975 to September 3, 1977. This is the first new Tom & Jerry cartoon series for TV in years afters the theatrical shorts shown on television. In these cartoons, Tom and Jerry (now with a red bow tie), who had been enemies during their formative years, became nonviolent pals who went on adventures together, as Hanna-Barbera had to meet the stringent rules against violence for children's TV. The Tom & Jerry Show is still airing on the Canadian channel, TELETOON, and its classical counterpart, TELETOON Retro.


Title card for Filmation's 1980 – 82 series, The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show, produced for the CBS network.Filmation Studios (in association with MGM Television) also tried their hands at producing a Tom and Jerry TV series. Their version, The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show, debuted in 1980, and also featured new cartoons starring Droopy, Spike (another bulldog created by Tex Avery), and Barney Bear, not seen since the original MGM shorts. The thirty Filmation Tom and Jerry cartoons were noticeably different from Hanna-Barbera's efforts, as they returned Tom and Jerry to the original chase formula, with a somewhat more "slapstick" humor format. This incarnation, much like the 1975 version, was not as well received by audiences as the originals, and lasted on CBS Saturday Morning from September 6, 1980 to September 4, 1982.


The logo for Hanna-Barbera's 1990 – 93 series Tom and Jerry Kids, produced for the Fox Kids network.One of the biggest trends for Saturday morning television in the 1980s and 1990s was the "babyfication" of older, classic cartoon stars, and on September 8, 1990, Tom and Jerry Kids, co-produced by Turner Entertainment and Hanna-Barbera Productions (which would be sold to Turner in 1991) debuted on FOX. It featured a youthful version of the famous cat-and-mouse duo chasing each other. As with the 1975 H-B series, Jerry wears his red bowtie, while Tom now wears a red cap. Spike and his son Tyke, and Droopy and his son Dripple, appeared in back-up segments for the show, which ran until October 2, 1993.

In 2000, a new television special entitled, Tom and Jerry: The Mansion Cat premiered on Cartoon Network. It featured Joe Barbera (who was also a creative consultant) as the voice of Tom's owner, whose face is never seen. In this cartoon, Jerry, housed in a habitrail, is as much of a house pet as Tom is, and their owner has to remind Tom to not "blame everything on the mouse".

In 2005, a new Tom and Jerry theatrical short, entitled The KarateGuard, which had been written and directed by Barbera and Spike Brandt, storyboarded by Joseph Barbera and Iwao Takamoto and produced by Joseph Barbera, Spike Brandt and Tony Cervone premiered in Los Angeles cinemas on September 27, 2005. As part of the celebration of Tom and Jerry's sixty-fifth anniversary, this marked Barbera's first return as a writer, director and storyboard artist on the series since his and Hanna's original MGM cartoon shorts. Director/animator, Spike Brandt was nominated for an Annie award for best character animation. The short debuted on Cartoon Network on January 27, 2006.


Title card for Warner Bros.' 2006 – 08 series, Tom and Jerry Tales.During the first half of 2006, a new series called Tom and Jerry Tales was produced at Warner Bros. Animation. Thirteen half-hour episodes (each consisting of three shorts) were produced, with only markets outside of the United States and United Kingdom signed up. The show then came to the UK in February 2006 on Boomerang, and it went to the U.S. on The CW4Kids on The CW.[7]. Tales is the first Tom and Jerry TV series that utilizes the original style of the classic shorts, along with the violence. This recently is the last Tom and Jerry-based cartoon show for television as the show ended on March 22, 2008.


[edit] Reception
In January 2009, IGN named Tom and Jerry as the 66th best in the Top 100 Animated TV Shows.[8]

In an interview found on the DVD releases, several MADtv cast members stated that Tom and Jerry is one of their biggest influences for slapstick comedy.


[edit] Feature films

Jerry and Gene Kelly in the 1945 musical film Anchors Aweigh.In 1945, Jerry made an appearance in the live-action MGM musical feature film Anchors Aweigh, in which, through the use of special effects, he performs a dance routine with Gene Kelly. In this sequence, Gene Kelly is telling a class of school kids a fictional tale of how he earned his Medal of Honor. Jerry is the king of a magical world populated with cartoon animals, whom he has forbidden to dance as he himself does not know how. Gene Kelly's character then comes along and guides Jerry through an elaborate dance routine, resulting in Jerry awarding him with a medal. Jerry speaks and sings in this short film; his voice is performed by Sara Berner. Tom has a cameo in the sequence as one of Jerry's servants.


Tom and Jerry and Esther Williams in the 1953 musical film Dangerous When Wet.Both Tom and Jerry appear with Esther Williams in a dream sequence in another big-screen musical, Dangerous When Wet. In the film, Tom and Jerry are chasing each other underwater, when they run into Esther Williams, with whom they perform an extended synchronized swimming routine. Tom and Jerry have to save Williams from a lecherous octopus, who tries to lure and woo her into (many of) his arms.

In 1988, the duo were lined-up to appear in the Oscar-winning Touchstone/Amblin Entertainment film, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, a homage to classic American animation, but their inclusion in the film was scrapped due to legal complications.[9]

1992 saw the first international release of Tom and Jerry: The Movie when the film was released overseas to theaters in Europe of that year and then domestically by Miramax Films in 1993. Joseph Barbera, co-creator of the characters served as creative consultant for the picture, which was produced and directed by Phil Roman. A musical film with a structure similar to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's blockbusters, The Wizard of Oz and Singin' in the Rain, the movie was criticized by reviewers and audiences alike for being predictable and for giving the pair dialogue (and songs) through the entire movie. As a result, it failed at the box office.

In 2001, Warner Bros. (which had, by then, merged with Turner and assumed its properties) released the duo's first direct-to-video movie, Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring, in which Tom covets a ring which grants mystical powers to the wearer, and has become accidentally stuck on Jerry's head. It would mark the last time both Hanna and Barbera co-produced a Tom and Jerry film, as William Hanna died shortly after The Magic Ring was released.

Four years later, Bill Kopp scripted and directed two more cat and mouse features for the studio, Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars and Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry, the latter one based on a story by Barbera. Both were released on DVD in 2005, marking the celebration of Tom and Jerry's 65th anniversary. In 2006, another direct-to-video film, Tom and Jerry: Shiver Me Whiskers, tells the story about the pair having to work together to find the treasure. Joe came up with the storyline for the next feature, Tom and Jerry: A Nutcracker Tale, as well as the initial idea of synchronizing the on-screen actions to music from Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite. This DTV, directed by Spike Brandt and Tony Cervone, would be Joe Barbera's last Tom and Jerry project due to his passing in December 2006. The holiday-set animated film was released on DVD in late 2007, and dedicated to Barbera.

Warner Bros. has plans for a theatrically-released film starring Tom and Jerry. The film will be, according to Variety, "an origin story that reveals how Tom and Jerry first meet and form their rivalry before getting lost in Chicago and reluctantly working together during an arduous journey home". Dan Lin will produce the film.[10]


[edit] Other formats
Tom and Jerry began appearing in comic books in 1942, as one of the features in Our Gang Comics. In 1949, with MGM's live-action Our Gang shorts having ceased production five years earlier, the series was renamed Tom and Jerry Comics. The pair continued to appear in various books for the rest of the 20th century.[11]

The pair have also appeared in a number of video games as well, spanning titles for systems from the Nintendo Entertainment System and Super NES and Nintendo 64 to more recent entries for PlayStation 2, Xbox, and Nintendo GameCube.

Main article: Tom and Jerry video games

[edit] Cultural influences
Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (June 2009)

Throughout the years, the term and title Tom and Jerry became practically synonymous with never-ending rivalry, as much as the related "cat and mouse fight" metaphor has. Yet in Tom and Jerry it wasn't the more powerful (Tom) that usually came out on top. Palestinian President Yassar Arafat noted this fact and loved the cartoon show because "the little guy--the mouse and not the cat--always won"[12]

The Simpsons characters, Itchy & Scratchy, of the eponymous cartoon on the Krusty the Clown Show, are spoofs of Tom and Jerry--a "cartoon within a cartoon."[1] The extreme cartoon violence of the Tom and Jerry is parodied and intensified, as Itchy (the mouse) dispatches Scratchy in various gratuitous, gory fashions. In the Simpsons episode, Itchy and Scratchy and Marge Marge gets violence banned from TV and Itchy and Scratchy became friends (their whacking intro is replaced by gift-exchanging), causing the downfall of the series. It was later changed back to the way it used to be because Marge decided that art shouldn't be censored because she didn't want Michelangelo's David's nudity to be covered up. The Simpsons also parodied the Gene Deitch era cartoons. In the episode Krusty Gets Kancelled, the Itchy & Scratchy characters are replaced with the badly drawn Worker & Parasite.

The duo are also parodied in the original Sally the Witch anime (1966), the Fairly Oddparents TV movie, Channel Chasers (2004), and two episodes of Garfield and Friends.

The Family Guy episode Road to Rupert also parodied the Gene Kelly dance where Stewie takes the place of Jerry in the sequence.

An episode[which?] of Disney's Kim Possible also featured a parody of Tom and Jerry called Scamper and Mr. Bitey.

Tom and Jerry were mentioned in Baby Mama when Angie (Amy Pohler) says, "We're partners like Tom And Jerry." Kate (Tina Fey) corrects her and says "Tom and Jerry hate each other."

On an episode of TNA iMPACT!, wrestler Abyss (Chris Parks) confessed his recent discovery, that Tom and Jerry were actually friends and were only playing.

Author Steven Millhauser wrote a short story called "Cat 'n' Mouse," which pits the duo against one another as antagonist and protagonist in literary form. Millhauser allows his reader access to the thoughts and emotions of the two characters in a way that wasn't done in the cartoon.


[edit] Tom and Jerry on DVD
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009)

There have been several Tom and Jerry DVDs released in Region 1 (the United States and Canada), including a series of two-disc sets known as the Tom and Jerry Spotlight Collection. There have been negative responses to Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, due to some of the cartoons included on each having cuts and redubbed Mammy Two-Shoes dialogue. A replacement program offering uncut versions of the shorts on DVD was later announced. There are also negative responses to Vol. 3, due to Mouse Cleaning and Casanova Cat being excluded from these sets and His Mouse Friday having an extreme zooming-in towards the end.

There have been two Tom and Jerry DVD sets in Region 2. In Western Europe, most of the Tom and Jerry shorts have been released (only two, The Million Dollar Cat and Busy Buddies, were not included) under the name Tom and Jerry - The Classic Collection. Almost all of the shorts contain re-dubbed Mammy Two-Shoes tracks. Despite these cuts, His Mouse Friday, the only Tom and Jerry cartoon to be completely taken off the airwaves in some countries due to racism, is included, unedited with the exception of extreme zooming-in towards the end to avoid showing a particularly racist caricature. These are regular TV prints sent from the U.S. in the 1990s. Shorts produced in CinemaScope are presented in pan and scan. Fortunately Mouse Cleaning and Casanova Cat are presented uncut on as part of these sets. Tom and Jerry - The Classic Collection is available in 6 double-sided DVDs (issued in the United Kingdom) and 12 single-layer DVDs (issued throughout Western Europe, including the United Kingdom).

Another Tom and Jerry Region 2 DVD set is available in Japan. As with Tom and Jerry - The Classic Collection in Western Europe, almost all of the shorts (including His Mouse Friday) contain cuts. Slicked-up Pup, Tom's Photo Finish, Busy Buddies, The Egg and Jerry, Tops with Pops and Feedin' the Kiddie are excluded from these sets. Shorts produced in CinemaScope are presented in pan and scan.

The Chuck Jones-era Tom and Jerry shorts were released in a two-disc set entitled Tom and Jerry: The Chuck Jones Collection on June 23, 2009.[13]


[edit] Filmography

[edit] Notable shorts
For a list of theatrical Tom & Jerry cartoon shorts, see List of Tom and Jerry cartoons.

The following cartoons won the Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Short Subject: Cartoons:[14]:32

1943: The Yankee Doodle Mouse
1944: Mouse Trouble
1945: Quiet Please!
1946: The Cat Concerto
1948: The Little Orphan
1951: The Two Mouseketeers
1952: Johann Mouse
These cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons, but did not win:

1940: Puss Gets the Boot
1941: The Night Before Christmas
1947: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Mouse
1949: Hatch Up Your Troubles
1950: Jerry's Cousin
1954: Touché, ***** Cat!
These cartoons were nominated for the Annie Award in the Individual Achievements Category: Character Animation, but did not win:

1946: Springtime for Thomas
1955: That's My Mommy
1956: Muscle Beach Tom
2005: The KarateGuard

[edit] Television shows
The Tom and Jerry Show (ABC, 1975)
The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show (CBS, 1980–1982)
Tom and Jerry Kids (FOX, 1990–1993)
Tom and Jerry Tales (The CW, 2006–2008)

[edit] Packaged shows and programming blocks
Tom and Jerry (CBS, Mid-1960s)
Tom and Jerry's Funhouse on TBS (TBS, 1

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:40 AM
http://static.flickr.com/215/522303573_3ff9512605.jpg

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:41 AM
http://www.insectsofalberta.com/images/2004-08-20%20035_greenbottle_fly.jpg

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:42 AM
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2195/2390992682_02af401e1e.jpg

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:42 AM
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/173/441392249_5182c9d07b.jpg

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:43 AM
http://www.valdosta.edu/~lfmoore/monkeyhugesmile.jpg

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:44 AM
http://thm-a02.yimg.com/image/17d5e6a080b53c76

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:46 AM
http://img53.imageshack.us/img53/2995/ugly20dogye9.jpg

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 04:47 AM
http://www.ilw.com/corporate/grin.gif http://www.ilw.com/corporate/beatdeadhorse5.gif http://www.ilw.com/corporate/grin.gif

Kollerkrot
08-08-2009, 06:52 AM
Originally posted by iperson:
This is My Special Comment

(thanks, Keith Olbermann)

This Special Comment is a result of months long investigative journalism. *This is the story you've been hearing about on and off here on the board but which has been distorted and filled with lies, threats, distortion and manipulation. I will present only facts, nothing extraneous, the concise hard cold math, to put everything into perspective for you, for me, as well as for the sake of the people involved.

This is the Silence of Ilw Lambs.

In July/August 2007 "Wyatt" picks ProudUSC as his first victim, and invites her to a private PM. They talk for around ten months (till June 2008), at the beginning of which he tells her he's dying, having been diagnosed with a fatal illness and has two months left to live. He tells her that his wife had just left him, and he's had his heart broken, and is near suicide.
At about the same time (or a bit later), he opens a private PM and invites three women (Proud, Explora, and me), no men. The topic- US Constitution. He conducts the lectures in a cold impersonal manner, creating an aura of authority. Undaunted by his pending diagnosis, the lectures are precise, and rather serene and calm.
At around mid winter I drop all private PMs to concentrate on my life, and later also on following the presidential election, and have no private contact with anyone on the forum. There'd also been another private social thread, which is later joined by Sprintgirl, which I also drop.

In June/July 2008 Wyatt ends his secret affair with Proud, and switches to Sprint whom he also invites personally to a one on one PM. He tells her that he has the legal capacity to help her with her private legal problems. He also tells her that he has a fatal illness which leaves him several months left to live. He tells her that his wife just left him, and that he's near suicide (about a year after he had told the same thing to Proud).*

Fearing that Proud, having fallen for him during this lengthy period of time, he tells Sprint he moved from Colorado to Wyoming where he bought a house, obviously trying to avoid any potential trouble. He begins taking on a different personality, from an immigration law expert to a cowboy who lives a lonely life on a farm with horses, and a herd of cows. Proud later tells me that she never heard a word about his cowboy lifestyle throughout the time they talked. His messenger id with Proud had been*lawperson2008 (or something similiar), which he changes to cowman2008 when he talks to Sprint. He paints a bucolic picture of his life on the farm, juxtaposing it with harsh realities, financial problems, abject poverty and struggle. He makes up a whole story around his life, including his friends, some of which are modeled *on real people who live in his real town in Colorado. He convinces her about the move to Wyoming by wearing a Wyoming printed sweatshirt. He convinces her of his supposed cowboy ways by playing country music, wearing a cowboy hat, and showing her cowboy paraphernalia which he sends to her as webcam pictures (available).

The "relationship" is in full swing (including a virtual marriage proposal to keep the woman's hopes up), when in September 2008 he sends me a private PM titled "a Note". But this is no ordinary contact that just happens on one day or another. While I am unaware of the real nature of his relationships with those two women, and his real intentions for the contact, he makes sure that neither Sprint nor Proud think he initiates the contact with me. So he orchestrates a lie and tells Sprint that I contacted him and confessed my feelings for him. Shortly after I receive a PM from Sprint in which she announces that she knows about my confession to Wyatt. I was surprised and confused but ignored this whole thing putting it on the casp of Sprint apparent irrational behavior on the forum (all the flirting with all the guys etc). He tells Sprint later that he ended the PM with me, but the truth is we start talking at the Red Universe site and later on yahoo messenger as well.

There, he tells me that his wife left him, and broke his heart, and at the same time he was diagnosed with a serious fatal illness. He also tells me that he requires a heart surgery and expensive drugs, but has no health insurance nor money to buy them. At some point he tells me he owns a lot of land, a mountain and a lake, and his house is fitted with solar panels and a satellite connection. Hmm.. He tells me virtually his whole life story, filled with some astonishing private details, about his parents and his sibling(s) [my version included a brother, Sprint's a brother and a sister, Proud's no siblings]. I found it all quite disturbing to hear from a person I barely knew, just mere few days of IM exchange. At some point he starts asking me about my financial situation. Some direct questions include what type of car I drive, where I live, whether I own a house or rent, what I do and where I work, etc. *Later when I speak with Proud she tells me that he's also asked a lot about her financial situation and teased her she owned a convertible. This is what triggered my suspicions about *a potential financial con scheme.

Now, during the short period of time we are in private contact- between *middle of September till November the 5th, I admit to have fallen for the guy, because of the things he tells me. So naturally like every woman in this situation, I start to have feelings for him. I offer to fly to Wyoming, and comfort him in his possibly last days of his life ( I was later told he'd say yes to two women from either this or another internet board). I write for him sexually charged light core fantasies to relieve the pain he constantly complains about (he says on the scale of 1-10, his pain is usually 8-9). *At times he *asks me to use graphic language, which I refuse to do. He laughs at me.*

When I later talk to both women, it is revealed that in both cases he asked for graphic language and the women are uncomfortable with it. Unlike with me, he initiates all cybersex with them.

I want him to give me his phone number so we can talk, but he says no saying that **** happens. He says he had something awful happen to him previously with a woman from Michigan and he has bad memories from that state... Hmm.. I give him my phone number but he gets angry (all capital letters indicate his anger) asking me what did I do that for. *(to be honest, at that point I should have ended this online relationship immediately).

When I talk to Sprint later, it becomes obvious he avoids real contact and hides his true identity, refusing to talk on the phone. They mostly used skype which allows anonymous connection. The reasons for it are apparent now that I know he doesn't really live where he said he lived, and it gets even more apparent what his real intentions had been with all of us. Even though Sprint tells everyone she'd met him, this isn't true. She lies believing that I was obsessed with Houston - a result of:

The Manipulation

The common wisdom today at ilw is that I have pursued Houston. Nothing could be further from the truth. He appeared to be very intelligent and I liked what he was saying overall, and I was interested in a conversation, but that's the end of it. It was nice many times here at ilw that I have enjoyed the discussions, and contrary to what everyone believes, I like most of the people on this board (except for lately). What I don't like are some of their views, which I attacked, sometimes with more vigor than necessary. There were undoubtedly good times, but you see, perceptions can be skewed by repeated premeditated sound bites that eventually become common wisdom. What Houston kept repeating to Sprint and everyone else he spoke with was that I was a bad person. Yet, somehow the general perception persisted and I was blamed for everything that happened to Sprint later on and it lasts till today. The purpose of this deception? To distance me away from the other women, and everyone else. If you really look deeply into what I just said and understand the unscrupulous premeditation, it is chilling.*

I understood the dynamics and the extent of the manipulation after what happened later when there was a clash between Proud and Sprint in October last year. What I was told in pieces (which I glued together myself) was that Sprint divulged a private secret about Wyatt's private life, and Proud used it to destroy her relationship with Wyatt by telling him about it. I remember it to this day. I was talking to him on messenger when there was a lengthy silence after which he said that Proud is a dangerous woman. He kept repeating this mantra of her being a dangerous person for the rest of the time we spoke. The manipulation.. If I believed that Proud was dangerous, he was assured I would not trust her word, and that was the sole purpose.*

Today I also, along with Proud, and maybe a legion of other unidentified women, appear to wear the badge of *the dangerous one, on top of being a criminal (the criminal mind as he calls his projection). I can only imagine the amount of manipulation that went into presenting me in the light everyone sees me today. The effects of it are known, and tangible. Here's another observation to make the point- after Houston gets confronted by Sprint later in the story, he says I did him a favor... and also when asked if he intended to continue a relationship with her, he said no, adding that she and Brit both have damaged him (transcript available- as petelichi).

The manipulation also entails assuming several identities under different messenger ids (sprintgirl2008, petelichi, cowman2008, lawperson2008 at least), and I also suspect several ilw ids. Each id represents a separate persona which he carefully constructs, building it up in time.

He uses those identities for his manipulation and deception, playing people against each other, and cross checking them. Trying to have Sprint report me to authorities is yet another chapter of his ongoing games ( something he's constantly accusing me of- this is a projection of his own behavior). What's the real reason behind it? The reason is I know it all about him.

Manipulation: (http://cyberpaths.blogspot.com/2007/10/how-they-get-so-good-at-manipulation.html)
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">The problem is that we have no idea how good at manipulation some people are. They are so good at it, that when we find out how good they are, it blows our mind. How do they get so good at it?

Are these narcissists just brilliant, with astronomical IQs? Well, the more intelligent they are, the more dangerous they are, of course. But, no, they aren't all intelligent. They don't have to be.

It's just a simple matter of "practice makes perfect."

You too would be that good a manipulator if you practiced manipulating people 24-7-365 for a lifetime.

This is a quote from a website where you can learn more about such pathological behavior. Today in the United States there are more than 3 million sociopaths and you're bound to encounter at least a few of them during your lifetime.

There are many more detailsto this story that would need much more time and energy to go through, which I can't afford to waste *for and the summer for something that has lost its meaning for me a long time ago. The whole story reared its ugly face all over again after I discovered that I've been investigated and stalked on my two websites since late April 2009, which revealed (IP addresses) and confirmed the truth- that the man in question does not in fact live in Wyoming, and most likely everything else he told is not true, including his name, the people in his stories, and the events he told. They don't require repeating, as they have been rendered meaningless by now. Today they stand in the very long row of lies and distortions. Funny, the word lie in the light of this story loses its meaning, dwarfed by the enormity of manipulation, distortion, and hurt heaped on unsuspecting souls, often finding themselves in dire life situations and needing help and kindness, instead being exploited in an unimaginably cruel manner.

According to this blog (http://cyberpaths.blogspot.com/), abuse victims are easier targets for online predators because they first- *are desperately seeking a good man to protect them, and two, they have a lower abuse threshold as they are used to controlling behavior and consider it more normal than a woman who's been in healthy relationships. It is much harder to help such a woman defend herself against a very intelligent, persuasive abuser. It is hard for her to see the facts in the proper light, and moreover, a mechanism exists, which I've witnessed in this story that causes her to turn against the person trying to help in order to reaffirm her imagined reality, and dispel all doubt, desperately trying to hold onto her dreams.

This is what happened after two weeks of my conversations with Sprint- she turned against me and accused me of trying to interfere in her relationship with Wyatt. All I've tried to do was to delicately loosen the knot and let her free of this fake filled with holes and sadness relationship. After all I've heard (a lot of details are missing in this short comment), it became obvious that the relationship was fake and abusive. In a way, one of the reasons I brought it all into light in January on the ilw board, was an attempt to destroy the cozy space within which the manipulation existed, to severe the friend support system for the relationship at ilw, and other or future potential stories like this one. This is why I am writing this right now as well. If anybody here is a true friend of Sprint, try to help instead of reinforcing this sick situation.

As for me, I admit I've made a few mistakes reacting emotionally and not having been more clever presenting this case, which ended up even distancing people, but I've made my homework and talked to people, and I know what I am saying after studying the facts, all the evidence, and having been a witness to several exchanges (transcripts available). Even though Proud will deny what I am saying, she knows I am telling the truth, and she privately agreed with me. What motivates a denial is often fear (http://cyberpaths.blogspot.com/2007/03/beware-rage-of-cyberpath-when-caught.html) because all the women involved in the net of this man have revealed things that may be used against them later and be the source of blackmail. Because (http://cyberpaths.blogspot.com/2007/03/beware-rage-of-cyberpath-when-caught.html):


Once You Expose Them You Will Most Ccertainly Be Subject To Their Narcisstic Rage.

The Cyberpath Usually Does The Following (we also call it a 'pathological tantrum'):

- smear you to everyone they can, including making up whole websites just to smear you (Pathologicals believe, like small children, if they SAY something - long enough & loud enough that people will believe them and it will supplant facts and become truth.)

- minimize, whitewash or twist the truth about what happened between you to their friends, family, spouse, partners, co-workers, anyone who will listen (and accuse you of doing all the things they did to you - i.e. Projection)

- do everything they can to make YOU look like the sick, mentally ill or not credible person

- use their friends/ spouses in denial, other predators, coworkers, internet buddies to help them discredit and smear you or harm you physical and psychologically.

- They may post on boards you belong to or hack a website if you have one.

- They may hack your computer, your email and alter or delete files.

- Hire an attorney and give the attorney selective and or altered information to sue you for defamation, libel and/or slander.
(link above)

Conclusions

To scoop it all up. Ask yourself what possible reason could a man have to invite a few women and not include a single man to a private thread and lecture them on Constitution? A man who is not a friend, not even an acquaintance. Someone they've known absolutely nothing about.*

He builds an authority, an aura of noble intentions. He builds a net. And then scoops up the remaining fish, and eats them up one after the next. He builds an authority on the entire board, giving sound and helpful advice. He argues intelligently and reasonably, and eventually he is the most trusted person on the board.*

It takes time. He takes his time because he knows the awards will come later and they will be sweet. He uses multiple identities, different ids to check upon his victims, cross "interviews" them to make sure they are truthful at all times. He manipulates his victims, plays them against each other, and other people.

What is left after all this is scorched earth, humiliation, pain, sometimes destitution.*

*

Further Reading:

Exposing Online Predators and Cyberpaths (http://cyberpaths.blogspot.com/)

Love Fraud (http://www.lovefraud.com/)

Victims- Get Professional Help (http://saferelationshipsmagazine.com/) </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

Reading all of this in detail, what pops into my head is: What is that you (IP) have, in which Houston could be so tremendously interested in?

Oh, and I didn't click on any of those links.

Aroha
08-08-2009, 08:16 AM
Awwww. Look. iP in LAPD clothes. Isn't it against the law to impersonate law enforcement?

I remember that US Constitution thread in PM. It didn't have only women in it, or just iP and Proud.

Kollerkrot
08-08-2009, 08:47 AM
Originally posted by LAPD:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by Kollerkrot:

Reading all of this in detail, what pops into my head is: What is that you (IP) have, in which Houston could be so tremendously interested in?

she has what all females have and what all men want so dearly. boogieman seems having playing with women but didnt realize ip is not like other dumb-women he could prey on. he got caught by her in the middle of his game but now he is trying to discredit he with some of his women admirers. she could be alone in standing up and everyone hates her on ilw for their own reasons, this shouldn't be the reason to dismiss her claims. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

My analysis then is rather human. The truth is, men are preprogrammed just as much as women are preprogrammed. Women do have what men want and men have want women want - that's how God wanted it. Smart women know that and if they don't want to be bothered they walk away and don't make it their life's work to want to protect the whole world by discrediting a (1) man, because then women would have to want to go around and discredit all men.

WAKE UP!!!

Brit4064
08-08-2009, 08:54 AM
"hell hath no fury like a woman scorned"

Kollerkrot
08-08-2009, 09:12 AM
Originally posted by Brit4064:
"hell hath no fury like a woman scorned"

...just let it out on some other dude...he might enjoy it. :D

My friend said the other day on the phone - I just received a message in my inbox from somebody saying: "I am h.orney"! So I told my friend go answere him/her: "Go phuck yourself"! End of story!!

Houston
08-08-2009, 10:41 AM
Originally posted by Aroha:
Awwww. Look. iP in LAPD clothes. Isn't it against the law to impersonate law enforcement?

Oh, but that's just her latest hit! They're gonna read that indictment like the Top 40. lmao

Another day, another fantasy!

Houston
08-08-2009, 11:28 AM
Reporting illegal conduct is not a violation of federal or state law. Not doing could well be. What's the name of the two statutes regulating this under Title 18? :D ... any police officer would know that. What's more, any police officer will not take a side and would not use name calling or colorful adjectives.

So, we all have a right to ask for identifying information when in the presence of a "police officer". What's yours? Let's see, if I called the LAPD they would confirm you, right? lmao... Oh, wait, this is where stories about operations come in, but yet the screen name is not something that leaves anything to the imagination, no undercover anything here... Ridiculous, this entire new plot is just laughable! Jurisdiction of LAPD here? Tell us about it...

If you have no real support form real people, then make up your imaginary crowd... :rolleyes:

Running desperate now? Not my problem! iPerson, no funky ID will will help you play your mind games. And yes, it'll end, and yes, she'll be in ICE custody soon enough!

This is very clear for all to see, and now you're sounding really desperate. I suggest you stop digging a hole and begin to face reality. You will have a chance to explain all (and this new thing) to the court, I suggest you use it.

unique
08-08-2009, 11:29 AM
immigration threat is a harrassment in federal statue


Yeah right, who's going to enforce that. Any law that protects an alien is written on a roll of toilet paper. The USCIS is above, and ignores any stupid law that protects sub-humans aliens.

Houston
08-08-2009, 11:43 AM
Reporting crime is not a violation of law Unique, they even have so-called whistle blower laws to encourage people to report illegal activity.

She's jumping off the cliff and don't even care!

Any immigration officer has a right to question any alien, based solely on the person's alienage. That's law. Questioning her about status, if performed by a DHS official, is routine and legal, even without any probable cause. DHS officers also have the right to arrest for violations of Federal Law, even under Title 18. All there in black and white.

Wikipedia running slow, I wonder why... lol

Sprint_girl07
08-08-2009, 11:57 AM
Quote from another thread: Iperson said..

Nobody's offending my site. You are STALKING me, and it is affecting me adversely. It is a psychological torture, and I've had enough!
Cops or server won't stop you from accessing my RSS, and you know it.

Why are you so obsessed with me and what I do??


source (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/678101782/p/9)


Does this sound like we are stalking or her? Does this sound like she is stressed out with fear? Why does she keep coming back here harrassing?



Now LAPD.. threats huh? How about these from IP..


Quote: You are a very bad person Sprint, the worse I've ever met. I don't know who you are people, and what you want from me, but if this doesn't stop, the constant threats, constant stalking... I don't know know what I am going to do but I will have to do something about it to get you out of my life.

thread (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/678101782/p/9)


Quote: (IP has been deleting threads lol but luckily I did quote them for exhibits :) )

I have a friend in Oklahoma City, not far from you. Do you realize that your IP address can lead me straight to your computer. Do you realize all this?

Then if I were you, I'd shut your mouth. asap.

thread (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/848102592/p/7)



Another, and this isn't the first threat that she said she would call my ex, (knowing that I have a permanent protective order against him).

Quote: leave me alone or we will invite your ex husband over to tell us about the real
Sprint, and to see for himself what you've been up to.

thread (http://discuss.ilw.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/902603441/m/848102592/p/7)


Oooh.. I could go back and bring up all the threats made by Iperson. All before we even said we would call ICE.
We have every right to call whoever we like, especially if we feel she is a threat to someone in real life and if she is breaking the law.

George, think of it this way, at least she would be out of your and your family's life for good, no more blackmailing you either :)

a9b3h5
08-08-2009, 11:59 AM
Once upon a time ILW stood for Intelligent, Luscious Women but now it has turned women into Irritable Loner Whackos.... :D

I demand we bring this forum back to S E X. A solution to all problems, a solution that can help us live peacefully, make sweet and passionate memories http://www.ilw.com/corporate/drool5.gif

unique
08-08-2009, 12:06 PM
Reporting crime is not a violation of law Unique, they even have so-called whistle blower laws to encourage people to report illegal activity.


The whole and only reason I got denied, was because I reported misconduct, and was eternally punished for doing so.

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 12:14 PM
http://www.harmoniousliving.co.za/images/stories/articles/bugsThatEatBugs2.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/96/218736640_349f2254ed.jpg http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2286/2499311806_ed30f0dd83.jpg http://mymacbuzz.com/media/2007/bugs.jpg

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 12:15 PM
http://l.yimg.com/g/images/spaceball.gif

Kollerkrot
08-08-2009, 12:16 PM
Originally posted by LAPD:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by Kollerkrot:

Reading all of this in detail, what pops into my head is: What is that you (IP) have, in which Houston could be so tremendously interested in?

she has what all females have and what all men want so dearly. boogieman seems having playing with women but didnt realize ip is not like other dumb-women he could prey on. he got caught by her in the middle of his game but now he is trying to discredit her with the help of some of his women admirers. she could be alone in standing up on this and everyone can hate her on ilw for their own reasons but this shouldn't be the reason to dismiss her claims. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

That is delusion.

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 12:16 PM
http://thm-a03.yimg.com/image/55dd4960c32e2c22

mike_2007
08-08-2009, 12:17 PM
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Tea
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The references in this article or section may not meet Wikipedia's guidelines for reliable sources.
Please help by checking whether the references meet the criteria for reliable sources. Further discussion may be found on the talk page.
This article has been tagged since July 2009.

For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation).

Green Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan.
A tea bush.
Plantation workers picking tea in Tanzania.
Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.
Loose dried tea leavesTea refers to the agricultural products of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of the Camellia sinensis plant, prepared and cured by various methods. "Tea" also refers to the aromatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves by combination with hot or boiling water,[1] and is the colloquial name for the Camellia sinensis plant itself.

After water, tea is the most widely-consumed beverage in the world.[2] It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavour.[3]

The four types of tea most commonly found on the market are black tea, oolong tea, green tea and white tea,[4] all of which can be made from the same bushes, processed differently, and in the case of fine white tea grown differently. Pu-erh tea, a double-fermented black tea, is also often classified as amongst the most popular types of tea.[5]

The term "herbal tea" usually refers to an infusion or tisane of leaves, flowers, fruit, herbs or other plant material that contains no Camellia sinensis.[6] The term "red tea" either refers to an infusion made from the South African rooibos plant, also containing no Camellia sinensis, or, in Chinese, Korean, Japanese and other East Asian languages, refers to black tea.

Contents [hide]
1 Cultivation
2 Processing and classification
3 Blending and additives
4 Content
5 Origin and history
5.1 Origin myths
5.2 China
5.3 Japan
5.4 Vietnam
5.5 Korea
5.6 Taiwan
5.7 Tea spreads to the world
5.8 United Kingdom
5.9 United States of America
5.10 India
5.11 Sri Lanka/Ceylon
5.12 Africa and South America
6 Tea and health
7 Etymology and cognates in other languages
7.1 The derivatives from tê
7.2 Derivatives from cha or chai
8 Tea culture
9 Preparation
9.1 Black tea
9.2 Green tea
9.3 Oolong tea (or Wulong)
9.4 Premium or delicate tea
9.5 Pu-erh tea (or Pu'er)
9.6 Serving
9.7 Adding milk to tea
9.8 Other additives
10 Economics of tea
11 Statistics
11.1 Production
11.1.1 Tea production certification
11.2 Trade
11.2.1 Export
11.2.2 Import
11.2.3 Prices
12 Packaging
12.1 Tea bags
12.2 Pyramid tea bags
12.3 Loose tea
12.4 Compressed tea
12.5 Instant tea
12.6 Canned tea
13 Storage
14 See also
15 Notes
16 References
17 External links



[edit] Cultivation
Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Nevertheless, some varieties can also tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Cornwall on the UK mainland[7] and Seattle in the United States.

In addition to a zone 8 climate or warmer, tea plants require at least 50 inches of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils.[8] Many high-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1500 meters (5,000 ft): at these heights, the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavour.[9]

Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called flushes.[10] A plant will grow a new flush every seven to ten days during the growing season.

A tea plant will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.[11]

Two principal varieties are used: the small-leaved China plant (C. sinensis sinensis), used for most Chinese, Formosan and Japanese teas (but not Pu-erh); and the large-leaved Assam plant (C. sinensis assamica), used in most Indian and other teas (but not Darjeeling). Within these botanical varieties, there are many strains and modern Indian clonal varieties. Leaf size is the chief criterion for the classification of tea plants:[12] tea is classified into (1) Assam type, characterized by the largest leaves; (2) China type, characterized by the smallest leaves; and (3) Cambod, characterized by leaves of intermediate size.[12]


Tea estates at Munnar, Kerala, India.

[edit] Processing and classification
Main article: Tea processing
A tea's type is determined by the processing which it undergoes. Leaves of Camellia sinensis soon begin to wilt and oxidize if not dried quickly after picking. The leaves turn progressively darker as their chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are released. This process, enzymatic oxidation, is called fermentation in the tea industry, although it is not a true fermentation: it is not caused by micro-organisms, and is not an anaerobic process. The next step in processing is to stop the oxidation process at a predetermined stage by heating, which deactivates the enzymes responsible. With black tea this is done simultaneously with drying.

Without careful moisture and temperature control during manufacture and packaging, the tea will grow fungi. The fungus causes real fermentation that will contaminate the tea with toxic and sometimes carcinogenic substances, as well as off-flavors, rendering the tea unfit for consumption.


Tea leaf processing methods (Simplified)Tea is traditionally classified based on the techniques with which it is produced and processed.[13]

White tea: Unwilted and unoxidized
Yellow tea: Unwilted and unoxidized but allowed to yellow
Green tea: Wilted and unoxidized
Oolong: Wilted, bruised, and partially oxidized
Black tea: Wilted, sometimes crushed, and fully oxidized
Post-fermented tea: Green Tea that has been allowed to ferment/compost

[edit] Blending and additives

Tea weighing station north of Batumi, Russian Empire before 1915Main article: Tea blending and additives
Almost all teas in bags and most other teas sold in the West are blends. Blending may occur in the tea-planting area (as in the case of Assam), or teas from many areas may be blended. The aim is to obtain better taste, higher price, or both, as a more expensive, better-tasting tea may cover the inferior taste of cheaper varieties.

Some teas are not pure varieties, but have been enhanced through additives or special processing. Tea is highly receptive to inclusion of various aromas; this may cause problems in processing, transportation and storage, but also allows for the design of an almost endless range of scented and flavored variants, such as vanilla, caramel, and many others.


[edit] Content
Tea contains catechins, a type of antioxidant. In a fresh tea leaf, catechins can compose up to 30% of the dry weight. Catechins are highest in concentration in white and green teas, while black tea has substantially fewer due to its oxidative preparation.[14][15] Research by the U.S. Department of Agriculture has suggested that levels of antioxidants in green and black tea do not differ greatly, with green tea having an Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of 1253 and black tea an ORAC of 1128 (measured in ?molTE/100g).[16] Tea also contains theanine and the stimulant caffeine at about 3% of its dry weight, translating to between 30 mg and 90 mg per 8 oz (250 ml) cup depending on type, brand[17] and brewing method.[18] Tea also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline,[19] as well as fluoride[citation needed], with certain types of brick tea made from old leaves and stems having the highest levels.[20]

Dry tea has more caffeine by weight than coffee; nevertheless, more dried coffee is used than dry tea in preparing the beverage,[21] which mean that a cup of brewed tea contains significantly less caffeine than a cup of coffee of the same size.

Tea has no carbohydrates, fat, or protein.


[edit] Origin and history
According to Mondal (2007, p. 519): "Camellia sinensis originated in southeast Asia, specifically around the intersection of latitude 29°N and longitude 98°E, the point of confluence of the lands of northeast India, north Burma, southwest China and Tibet. The plant was introduced to more than 52 countries, from this ‘centre of origin’."

Based on morphological differences between the Assamese and Chinese varieties, botanists have long asserted a dual botanical origin for tea; however, statistical cluster analysis, the same chromosome number (2n=30), easy hybridization, and various types of intermediate hybrids and spontaneous polyploids all appear to demonstrate a single place of origin for Camellia sinensis — the area including the northern part of Burma, and Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China.[22] According to this theory, tea plants in southeast Asia may have been the products of the 19th Century and 20th Century hybridizing experiments.[citation needed]

Yunnan Province has also been identified as "the birthplace of tea...the first area where humans figured out that eating tea leaves or brewing a cup could be pleasant".[23] Fengqing County in the Lincang City Prefecture of Yunnan Province is said to be home to the world's oldest cultivated tea tree, some 3,200 years old.[24]


[edit] Origin myths
In one popular Chinese legend, Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China and inventor of agriculture and Chinese medicine was drinking a bowl of boiling water some time around 2737 BC when a few leaves were blown from a nearby tree into his water, changing the color. The emperor took a sip of the brew and was pleasantly surprised by its flavor and restorative properties. A variant of the legend tells that the emperor tested the medical properties of various herbs on himself, some of them poisonous, and found tea to work as an antidote.[25] Shennong is also mentioned in Lu Yu's famous early work on the subject, Cha Jing.[26] A similar Chinese legend goes that the god of agriculture would chew the leaves, stems, and roots of various plants to discover medicinal herbs. If he consumed a poisonous plant, he would chew tea leaves to counteract the poison.[27]

A rather gruesome legend dates back to the Tang Dynasty. In the legend, Bodhidharma, the founder of Chan Buddhism, accidentally fell asleep after meditating in front of a wall for nine years. He woke up in such disgust at his weakness that he cut off his own eyelids. They fell to the ground and took root, growing into tea bushes.[28] Sometimes, another version of the story is told with Gautama Buddha in place of Bodhidharma[29].

Whether or not these legends have any basis in fact, tea has played a significant role in Asian culture for centuries as a staple beverage, a curative, and a status symbol. It is not surprising, therefore, that theories of its origin are often religious or royal in nature.


A Ming Dynasty painting by artist Wen Zhengming illustrating scholars greeting in a tea ceremony
Lu Yu's statue in Xi'an
Illustration of the legend of monkeys harvesting tea.
[edit] China
Main article: History of tea in China
The Chinese have consumed tea for thousands of years. People of the Han Dynasty used tea as medicine (though the first use of tea as a stimulant is unknown). China is considered to have the earliest records of tea consumption,[30][31] with records dating back to the 10th century BC.[30]

Laozi (ca. 600-517 BC), the classical Chinese philosopher, described tea as "the froth of the liquid jade" and named it an indispensable ingredient to the elixir of life. Legend has it that master Lao was saddened by society's moral decay and, sensing that the end of the dynasty was near, he journeyed westward to the unsettled territories, never to be seen again. While passing along the nation's border, he encountered and was offered tea by a customs inspector named Yin Hsi. Yin Hsi encouraged him to compile his teachings into a single book so that future generations might benefit from his wisdom. This then became known as the Dao De Jing, a collection of Laozi's sayings.

In 59 BC, **** Bao wrote the first known book with instructions on buying and preparing tea.

In 220 , famed physician and surgeon Hua Tuo wrote Shin Lun, in which he describes tea's ability to improve mental functions.

During the Sui Dynasty (589-618 AD) tea was introduced to Japan by Buddhist monks.

The Tang Dynasty writer Lu Yu's (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: lùy?) Cha Jing (The Classic of Tea) ?simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: chá j?ng) is an early work on the subject. (See also Tea Classics) According to Cha Jing tea drinking was widespread. The book describes how tea plants were grown, the leaves processed, and tea prepared as a beverage. It also describes how tea was evaluated. The book also discusses where the best tea leaves were produced. Teas produced in this period were mainly tea bricks which were often used as currency, especially further from the center of the empire where coins lost their value.

During the Song Dynasty (960-1279), production and preparation of all tea changed. The tea of Song included many loose-leaf styles (to preserve the delicate character favored by court society), but a new powdered form of tea emerged. Steaming tea leaves was the primary process used for centuries in the preparation of tea. After the transition from compressed tea to the powdered form, the production of tea for trade and distribution changed once again. The Chinese learned to process tea in a different way in the mid-13th century. Tea leaves were roasted and then crumbled rather than steamed. This is the origin of today's loose teas and the practice of brewed tea.

Tea production in China, historically, was a laborious process, conducted in distant and often poorly accessible regions. This led to the rise of many apocryphal stories and legends surrounding the harvesting process. For example, one story that has been told for many years is that of a village where monkeys pick tea. According to this legend, the villagers stand below the monkeys and taunt them. The monkeys, in turn, become angry, and grab handfuls of tea leaves and throw them at the villagers.[32] There are products sold today that claim to be harvested in this manner, but no reliable commentators have observed this firsthand, and most doubt that it happened at all.[33] For many hundreds of years the commercially-used tea tree has been, in shape, more of a bush than a tree.[34] "Monkey picked tea" is more likely a name of certain varieties than a description of how it was obtained.[35]

In 1391, the Ming court issued a decree that only loose tea would be accepted as a "tribute." As a result, loose tea production increased and processing techniques advanced. Soon, most tea was distributed in full-leaf, loose form and steeped in earthenware vessels.


[edit] Japan

Ancient Tea Urns used by merchants to store tea.
Japanese tea ceremonyMain article: History of tea in Japan
Tea use spread to Japan about the sixth century.[36] Tea became a drink of the religious classes in Japan when Japanese priests and envoys, sent to China to learn about its culture, brought tea to Japan. Ancient recordings indicate the first batch of tea seeds were brought by a priest named Saich? (???, 767-822) in 805 and then by another named K?kai (???, 774-835) in 806. It became a drink of the royal classes when Emperor Saga (?????), the Japanese emperor, encouraged the growth of tea plants. Seeds were imported from China, and cultivation in Japan began.

In 1191, the famous Zen priest Eisai (???, 1141-1215) brought back tea seeds to Kyoto. Some of the tea seeds were given to the priest Myoe Shonin, and became the basis for Uji tea. The oldest tea specialty book in Japan, Kissa Y?j?ki (??????, How to Stay Healthy by Drinking Tea), was written by Eisai. The two-volume book was written in 1211 after his second and last visit to China. The first sentence states, “Tea is the ultimate mental and medical remedy and has the ability to make one’s life more full and complete." Eisai was also instrumental in introducing tea consumption to the warrior class, which rose to political prominence after the Heian Period.

Green tea became a staple among cultured people in Japan—a brew for the gentry and the Buddhist priesthood alike. Production grew and tea became increasingly accessible, though still a privilege enjoyed mostly by the upper classes. The tea ceremony of Japan was introduced from China in the 15th century by Buddhists as a semi-religious social custom. The modern tea ceremony developed over several centuries by Zen Buddhist monks under the original guidance of the monk Sen no Riky? (? ???, 1522-1591). In fact, both the beverage and the ceremony surrounding it played a prominent role in feudal diplomacy.

In 1738, Soen Nagatani developed Japanese sencha (???), literally roasted tea, which is an unfermented form of green tea. It is the most popular form of tea in Japan today. In 1835, Kahei Yamamoto developed gyokuro (???), literally jewel dew, by shading tea trees during the weeks leading up to harvesting. At the end of the Meiji period (1868-1912), machine manufacturing of green tea was introduced and began replacing handmade tea.


[edit] Vietnam
Vietnamese green teas have been largely unknown outside of mainland Asia until the present day. Recent free-enterprise initiatives are introducing these green teas to outside countries through new export activities.

Types:

Lotus tea is a specialty product of the Vietnamese tea industry. Generally, high-quality green tea leaves are placed within lotus flowers for a day to acquire the scent, then are removed and packaged. A higher grade of lotus tea is made with lotus petals mixed in with high quality green tea leaves. Green tea style of Vietnam is to roll the leaves gently into crescents, and minimal handling. Vietnamese green teas are typically very potent. They are best brewed for most tastes for under 2 minutes using water temperature of 160°F. Beyond this time the tea will acquire a bitter taste that is nevertheless fancied by many tea lovers, as it reflects the potency of the tea leaves. Some fanciers will brew 3-4 times from one set of leaves, preferring the narrower flavor range of the later brewings.
Jasmine tea is produced in two grades similar to lotus tea. Lotus tea is considered a specialty and is reserved for events or special meals. Jasmine tea is popular as a "chaser" for Vietnamese iced coffee, and is poured into the glass after the coffee is consumed, allowed to chill, and then enjoyed as a follow-up to the iced coffee in coffee shop cafes, particularly in the night life of major cities, where coffee shops are a popular social rendezvous on hot evenings.
Artichoke Tea
Vietnamese teas are produced in many areas that have been known for tea-house "retreats". For example some are, located amidst immense tea forests of the Lam**** highlands, where there is a community of ancient Ruong houses built at the end of the 18th century.


[edit] Korea
See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean tea

Darye, Korean tea ceremonyThe first historical record documenting the offering of tea to an ancestral god describes a rite in the year 661 in which a tea offering was made to the spirit of King Suro, the founder of the Geumgwan ***a Kingdom (42-562). Records from the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) show that tea offerings were made in Buddhist temples to the spirits of revered monks.

During the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), the royal Yi family and the aristocracy used tea for simple rites. The "Day Tea Rite" was a common daytime ceremony, whereas the "Special Tea Rite" was reserved for specific occasions. Toward the end of the Joseon Dynasty, commoners joined the trend and used tea for ancestral rites, following the Chinese example based on Zhu Xi's text formalities of Family.

Stoneware was common, ceramic more frequent, mostly made in provincial kilns, with porcelain rare, imperial porcelain with dragons the rarest. The earliest kinds of tea used in tea ceremonies were heavily pressed cakes of black tea, the equivalent of aged pu-erh tea still popular in China. However, importation of tea plants by Buddhist monks brought a more delicate series of teas into Korea, and the tea ceremony. Green tea, "chaksol" or "chugno," is most often served. However other teas such as "Byeoksoryung" Chunhachoon, Woojeon, Jakseol, Jookro, Okcheon, as well as native chrysanthemum tea, persimmon leaf tea, or mugwort tea may be served at different times of the year.


[edit] Taiwan
Taiwan is famous for the making of Oolong tea and green tea, as well as many western-styled teas. Bubble Tea or "Zhen Zhu Nai Cha" is black tea mixed with sweetened condensed milk and tapioca. Since the island was known to Westerners for many centuries as Formosa — short for the Portuguese Ilha Formosa, or "beautiful island" — tea grown in Taiwan is often identified by that name.


Middle Eastern tea
[edit] Tea spreads to the world

A conical urn-shaped silver-plated samovar used for boiling water for tea in Russia and some Middle eastern countriesThe earliest record of tea in a more occidental writing is said to be found in the statement of an Arabian traveler, that after the year 879 the main sources of revenue in Canton were the duties on salt and tea. Marco Polo records the deposition of a Chinese minister of finance in 1285 for his arbitrary augmentation of the tea taxes. The travelers Giovanni Batista Ramusio (1559), L. Almeida (1576), Maffei (1588), and Teixeira (1610) also mentioned tea. In 1557, Portugal established a trading port in Macau and word of the Chinese drink "chá" spread quickly, but there is no mention of them bringing any samples home. In the early 17th century, a ship of the Dutch East India Company brought the first green tea leaves to Amsterdam from China. Tea was known in France by 1636. It enjoyed a brief period of popularity in Paris around 1648. The history of tea in Russia can also be traced back to the seventeenth century. Tea was first offered by China as a gift to Czar Michael I in 1618. The Russian ambassador tried the drink; he did not care for it and rejected the offer, delaying tea's Russian introduction by fifty years. In 1689, tea was regularly imported from China to Russia via a caravan of hundreds of camels traveling the year-long journey, making it a precious commodity at the time. Tea was appearing in German apothecaries by 1657 but never gained much esteem except in coastal areas such as Ostfriesland.[37] Tea first appeared publicly in England during the 1650s, where it was introduced through coffee houses. From there it was introduced to British colonies in America and elsewhere.


[edit] United Kingdom

Tea plantation in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.The importing of tea into Britain began in the 1660s with the marriage of King Charles II to Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza as she brought to the court the habit of drinking tea.[38] On 25 September of the same year Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary: "I did send for a cup of tee (a China drink) of which I never had drank before".[39] It is probable that early imports came via Amsterdam or through sailors on eastern boats.[38]

Regular trade began in Guangzhou (Canton).[38] Trade was controlled by two monopolies: the Chinese Hongs (trading companies) and the British East India Company.[38] The Hongs acquired tea from 'the tea men' who had an elaborate supply chain into the mountains and provinces where the tea was grown.[38]

The East India Company brought back many products, of which tea was just one, but it was to prove one of the most successful.[38] It was initially promoted as a medicinal beverage or tonic.[38] By the end of the seventeenth century tea was taken as a drink, albeit mainly by the aristocracy.[38] In 1690 nobody would have predicted that by 1750 tea would be the national drink.[38] The origin of large trade in tea was the need for a return cargo from the East Indies. Merchantmen ships delivered fabrics manufactured in Britain to India and China but would return empty or partially full. To solve this problem the East India Company began a vigorous public relations campaign to popularise tea among the common people in Britain and develop it as a viable return cargo.

The escalation of tea importation and sales over the period 1690 to 1750 is mirrored closely by the increase in importation and sales of cane sugar: the British were not drinking just tea but sweet tea.[38] Thus, two of Britain's trading triangles were to meet within the cup: the sugar sourced from Britain's trading triangle encompassing Britain, Africa and the West Indies and the tea from the triangle encompassing Britain, India and China.[38]

Britain had to pay China for its tea, but China had little need of British goods, so much of it was paid for with silver bullion. Although the Chinese did not need the silver, China's government eventually accepted the silver as the payments for the first few good Chinese tea shipments.[citation needed] A few years on, India used its opium to influence the then East India Company, Britain to pay all of their gold and silver for their addiction of Indian opium, and forced the Chinese Tea Growers to accept the illegal Indian opium for the exchange of shipments of the good Chinese tea.[citation needed] Critics of tea at this time would point to the damage caused to Britain's wealth by this loss of bullion.[38] As an alternative, Britain began producing opium in India and forced China to trade tea for opium as part of several treaties after the Opium wars. Tea became an important lubricant of Britain's global trade, contributing to Britain's global dominance by the end of the eighteenth century. To this day tea is seen as a symbol of 'Britishness', but also, to some, as a symbol of British Colonialism.[38] The London 2012 section of the paralympic handover in Beijing included tea as part of the routine.[clarification needed]


[edit] United States of America
While coffee is by far more popular, hot brewed black tea is enjoyed both with meals and as a refreshment by much of the population. Similarly, iced tea is consumed throughout. In the Southern states sweet tea, sweetened with large amounts of sugar or an artificial sweetener and chilled, is the fashion. Outside the South, sweet tea is sometimes found, but primarily because of cultural migration and commercialization.[citation needed]

The American specialty tea market has quadrupled in the years from 1993-2008, now being worth $6.8 billion a year.[40] Similar to the trend of better coffee and better wines, this tremendous increase was partly due to consumers who choose to trade up. Specialty tea houses and retailers also started to pop up during this period.[41]

The Boston Tea Party was an act of protest by the American colonists against the British Government in which they destroyed many crates of tea belonging to the British East India Company on ships in Boston Harbor. The incident, which took place on Thursday, December 16, 1773, has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution.[citation needed]


Tea Garden in Assam, India
[edit] India
See also: Assam tea, Darjeeling tea, Masala chai, and Nilgiri tea
Tea had been known for millennia in India as a medicinal plant, but was not drunk for pleasure until the British began to establish plantations in the 19th century. The Chinese variety is used for Darjeeling tea, and the Assamese variety, native to the Indian state of Assam, everywhere else. The British started commercial tea plantations in India and in Ceylon: "In 1824 tea plants were discovered in the hills along the frontier between Burma and the Indian state of Assam. The British introduced tea culture into India in 1836 and into Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1867. At first they used seeds from China, but later seeds from the Assam plant were used."[42] Only black tea was produced until recent decades.

India was the top producer of tea for nearly a century, but was displaced by China as the top tea producer in the 21st century.[43] Indian tea companies have acquired a number of iconic foreign tea enterprises including British brands Tetley and Typhoo.[43] While India is the largest consumer of tea worldwide, the per-capita consumption of tea in India remains a modest 750 grams per person every year.[43] A lot of huge companies have emerged including 'Golden Tips Tea Co', and many other major brands that specialise and emphasize on Darjeeling tea and tourism in Darjeeling, one of the prime beautiful locations famous for tea.


[edit] Sri Lanka/Ceylon

Tea Garden in Sri LankaMain article: Tea production in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka is renowned for its high quality tea and as the fourth biggest tea producing country globally, after China, India and Kenya (See the chart below) and has a production share of 9% in the international sphere, and one of the world's leading exporters with a share of around 19% of the global demand. The total extent of land under tea cultivation has been assessed at approximately 187,309 hectares.

The plantations started by the British were initially taken over by the government in the 1960s, but have been privatized and are now run by 'plantation companies' which own a few 'estates' or tea plantations each.

Ceylon tea is divided into 3 groups as Upcountry, Mid country and Low country tea based on the geography of the land on which it is grown. [44]


[edit] Africa and South America
Africa and South America have seen greatly increased tea production in recent decades, the great majority for export to Europe and North America respectively, produced on large estates, often owned by tea companies from the export markets. Almost all production is of basic mass-market teas, processed by the Crush, Tear, Curl method. Kenya is now the fourth largest global producer (figures below), after China and India, and is now the largest exporter of tea to the United Kingdom. There is also a great consumption of tea in Chile[citation needed]. In South Africa, the non-Camellia sinensis beverage rooibos is popular. In South America, yerba mate, a tisane, is popular.


[edit] Tea and health
Main article: Tea and health
The health benefits of tea is a controversial topic with many proponents and detractors. An article from the Nutrition (1999, pp. 946–949) journal as related on PubMed states:

The possible beneficial effects of tea consumption in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been demonstrated in animal models and suggested by studies in vitro. Similar beneficial effects, however, have not been convincingly demonstrated in humans: beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some studies but not in others. If such beneficial effects do exist in humans, they are likely to be mild, depending on many other lifestyle-related factors, and could be masked by confounding factors in certain populations. Another concern is that the amounts of tea consumed by humans are lower than the doses required for demonstrating the disease-prevention effects in animal models. Caution should be applied, however, in the use of high concentrations of tea for disease prevention. Ingestion of large amounts of tea may cause nutritional and other problems because of the caffeine content and the strong binding activities of tea polyphenols, although there are no solid data on the harmful effects of tea consumption. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic activities of green and black tea and to determine the optimal amount of tea consumption for possible health-beneficial effects.

In abstract, the health benefits of tea have been shown in animal studies, but at doses much higher than regularly consumed by humans, at which dosage levels may prove to be harmful to health.

Several of the potential health benefits proposed for tea are outlined in this excerpt from Mondal (2007, pp. 519–520) as following:

Tea leaves contain more than 700 chemicals, among which the compounds closely related to human health are flavanoides, amino acids, vitamins (C, E and K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Moreover, tea drinking has recently proven to be associated with cell-mediated immune function of the human body. Tea plays an important role in improving beneficial intestinal microflora, as well as providing immunity against intestinal disorders and in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. Tea also prevents dental caries due to the presence of fluorine. The role of tea is well established in normalizing blood pressure, lipid depressing activity, prevention of coronary heart diseases and diabetes by reducing the blood-glucose activity. Tea also possesses germicidal and germistatic activities against various gram-positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Both green and black tea infusions contain a number of antioxidants, mainly catechins that have anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic and anti-tumoric properties.

In a large study of over 11,000 Scottish men and women completed in 1993 and published in the 1999 Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (1999, pp. 481-487), there was an increase in the risk of coronary disease with the regular consumption of tea, although it disappeared after adjustment for confounding factors (age and occupational status).


[edit] Etymology and cognates in other languages
The Chinese character for tea is ?, but it is pronounced differently in the various Chinese dialects. Two pronunciations have made their way into other languages around the world.[45] One is tê, which comes from the Amoy Min Nan dialect, spoken around the port of Xiamen (Amoy). This pronunciation is believed to come from the old words for tea ? (tú) or ? (tú). The other is chá, used by the Cantonese dialect spoken around the ports of Guangzhou (Canton), Hong Kong, Macau, and in overseas Chinese communities, as well as in the Mandarin dialect of northern China. This term was used in ancient times to describe the first flush harvest of tea. Yet another different pronunciation is zu, used in the Wu dialect spoken around Shanghai. The words for tea in Korea and Japan are ? and ? (??), respectively. Both are transliterated as cha. (In Japanese, it is sometimes ?? (???) or ocha, which is more polite.)


[edit] The derivatives from tê
Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name
Afrikaans tee Armenian, Catalan te Czech té or thé (1) Danish te Dutch thee
English tea Esperanto teo Estonian tee Faroese te Finnish tee
French thé West Frisian tee Galician té German Tee Hebrew ??, te
Hungarian tea Icelandic te Indonesian teh Irish tae Italian tè or thè
Javanese tèh Korean ?,? da [ta](2) scientific Latin thea Latvian t?ja Leonese té
Limburgish tiè Low Saxon Tee [t????] or Tei [t?a??] Malay teh Norwegian te Occitan tè
Sesotho tea,chá Scots Gaelic tì, teatha Singhalese thé Spanish té Scots tea [ti?] ~ [te?]
Sundanese entèh Swedish te Tamil ?????? then?r (n?r = water) "theyilai" means "tea leaf" (ilai=leaf) Telugu ???????? t?n?ru Welsh te

Note: (1) té or thé, but this term is considered archaic and literary expression. Since roughly second half of 20th century, ?aj is used for "tea" in Czech language, see the following tabletable (3).
(2)?(cha) is an alternative word for "tea" in Korean; see (4)


[edit] Derivatives from cha or chai
Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name
Armenian tey Albanian çaj Amharic ?? shai Arabic ??? sh?y Assamese saah Aramaic pronounced chai
Azerbaijani çay Bangla ?? cha Bosnian ?aj Bulgarian ??? chai Capampangan cha
Cebuano tsa Croatian ?aj Czech ?aj (2) English char, slang Georgian ???, chai
Greek ???? tsái Gujarati ?? cha Hindi ??? chai Ilocano tsa-a, or i-tsa Japanese ?, ??, cha
Kannada ??? Chaha Kazakh ??? shai Kyrgyz ???, chai Khasi sha Konkani ??? chau Korean ?,?, cha(4)
Macedonian ???, ?aj Malayalam "chaaya" Marathi ??? chahaa Mongolian ???, tsai Nepali chiya ????
Oriya cha Pashto ??? chai Persian ??? chai Punjabi ??? chah Portuguese chá
Romanian ceai Russian ???, chai Serbian ???, ?aj Slovak ?aj Slovene ?aj
Somali shaah Swahili chai Sylheti saah Tagalog tsaa Thai ??, cha
Tibetan ?? ja Tlingit cháayu Turkish çay Turkmen çay Ukrainian ??? chai
Urdu ?? ??chai Uzbek choy Vietnamese *trà and chè Tamil *theyneer and tee
(5)


(5) They are both direct derivatives of the Chinese ?; the latter term is used mainly in the north and describes a tea made with freshly-picked leaves.
The Polish word for a tea-kettle is czajnik, which could be derived directly from cha or from the cognate Russian word. However, tea in Polish is herbata, which, as well as Lithuanian arbata, was derived from the Latin herba thea, meaning "tea herb".

It is tempting to correlate these names with the route that was used to deliver tea to these cultures, although the relation is far from simple at times. As an example, the first tea to reach Britain was traded by the Dutch from Fujian, which uses te, and although later most British trade went through Canton, which uses cha, the Fujianese pronunciation continued to be the more popular.

In Ireland, or at least in Dublin, the term cha is sometimes used for "tea", as is pre-vowel-shift pronunciation "tay" (from which the Irish Gaelic word "tae" is derived). Char was a common slang term for tea throughout British Empire and Commonwealth military forces in the 19th and 20th centuries, crossing over into civilian usage.

The British English slang word "char" for "tea" arose from its Mandarin Chinese pronunciation "cha" with its spelling affected by the fact that ar is a more common way of representing the phoneme /??/ in English.

In North America, the word chai is used to refer almost exclusively to the Indian masala chai (spiced tea) beverage.

The original pronunciation "cha" in the Cantonese and Mandarin languages has no [j] ending. The forms with this ending in many Eurasian languages come from the Chinese compound word denoting "tea leaves" (Mandarin ?? chá yè).[citation needed] The different articulations of the word for tea into the two main groups: "teh-derived" (Min Chinese dialects) and "cha-derived" (Mandarin, Cantonese and other non-Min Chinese dialects) is an interesting one, as it reveals the particular Chinese local cultures where non-Chinese nations acquired their tea and "tea cultures". Not surprisingly, India and the Arab world most likely got their tea cultures from the Cantonese or the Southwestern Mandarin speakers, whereas the Russians got theirs from the northern Mandarin speakers. The Portuguese, the first Europeans to import the herb in large amounts, took the Cantonese form "chá", as used in their trading posts in the south of China, especially Macau. Conversely, other Western Europeans who copied the Min articulation "teh" probably traded with the Hokkienese while in Southeast Asia.

Quite recently, no earlier than 1980, "chai" entered North American English with a particular meaning: Indian masala black tea. Of course this is not the case in other languages, where "chai" usually just means black tea (as people traditionally drink more black tea than green outside of East Asia). English is thus one of the few languages that allow for the dual articulations of "tea" into a "teh-derived" word and a "cha-derived" one, such as Moroccan colloquial Arabic (Darija): in the case of Moroccan Arabic, "ash-shay" means "generic, or black Middle Eastern tea" whereas "atay" means a specialty tea: Zhejiang or Fujian green tea with fresh mint leaves. The Moroccans are said to have acquired a unique penchant in the Arab world for East Chinese green tea after the ruler Mulay Hassan exchanged some European hostages captured by the Barbary Pirates for a whole ship of Chinese tea. They have thus acquired a word for this special tea different from the generic "ash-shay". See Moroccan tea culture

Perhaps the only place in which a word unrelated to tea is used to describe the beverage is South America (particularly Andean countries), because a similar stimulant beverage, yerba mate, was consumed there long before tea arrived.


[edit] Tea culture
Main article: Tea culture
In many cultures, tea is often had at high class social events, such as afternoon tea and the tea party. It may be consumed early in the day to heighten alertness; it contains theophylline and bound caffeine[3] (sometimes called "theine"), although there are also decaffeinated teas. In many cultures such as Arab culture tea is a focal point for social gatherings. Moreover, the history of tea in Iran - in the Persian culture- is another to explore. One source cites: "the first thing you will be offered when a guest at an Iranian household is tea".[46]

There are tea ceremonies which have arisen in different cultures, Japan's complex, formal and serene one being one of the most well known. Other examples are the Chinese tea ceremony which uses some traditional ways of brewing tea. One form of Chinese tea ceremony is the Gongfu tea ceremony, which typically uses small Yixing clay teapots and oolong tea.

The American poet Wallace Stevens, a tea-fancier, is credited by Eleanor Cook with a "delicately implicit trope of drinking tea as a metaphor for reading (ingesting a drink from leaves)."[47] See for instance his "Tea".


[edit] Preparation
For a more detailed treatment of tea preparation and serving habits, particularly in non-Western countries, see Tea culture.

Korean tea kettle over hot coalThe traditional method of making a cup of tea is to place loose tea leaves, either directly, or in a tea infuser, into a tea pot or teacup and pour hot water over the leaves. After a couple of minutes the leaves are usually removed again, either by removing the infuser, or by straining the tea while serving.

Most green teas should be allowed to steep for about three minutes, although some types of tea require as much as ten. The strength of the tea should be varied by changing the amount of tea leaves used, not by changing the steeping time. The amount of tea to be used per amount of water differs from tea to tea but one basic recipe may be one slightly heaped teaspoon of tea (about 5 ml) for each teacup of water (200 ml) (8 oz) prepared as above. Stronger teas, such as Assam, to be drunk with milk are often prepared with more leaves, and more delicate high grown teas such as a Darjeeling are prepared with a little less (as the stronger mid-flavors can overwhelm the champagne notes).

The best temperature for brewing tea depends on its type. Teas that have little or no oxidation period, such as a green or white tea, are best brewed at lower temperatures between 60 °C and 85 °C (140-185 °F), while teas with longer oxidation periods should be brewed at higher temperatures around 100 °C (212 °F).[48] The higher temperatures are required to extract the large, complex, flavorful phenolic molecules found in fermented tea, although boiling the water reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.

Type Water Temp. Steep Time Infusions
White Tea 150 °F (66 °C) – 160 °F (71 °C) 1–2 minutes 3
Yellow Tea 160 °F (71 °C) – 170 °F (77 °C) 1–2 minutes 3
Green Tea 170 °F (77 °C) – 180 °F (82 °C) 1–2 minutes 4-6
Oolong Tea 180 °F (82 °C) – 190 °F (88 °C) 2–3 minutes 4-6
Black Tea 210 °F (99 °C) 2–3 minutes 2-3
Pu-her Tea 200 °F (93 °C) – 210 °F (99 °C) Limitless Several
Herbal Tea 210 °F (99 °C) 3–6 minutes Varied

Some tea sorts are often brewed several times using the same tea leaves. Historically, in China, tea is divided into a number of infusions. The first infusion is immediately poured out to wash the tea, and then the second and further infusions are drunk. The third through fifth are nearly always considered the best infusions of tea, although different teas open up differently and may require more infusions of hot water to bring them to life.[49]

One way to taste a tea, throughout its entire process, is to add hot water to a cup containing the leaves and after about 30 seconds to taste the tea. As the tea leaves unfold (known as "The Agony of the Leaves") they give up various parts of themselves to the water and thus the taste evolves. Continuing this from the very first flavours to the time beyond which the tea is quite stewed will allow an appreciation of the tea throughout its entire length.[50]


Black tea infusion.
[edit] Black tea
The water for black teas should be added near boiling point 210 °F (99 °C). Many of the active substances in black tea do not develop at temperatures lower than 90 °C. For some more delicate teas lower temperatures are recommended. The temperature will have as large an effect on the final flavor as the type of tea used. The most common fault when making black tea is to use water at too low a temperature. Since boiling point drops with increasing altitude, this makes it difficult to brew black tea properly in mountainous areas. It is also recommended that the teapot be warmed before preparing tea, easily done by adding a small amount of boiling water to the pot, swirling briefly, before discarding. Black teas are usually brewed for about 4 minutes and should not be allowed to steep for less than 30 seconds or more than about five minutes (a process known as brewing or mashing in the UK, specifically in Yorkshire [51]). Longer steeping times make the tea bitter (at this point it is referred to as being stewed in the UK). When the tea has brewed long enough to suit the tastes of the drinker, it should be strained while serving. The popular varieties of black tea include the Assam tea, the Darjeeling tea and the black Ceylon tea.


[edit] Green tea
Water for green tea, according to most accounts, should be around 80 °C to 85 °C (176 °F to 185 °F); the higher the quality of the leaves, the lower the temperature. Hotter water will burn green-tea leaves, producing a bitter taste. Preferably, the container in which the tea is steeped, the mug, or teapot should also be warmed beforehand so that the tea does not immediately cool down. High-quality green and white teas can have new water added as many as five or more times, depending on variety, at increasingly high temperatures. Recently, green tea (as well as some black teas) have been shown to significantly increase interferon levels in tea consumers, which lends credence to the theory that some teas help boost the immune system.[52]


[edit] Oolong tea (or Wulong)
Oolong teas should be brewed around 90 °C to 100 °C (194 °F to 212 °F), and again the brewing vessel should be warmed before pouring in the water. Yixing purple clay teapots are the traditional brewing vessel for oolong tea. For best results use spring water, as the minerals in spring water tend to bring out more flavor in the tea. High quality oolong can be brewed multiple times from the same leaves, and unlike green tea it improves with reuse. It is common to brew the same leaves three to five times, the third steeping usually being the best.


[edit] Premium or delicate tea
Some teas, especially green teas and delicate Oolong teas, are steeped for shorter periods, sometimes less than 30 seconds. Using a tea strainer separates the leaves from the water at the end of the brewing time if a tea bag is not being used. However black Darjeeling tea, the premium Indian tea, needs a longer than average steeping time. Elevation and time of harvest offer varying taste profiles, proper storage and water quality also have a large impact on taste.


[edit] Pu-erh tea (or Pu'er)
Pu-erh teas require boiling water for infusion. Some prefer to quickly rinse pu-erh for several seconds with boiling water to remove tea dust which accumulates from the aging process. Infuse pu-erh at the boiling point (100 °C or 212 °F), and allow to steep for 30 seconds or up to five minutes.


[edit] Serving
In order to preserve the pre-tannin tea without requiring it all to be poured into cups, a second teapot may be employed. The steeping pot is best unglazed earthenware; Yixing pots are the best known of these, famed for the high quality clay from which they are made. The serving pot is generally porcelain, which retains the heat better. Larger teapots are a post-19th century invention, as tea before this time was very rare and very expensive. Experienced tea-drinkers often insist that the tea should not be stirred around while it is steeping (sometimes called winding in the UK). This, they say, will do little to strengthen the tea, but is likely to bring the tannins out in the same way that brewing too long will do. For the same reason one should not squeeze the last drops out of a teabag; if stronger tea is desired, more

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Coffee
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This article is about the beverage. For the bean, see coffee beans. For other uses, see coffee (disambiguation).
Coffee
A cup of coffee
Type Hot or cold beverage
Country of origin Ethiopia (human use)
Yemen (beverage)
Introduced Approx. 15th century AD (beverage)
Color Brown
Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of "coffee cherries" that grow on trees in over 50 countries. [1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee can have a stimulating effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.[2]

It is supposed that the Ethiopians, the ancestors of today's Galla tribe, were the first to have discovered and recognized the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant.[3] However, no direct evidence has ever been found revealing exactly where in Africa coffee grew, or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century.[3] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.[3] From Yemen, coffee spread to Egypt and Ethiopia, and by the 15th century, had reached Armenia, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.[4]

Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica; less popular species are Liberica, Excelsa, Stenophylla, Mauritiana, Racemosa. These are cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.

Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century for political reasons,[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.

Coffee is an important export commodity. In 2004, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries,[7] and in 2005, it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value.[8]

Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the overall effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed.[9]

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Biology
4 Cultivation
4.1 Production
4.2 Ecological effects
4.3 Economics
4.4 Coffee as a commodity
5 Processing
5.1 Roasting
5.2 Storage
5.3 Preparation
5.4 Presentation
5.5 Types of popular coffee beverages
6 Social aspects
7 Health and pharmacology
7.1 Caffeine content
8 See also
9 References
10 Bibliography
11 External links



[edit] Etymology
The term coffee was introduced to Europe by the Ottoman Turkish kahve, which is, in turn, derived from the Arabic: ?????, qahweh.[10][11] The origin of the Arabic term is derived either from the name of the Kaffa region in western Ethiopia, where coffee was cultivated, or by a truncation of qahwat al-b?nn, meaning "wine of the bean" in Arabic. The English word coffee first came to be used in the early to mid-1600s, but early forms of the word date to the last decade of the 1500s.[12] In Ethiopia's neighbor Eritrea, "b?nn" (also meaning "wine of the bean" in Tigrinya) is used.[13] The Amharic and Afan Oromo name for coffee is bunna.


[edit] History
Main article: History of coffee

Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress, receiving a cup of coffee from a boy.It is supposed that the Ethiopians, the ancestors of today's Galla tribe, were the first to have discovered and recognized the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant.[3] However, no direct evidence has ever been found revealing exactly where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century.[3] The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.[3] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.[3] From Ethiopia, coffee spread to Egypt and Yemen[14]. It was in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed, similar to how it is done today. By the 15th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.[4]

In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East:[15]

“ A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. ”

From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale, and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broeck smuggled seedlings from Aden into Europe in 1616.[16] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon.[17] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711.[18] Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. It was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.[19]

When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe. During the Revolutionary War, however, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[20] After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.[21]

Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income (Ponte 1). Coffee has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia[22] as well as many Central American countries.(1)


[edit] Biology
Main article: Coffea

Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seedsThe Coffea plant is native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia.[23] It belongs to a genus of ten species of flowering plants of the family Rubiaceae. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that may grow 5 meters tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 100–150 millimeters long and 60 millimeters wide. It produces clusters of fragrant white flowers that bloom simultaneously. The fruit berry is oval, about 15 millimeters long,[24] and green when immature, but ripens to yellow, then crimson, becoming black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries[25] have only one; these are called peaberries.[26] Berries ripen in seven to nine months.


[edit] Cultivation
Main article: Coffee varieties
Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation.[24]


Map showing areas of coffee cultivation:
r:Coffea canephora
m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica
a:Coffea arabicaThe two main cultivated species of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.[23] However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50% more caffeine than arabica.[27] For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head, a full-bodied result, and to lower the ingredient cost.[28] Other cultivated species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively.[27]

Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.[23] Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity.[29] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[30] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java or Kona.


[edit] Production
Brazil is the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam and Colombia the last of which produces a much softer coffee.

Top ten green coffee producers — Tonnes (2008) and Bags thousands (2007)
Country Tonnes (1) Bags (2) Footnote
Brazil 17,000,000 36,070
Vietnam 15,580,000 18,000 *
Colombia 9,400,000 12,400 F
Indonesia 2,770,554 6,446 *
Ethiopia 1,705,446 5,733 *
Mexico 962,000 4,500 F
India 954,000 4,367 F
Peru 677,000 4,250 est. 2008
Guatemala 568,000 4,000 F
Honduras 370,000 3,833 F
World 7,742,675 118,920 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data, C = calculated figure, A = aggregate (may include official, semiofficial, or estimates)

Source (1): Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Devision Source (2):International Coffee Organization




[show]v • d • eLists of countries by agricultural output rankings

Cereals Barley · Buckwheat · Maize · Millet · Oats · Rice · Rye · Sorghum · Triticale · Wheat

Fruit Apples · Bananas · Citrus (Oranges) · Tomatos

Other Cacao · Coffee · Fish · Milk · Potato · Soybean · Sugar beet · Sugar cane · Sunflower · Tea · Tobacco · Wine

Related Irrigation · Land use

Lists of countries · Lists by country · List of international rankings



[edit] Ecological effects
Main article: Coffee and the environment

A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantationOriginally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided habitat for many animals and insects.[31] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method or "shade-grown". Many farmers have decided to switch their production method to sun cultivation, a method in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields, but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.[32] When compared to the sun cultivation method, traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, but the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior.[citation needed] In addition, the traditional shaded method is environmentally friendly and serves as a habitat for many species. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[31] The American Birding Association has led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees, which it says are sustainably harvested.[33] However, while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value.[34]

Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. According to New Scientist, it takes about 140 litres of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee, and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage, such as Ethiopia.[35]


[edit] Economics
Main article: Economics of coffee
See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita
Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.[2] Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to 7 million metric tons annually by 2010.[36]

Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but in recent years, Vietnam has become a major producer of robusta beans.[37] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers because of the lower cost.

The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price, began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. In 2004, 24,222 metric tons (of 7,050,000 produced worldwide) were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%.[38][39] A number of studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. A study in 2002 found that fair trade strengthened producer organizations, improved returns to small producers, and positively affected their quality of life.[40] A 2003 study concluded that fair trade has "greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families"[41] by providing access to credit and external development funding[42] and greater access to training, giving them the ability to improve the quality of their coffee.[43] The families of fair trade producers were also more stable than those who were not involved in fair trade, and their children had better access to education.[44] A 2005 study of Bolivian coffee producers concluded that fair trade certification has had a positive impact on local coffee prices, economically benefiting all coffee producers, fair trade-certified or not.[45]

The production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown in recent years as some local and national coffee chains have started to offer fair trade alternatives.[46]


[edit] Coffee as a commodity
While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce; its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held), coffee is bought and sold by roasters, investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) under ticker symbol KT, with contract deliveries occurring every year in March, May, July, September, and December.[47] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and, since 2007, on the New York ICE exchange.


[edit] Processing

[edit] Roasting
Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting

Roasted coffee beansCoffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand. Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds—usually called beans—are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is finished, the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, which generates massive amounts of highly polluted coffee wastewater. Finally, the seeds are dried. The best (but least utilized) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. In this method the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds, which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee; then the coffee is mixed by hand. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform, and fermentation is less likely. Most African Coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. Next, the coffee is sorted, and labeled as green coffee. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a cement patio and rake over them in the sunlight. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans, though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high.[48]

The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted.[49] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches 200°C, though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.[50] During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean.[51] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor; at 205°C, other oils start to develop.[50] One of these oils is caffeol, created at about 200°C, which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.[17]

Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled as light, medium light, medium, medium dark, dark, or very dark. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee’s relative degree of roast or flavor development. Such devices are routinely used for quality assurance by coffee-roasting businesses.

Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine, resulting in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times.[52] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.[53] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans.[50] Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.[17] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.[17]


[edit] Storage
Once roasted, coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. Ideally, the container must be airtight and kept cool. In order of importance, air, moisture, heat, and light are the environmental factors[54] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans.

Folded-over bags, a common way consumers often purchase coffee, are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. A better package contains a one-way valve, which prevents air from entering.[54]


[edit] Preparation
Main article: Coffee preparation

Espresso brewing, with dark reddish-brown cremaCoffee beans must be ground and brewed in order to create a beverage. All methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor, but without boiling for more than an instant; boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. Finally the spent grounds are removed from the liquid, and the liquid is drunk. There are many variations in the fineness of grind, the ways in which the water extracts the flavor, additional flavorings (sugar, milk, spices), and the removal of the spent grounds.

The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. Extracting as much flavor as possible from the beans (for economy) tends to impair flavor[citation needed].

The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form, though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home, and it is possible, though complex, to roast raw beans.

Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean; an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed; and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans.

The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. The most common grinds are between the extremes; a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines.[55]

Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled, steeped, or pressured.

Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method.[56] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder, then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a bríki. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup.[56]

Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee by gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper, plastic, or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot, and the spent grounds are retained in the filter.[57] In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. The water then seeps through the grounds, and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat, by an internal timer[57], or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. This thermostat also serves to keep the coffee warm (it turns on when the pot cools), but requires the removal of the basket holding the grounds after the initial brewing to avoid additional brewing as the pot reheats. Repeated boiling spoils the flavor of coffee.

Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press). Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the beverage, making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine.[58] The coffee is poured from the container; the filter retains the grounds at the bottom.

The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9–10 atm), the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the amount of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. A well-prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface.[55] The drink "Americano" is popularly thought to have been named after American soldiers in WW II who found the European way of drinking espresso too strong; baristas would cut the espresso with hot water for them.


Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service, as illustrated by the fancy design layered into this latte.Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely-ground beans in cold water for several hours, then filtering[citation needed].


[edit] Presentation

French petit noirOnce brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. Drip-brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served with no additives or sugar (colloquially known as black) or with milk, cream, or both. When served cold, it is called iced coffee.

Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. In its most basic form, it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style café américano—a shot or two of espresso with hot water added[59] (reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema, and is known as a long black). Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a cafè latte,[60] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino,[59] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato.[61] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art.

A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[62] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in China, Japan, and South Korea. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and preblended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States.[63] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee, and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated.[64]


[edit] Types of popular coffee beverages
Main article: List of coffee beverages

[edit] Social aspects
Main article: Social aspects of coffee
See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee, and caffè for specifically Italian traditions.

A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900)Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.[citation needed]

Coffee became the substitute beverage in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden.[65] Coffee drinking was briefly prohibited by Muslims as haraam in the early years of the 16th century, but this was quickly overturned. Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance, and its production and consumption were briefly repressed. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV.[66] Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to its banning in England, among other places.[67]

A contemporary example of coffee prohibition can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[68] The organization claims that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee.[69] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly," which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[69]

Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. In its teachings, the Church requires members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants. Studies conducted on Adventists have shown a small but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease, other cardiovascular disease, all cardiovascular diseases combined, and all causes of death.[70]


[edit] Health and pharmacology
Main article: Coffee and health
Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding the negative effects of coffee consumption.[9]


Overview of the more common effects of caffeine,[71] a main active component of coffeeCoffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact, positive or negative, on cancer development;[72] however, researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits."[72] Various other studies have shown apparent reductions in the risks of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[73] and gout. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that moderate drinkers of coffee (3-5 cups per day) had lower chances of developing dementia, in addition to Alzheimer's disease [74]. It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases.[75] Some health effects of coffee are due to its caffeine content, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee while others appear to be due to other components.[76] For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[77]

Caffeine is the major coffee constituent which the coffee tolerance or intolerance depends on. In a healthy liver, the majority of caffeine is degraded by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. Caffeine is mostly degraded to paraxanthine substances, partially to theobromine and theophylline, and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. Therefore, the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee, and this only if their stomach is healthy, because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn. Moderate amounts of coffee (50-100 mg of caffeine or 5-10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by a majority of elderly people. Excessive amounts of coffee, however, can in many individuals cause very unpleasant, exceptionally even life-threatening side effects.[78]

Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants.[79] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron.[80]

American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans, and that this method can also be used for research animals.[81] Many high end perfume shops now offer coffee beans to refresh the receptors between perfume tests.

Over 1,000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee; more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens.[82] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[83] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease.[84] Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[85] About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,[86] and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.[87]


[edit] Caffeine content

Caffeine moleculeDepending on the type of coffee and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. On average, a single cup of coffee (about 200 milliliters) or a single shot of espresso (about 30 mL) can be expected to contain the following amounts of caffeine:[88][89][90][91]

Drip coffee: 115–175 mg (560–850 mg/L)
Espresso: 60 mg (2000 mg/L)
Brewed/Pressed: 80–135 mg (390–650 mg/L)
Instant: 65–100 mg (310–480 mg/L)
Decaf, brewed: 3–4 mg
Decaf, instant: 2–3 mg

[edit] See also
Coffee substitute
Chicory root, occasionally used as a natural coffee additive.

[edit] References
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^ a b Villanueva, Cristina M.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; King, Will D.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Cordier, Sylvaine; Lynch, Charles F.; Porru, Stefano; Kogevinas, Manolis (2006). "Total and specific ?uid consumption as determinants of bladder cancer risk". International Journal of Cancer 118 (8): 2040–2047. doi:10.1002/ijc.21587.
^ a b c d e f g The world of caffeine. 2001. pp. Page 3-4. http://books.google.com/books?...paxHStuDJ4XuzATj97hf (http://books.google.com/books?id=Qyz5CnOaH9oC&pg=PA3&dq=coffee+goat+ethiopia+Kaldi&lr=&ei=paxHStuDJ4XuzATj97hf).
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^ Hopkins, Kate (2006-03-24). "Food Stories: The Sultan's Coffee Prohibition". http://www.accidentalhedonist....tan_s_coffee_prohibi (http://www.accidentalhedonist.com/index.php/2006/03/24/food_stories_the_sultan_s_coffee_prohibi). Retrieved on 2008-12-02.
^ "FAO Statistical Yearbook 2004 Vol. 1/1 Table C.10: Most important imports and exports of agricultural products (in value terms)(2004)" (PDF). FAO Statistics Division. 2006. http://www.fao.org/statistics/.../vol_1_1/pdf/c10.pdf (http://www.fao.org/statistics/yearbook/vol_1_1/pdf/c10.pdf). Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
^ "FAOSTAT Core Trade Data (commodities/years)". FAO Statistics Division. 2007. http://faostat.fao.org/site/34...ault.aspx?PageID=343 (http://faostat.fao.org/site/343/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=343). Retrieved on 2007-10-24. To retrieve export values: Select the "commodities/years" tab. Under "subject", select "Export value of primary commodity." Under "country," select "World." Under "commodity," hold down the shift key while selecting all commodities under the "single commodity" category. Select the desired year and click "show data." A list of all commodities and their export values will be displayed.
^ a b Kummer, Corby (2003). "Caffeine and Decaf". The Joy of Coffee. Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks. pp. 160-165. ISBN 0618302409. http://books.google.com/books?...YPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I (http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I). Retrieved on 2008-02-23.
^ "Coffee drinking". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online. http://m-w.com/dictionary/coffee. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
^ Metcalf, 1999, p. 123.
^ "Coffee". Etymology Dictionary Online. Douglas Harper. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=coffee. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
^ "Coffee". The Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford English Dictionary. http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/...24389&result_place=1 (http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50043279?query_type=word&queryword=coffee&first=1&max_to_show=10&sort_type=alpha&search_id=G0C1-u4sQqW-24389&result_place=1). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
^ John K. Francis. "Coffea arabica L. RUBIACEAE". Factsheet of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/global/ii...abica%22%20native%22 (http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Coffea%20arabica.pdf#search=%22%22Coffea%20Arabica%22%20native%22). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
^ Léonard Rauwolf (in German). Reise in die Morgenländer.
^ All About Coffee
^ a b c d Dobelis, Inge N., Ed.: Magic and Medicine of Plants. Pleasantville: The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., 1986. Pages 370–371.
^ Dieter Fischer. "History of Indonesian coffee". Specialty Coffee Association of Indonesia. http://www.sca-indo.org/history-of-indonesia/. Retrieved on 2008-08-13.
^ Pendergrast, Mark (1999). Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-05467-6.
^ Columbia Encyclopedia. "Coffee". Columbia University Press. http://www.answers.com/topic/coffee?cat=health. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
^ "Roasted Coffee (SIC 2095)". All Business. http://www.allbusiness.com/foo...tions/3777798-9.html (http://www.allbusiness.com/food-kindred-products/miscellaneous-food-preparations/3777798-9.html).
^ Cousin, Tracey L. (June 1997). "Ethiopia Coffee and Trade". American University. http://www.american.edu/TED/ethcoff.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
^ a b c "Botanical Aspects". International Coffee Organization. http://www.ico.org/botanical.asp. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
^ a b James A. Duke. "Coffea arabica L.". Purdue University. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/new...arabica.html#Ecology (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Coffea_arabica.html#Ecology). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
^ "Feature Article: Peaberry Coffee". http://aco.ca/peaberry_coffee. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
^ S. Hamon, M. Noirot, and F. Anthony, Developing a coffee core collection using the principal components score strategy with quantitative data (PDF), Core Collections of Plant Genetic Resources, 1995.
^ a b Mekete Belachew, "Coffee," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (Weissbaden: Horrowitz, 2003), p.763.
^ Reynolds, Richard. "Robusta's Rehab". Coffee Geek. http://www.coffeegeek.com/opin...cafestage/02-01-2006 (http://www.coffeegeek.com/opinions/cafestage/02-01-2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
^ Coffee: A Guide to Buying Brewing and Enjoying, 5th Edition, by Kenneth Davids
^ Castle, Timothy (1991). The Perfect Cup: A Coffee Lover's Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Tasting. Da Capo Press. pp. 158. ISBN 0201570483. http://books.google.com/books?...C&dq=the+perfect+cup (http://books.google.com/books?id=BOvMw4fnVZYC&dq=the+perfect+cup).
^ a b Janzen, Daniel H. (Editor) (1983). Natural History of Costa Rica. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226393348.
^ Salvesen, David. "The Grind Over Sun Coffee". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publ...1996/4/suncoffee.cfm (http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/1996/4/suncoffee.cfm). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
^ Song Bird Coffee. Thanksgiving Coffee Company.
^ Rickert, Eve (2005-12-15). Environmental effects of the coffee crisis: a case study of land use and avian communities in Agua Buena, Costa Rica. M.Sc. Thesis, The Evergreen State College. http://www.archive.org/details..._EVE_MES_Thesis_2005 (http://www.archive.org/details/Rickert_EVE_MES_Thesis_2005).
^ "Earth: The parched planet" by Fred Pearce, New Scientist 25 Feb., 2006.
^ FAO (2003). "Coffee". Medium-term prospects for agricultural commodities. Projections to the year 2010. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5143e/y5143e0v.htm. Retrieved on 2006-10-16. "Global output is expected to reach 7.0 million metric tons (117 million bags) by 2010 compared to 6.7 million metric tons (111 million bags) in 1998–2000"
^ Alex Scofield. "Vietnam: Silent Global Coffee Power". http://www.ineedcoffee.com/02/04/vietnam/. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
^ "Total Production of Exporting Countries". International Coffee Organization. http://www.ico.org/prices/po.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
^ "FLO International: Coffee". Fair Trade.net. http://www.fairtrade.net/coffee.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
^ Ronchi, L. (2002). The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their Organizations: A Case Study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. University of Sussex. p25–26.
^ Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003)One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p28
^ Taylor, Pete Leigh (2002). Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks, Colorado State University, p18.
^ Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p8
^ Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, pp. 10–11
^ Eberhart, N. (2005). Synthèse de l'étude d'impact du commerce équitable sur les organisations et familles paysannes et leurs territoires dans la filière café des Yungas de Bolivie. Agronomes et Vétérinaires sans frontières, p29.
^ Balch-Gonza***, M, Kmareka.com (2003). Good Coffee, Better World, The Ethics and Economics of Fair Trade Coffee [1]
^ NYMEX Coffee Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest
^ Kummer, Corby. The Joy of Coffee: The Essential Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying, Houghton Mifflin, 38. August 19, 2003. ISBN 978-0618302406.
^ Kummer, Corby. The Joy of Coffee: The Essential Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying, Houghton Mifflin, 37. August 19, 2003. ISBN 978-0618302406.
^ a b c Ball, Trent; Sara Guenther; Ken Labrousse; Nikki Wilson. "Coffee Roasting". Washington State University. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~gmhyd...oasting/roasting.htm (http://www.wsu.edu:8080/%7Egmhyde/433_web_pages/coffee/student-pages/6roasting/roasting.htm). Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
^ Kummer, Corby. The Joy of Coffee: The Essential Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying, Houghton Mifflin, 261. August 19, 2003. ISBN 978-0618302406.
^ Cipolla, Mauro. "Educational Primer: Degrees of Roast". Bellissimo Info Group. http://www.virtualcoffee.com/may/educate.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
^ "Coffee Roasting Operations". Bay Area Air Quality Management District. 1998-05-15. http://www.baaqmd.gov/pmt/handbook/s11c03pd.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
^ a b Alton Brown. "True Brew". Food Network. http://www.foodnetwork.com/foo...D_9936_10020,00.html (http://www.foodnetwork.com/food/recipes/recipe/0,,FOOD_9936_10020,00.html). Retrieved on 2008-02-18.
^ a b Rothstein, Scott. "Brewing Techniques". http://www.thecoffeefaq.com/3brewingtechniques.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
^ a b Ukers, William Harrison (1993-01-01). All about Coffee. Gale Research; 2nd edition. pp. 725. ISBN 978-0810340923. http://books.google.com/books?...7aoLNoC&pg=PA725&dq= (http://books.google.com/books?id=Y5tXt7aoLNoC&pg=PA725&dq=).
^ a b Levy, Joel (November 2002). Really Useful: The Origins of Everyday Things. Firefly Books. pp. 1948. ISBN 978-1552976227. http://books.google.com/books?...ugXO0nOCRit70b4-06RQ (http://books.google.com/books?id=fyBb_Xh5hqIC&pg=PA1948&dq=Coffee+%2B+percolator+%2B+filter&sig=ItgZl7dugXO0nOCRit70b4-06RQ).
^ Davids, Kenneth (1991). Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying. 101 Productions. pp. 128. ISBN 978-1564265005. http://books.google.com/books?...N8_jK8iHLQ#PPA128,M1 (http://books.google.com/books?id=IqJsIcYOPcQC&pg=PA128&dq=Coffee+%2B+french+press&sig=HA4Swu6PH_9_geJWAN8_jK8iHLQ#PPA128,M1).
^ a b Castle, Timothy; Joan Nielsen (1999). The Great Coffee Book. Ten Speed Press. pp. 94. ISBN 978-1580081221. http://books.google.com/books?...R6trWCY5S6SfpOFjgjQU (http://books.google.com/books?id=x8z9jXVtRCYC&pg=PA94&dq=half+espresso+and+half+steamed+milk+%2B+cappuccino&sig=nM_KmsqR6trWCY5S6SfpOFjgjQU).
^ Fried, Eunice (November 1993). "The lowdown on caffe latte". Black Enterprise. http://findarticles.com/p/arti...s_n4_v24/ai_14651237 (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1365/is_n4_v24/ai_14651237). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
^ Miller, Emily Wise (May 2003). The Food Lover's Guide to Florence: With Culinary Excursions in Tuscany. Ten Speed Press. pp. 12. ISBN 978-1580084352. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=k6GdiP0mY_UC&pg=PA12&dq=caff%C3%A8+macchiato&sig=AbNicQ

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08-08-2009, 12:19 PM
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Rice
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation).
It has been suggested that Oryza sativa be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)

RiceRice, white, long-grain, regular,
raw, unenriched
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 370 kcal 1530 kJ
Carbohydrates 79 g
- Sugars 0.12 g
- Dietary fiber 1.3 g
Fat 0.66 g
Protein 7.13 g
Water 11.62 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.070 mg 5%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.049 mg 3%
Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.6 mg 11%
Pantothenic acid (B5) 1.014 mg 20%
Vitamin B6 0.164 mg 13%
Folate (Vit. B9) 8 ?g 2%
Calcium 28 mg 3%
Iron 0.80 mg 6%
Magnesium 25 mg 7%
Manganese 1.088 mg 54%
Phosphorus 115 mg 16%
Potassium 115 mg 2%
Zinc 1.09 mg 11%

Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Oryza sativa
Rice stem cross section magnified 400 timesRice is the seed of the monocot plant Oryza sativa, of the grass family (Poaceae). As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in tropical Latin America, the West Indies, South Louisiana, East, South and Southeast Asia. It is the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize ("corn").[1]. Since a large portion of maize crops are grown for purposes other than human consumption, rice is probably the most important grain with regards to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species.[2] A traditional food plant in Africa, rice has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.[3] In early 2008, some governments and retailers began rationing supplies of the grain due to fears of a global rice shortage.[4][5]

The name wild rice is usually used for species of the grass genus Zizania, both wild and domesticated, although the term may also be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza.

Rice is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 20 years.[6] The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. The grass has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long. The edible seed is a grain (caryopsis) 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick.

Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is very labor-intensive to cultivate and requires plenty of water for cultivation. Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain. Although its parent species are native to South Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide.

The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While with rice growing and cultivation the flooding is not mandatory, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Preparation as food
3 Cooking
4 Rice growing ecology
5 History of domestication & cultivation
5.1 Asia
5.2 Africa
5.3 Middle East
5.4 Europe
5.5 Caribbean and Latin America
5.6 United States
5.7 Australia
6 World production and trade
6.1 Production and export
6.2 Price
6.3 Worldwide consumption
6.4 Environmental impacts
7 Pests and diseases
8 Cultivars
9 Biotechnology
9.1 High-yielding varieties
9.2 Potentials for the future
9.3 Golden rice
9.4 Expression of human proteins
10 Sayings
11 See also
12 References
12.1 General References
13 External links
13.1 General
13.2 Rice research & development
13.3 Rice in agriculture
13.4 Rice as food
13.5 Rice as fuel as in car fuel
13.6 Rice economics
13.7 Rice genome



[edit] Etymology
According to the Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2004) and the Chambers Dictionary of Etymology (1988), the word 'rice' has an Indo-Iranian origin. It came to English from Greek óryza, via Latin oriza, Italian riso and finally Old French ris (the same as present day French riz).

It has been speculated that the Indo-Iranian vrihi itself is borrowed from a Dravidian vari (Vari, ??? in telugu *warinci)[7] or the Tamil arisi (?????), from which the Arabic ar-ruzz, from which the Portuguese and Spanish word arroz originated.

On the origin of the terms and the introduction of rice cultivation see Michael Witzel, "Early Sources for South Asian Substrate Languages", Mother Tongue, Oct. 1999.

The planting of rice is often a labor-intensive process.
Japanese short-grain rice plants
Japanese short-grain rice ear
Short-grain rice grains, natural state



[edit] Preparation as food

Broker of rice in the 1820s Japan. "36 Views of Mount Fuji" Hokusai
Old fashioned way of rice polishing in Japan."36 Views of Mount Fuji" HokusaiThe seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be continued, removing the 'bran', i.e., the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating white rice. White rice, which keeps longer, lacks some important nutrients; in a limited diet which does not supplement the rice, brown rice helps to prevent the disease beriberi.

White rice may be also buffed with glucose or talc powder (often called polished rice, though this term may also refer to white rice in general), parboiled, or processed into flour. White rice may also be enriched by adding nutrients, especially those lost during the milling process. While the cheapest method of enriching involves adding a powdered blend of nutrients that will easily wash off (in the United States, rice which has been so treated requires a label warning against rinsing), more sophisticated methods apply nutrients directly to the grain, coating the grain with a water insoluble substance which is resistant to washing.


Terraced rice paddy on a hill slope in Indonesia.Despite the hypothetical health risks of talc (such as stomach cancer),[8] talc-coated rice remains the norm in some countries due to its attractive shiny appearance, but it has been banned in some, and is no longer widely used in others (such as the United States). Even where talc is not used, glucose, starch, or other coatings may be used to improve the appearance of the grains.

Rice bran, called nukkah in Japan, is a valuable commodity in Asia and is used for many daily needs. It is a moist, oily inner layer which is heated to produce an oil. It is also used as a pickling bed in making rice bran pickles and Takuan.

Raw rice may be ground into flour for many uses, including making many kinds of beverages such as amazake, horchata, rice milk, and sake. Rice flour does not contain gluten and is suitable for people on a gluten-free diet. Rice may also be made into various types of noodles. Raw wild or brown rice may also be consumed by raw-foodist or fruitarians if soaked and sprouted (usually 1 week to 30 days); see also Gaba rice below.

Processed rice seeds must be boiled or steamed before eating. Cooked rice may be further fried in oil or butter, or beaten in a tub to make mochi.

Rice is a good source of protein and a staple food in many parts of the world, but it is not a complete protein: it does not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts for good health, and should be combined with other sources of protein, such as nuts, seeds, beans, fish, or meat.[9]

Rice, like other cereal grains, can be puffed (or popped). This process takes advantage of the grains' water content and typically involves heating grains in a special chamber. Further puffing is sometimes accomplished by processing pre-puffed pellets in a low-pressure chamber. The ideal gas law means that either lowering the local pressure or raising the water temperature results in an increase in volume prior to water evaporation, resulting in a puffy texture. Bulk raw rice density is about 0.9 g/cm³. It decreases to less than one-tenth that when puffed.


[edit] Cooking
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Cookbook:Rice Recipes
There are many varieties of rice such as laweed; for many purposes the main distinction is between long- and medium-grain rice. The grains of long-grain rice (high amylose) tend to remain intact after cooking; medium-grain rice (high amylopectin) becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, and for rissotti in Italy and many arrossos -as arròs negre, etc.- in Spain.


Uncooked, polished, white long-grain rice grains
Chinese rice dish utilising Basmati riceRice is cooked by boiling or steaming, and absorbs water during cooking. It can be cooked in just as much water as it absorbs (the absorption method), or in a large quantity of water which is drained before serving (the rapid-boil method).[10] Electric rice cookers, popular in Asia and Latin America, simplify the process of cooking rice. Rice is often heated in oil before boiling, or oil is added to the water; this is thought to make the cooked rice less sticky.

In Arab cuisine rice is an ingredient of many soups and dishes with fish, poultry, and other types of meat. It is also used to stuff vegetables or is wrapped in grape leaves. When combined with milk, sugar and honey, it is used to make desserts. In some regions, such as Tabaristan, bread is made using rice flour. Medieval Islamic texts spoke of medical uses for the plant.[11]

Rice may also be made into rice porridge (also called congee or rice gruel) by adding more water than usual, so that the cooked rice is saturated with water to the point that it becomes very soft, expanded, and fluffy. Rice porridge is commonly eaten as a breakfast food, and is also a traditional food for the sick.

Rice may be soaked prior to cooking, which saves fuel, decreases cooking time, minimizes exposure to high temperature and thus decreases the stickiness of the rice. For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains.

In some countries parboiled rice is popular. Parboiled rice is subjected to a steaming or parboiling process while still a brown rice. This causes nutrients from the outer husk to move into the grain itself. The parboil process causes a gelatinisation of the starch in the grains. The grains become less brittle, and the color of the milled grain changes from white to yellow. The rice is then dried, and can then be milled as usual or used as brown rice. Milled parboiled rice is nutritionally superior to standard milled rice. Parboiled rice has an additional benefit in that it does not stick to the pan during cooking, as happens when cooking regular white rice.

Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is milled, fully cooked and then dried.

A nutritionally superior method of preparing brown rice known as GABA Rice or GBR (Germinated Brown Rice)[12] may be used. This involves soaking washed brown rice for 20 hours in warm water (38°C or 100°F) prior to cooking it. This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. By this method, a result of research carried out for the United Nations Year of Rice, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA.

Cooked rice can contain Bacillus cereus spores, which produce an emetic toxin when left at 4°C–60°C [12]. When storing cooked rice for use the next day, rapid cooling is advised to reduce the risk of toxin production.

Rice flour and starch often are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness.


[edit] Rice growing ecology
Rice can be grown in different ecologies, depending upon water availability.[13]

Lowland, rainfed, which is drought prone, favors medium depth; waterlogged, submergence, and flood prone
Lowland, irrigated, grown in both the wet season and the dry season
Deep water or floating rice
Coastal Wetland
Upland rice, Upland rice is also known as 'Ghaiya rice', well known for its drought tolerance[14]

[edit] History of domestication & cultivation

[edit] Asia

The average asian rice farmer owns a few hectare : Banaue Rice Terraces, N. Luzon, PhilippinesRice has been cultivated in Asia likely over 10,000 years.

Genetics shows that rice was first domesticated in the region of the Yangtze river valley.[15]

Main article: Oryza sativa#History of domestication and cultivation

[edit] Africa
African rice has been cultivated for 3500 years. Between 1700 and 800 BC, O. glaberrima propagated from its original centre, the Niger River delta, and extended to Senegal. However, it never developed far from its original region. Its cultivation even declined in favour of the Asian species, possibly brought to the African continent by Arabs coming from the east coast between the 7th and 11th centuries CE.


Rice crop in MadagascarIn parts of Africa under Islam, rice was chiefly grown in southern Morocco. During the tenth century rice was also brought to east Africa by Arab traders. Although, the diffusion of rice in much sub-Saharan Africa remains uncertain, Arabs brought it to the region stretching from Lake Chad to the White Nile.[16]


[edit] Middle East
According to Zohary and Hopf (2000, p. 91), O. sativa was introduced to the Middle East in Hellenistic times, and was familiar to both Greek and Roman writers. They report that a large sample of rice grains was recovered from a grave at Susa in Iran (dated to the first century AD) at one end of the ancient world, while at the same time rice was grown in the Po valley in Italy.

In Iraq rice was grown in some areas of southern Iraq. With the rise of Islam it moved north to Nisibin, the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and then beyond the Muslim world into the valley of Volga. In Palestine, rice came to be grown in the Jordan valley. Rice is also grown in Yemen.[16]


[edit] Europe
The Moors brought Asiatic rice to the Iberian Peninsula in the tenth century. Records indicate it was grown in Valencia and Majorca. In Majorca, rice cultivation seems to have stopped after the Christian conquest, although historians are not certain.[16]

Muslims also brought rice to Sicily, where it was an important crop.[16]

After the middle of the 15th century, rice spread throughout Italy and then France, later propagating to all the continents during the age of European exploration.


[edit] Caribbean and Latin America

Latin american producers often farm several hundred hectare : Rice paddy in Paraguay.Rice is not native to the Americas but was introduced to the Caribbean and South America by European colonizers at an early date with Spanish colonizers introducing Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruz and the Portuguese and their African slaves introducing it at about the same time to Colonial Brazil.[17] Recent scholarship suggests that African slaves played an active role in the establishment of rice in the New World and that African rice was an important crop from an early period.[18] In either case, varieties of rice and bean dishes were a staple dish along the peoples of West Africa and they remained a staple among their descendants subjected to slavery in the Spanish New World colonies and elsewhere in the Americas.[19]


[edit] United States

South Carolina rice plantation (Mansfield Plantation, Georgetown.)In 1694, rice arrived in South Carolina, probably originating from Madagascar.[20]

In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the slave labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the slaves, plantation owners learned how to **** the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by the slaves). The invention of the rice mill increased profitability of the crop, and the addition of water power for the mills in 1787 by millwright Jonathan Lucas was another step forward. Rice culture in the southeastern U.S. became less profitable with the loss of slave labor after the American Civil War, and it finally died out just after the turn of the 20th century. Today, people can visit the only remaining rice plantation in South Carolina that still has the original winnowing barn and rice mill from the mid-1800s at the historic Mansfield Plantation in Georgetown, SC. The predominant strain of rice in the Carolinas was from Africa and was known as "Carolina Gold." The cultivar has been preserved and there are current attempts to reintroduce it as a commercially grown crop.[21]


American long-grain rice plantsIn the southern United States, rice has been grown in southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and east Texas since the mid 1800s. Many Cajun farmers grew rice in wet marshes and low lying prairies where they could also farm crayfish when the fields were flooded[22]. In recent years rice production has risen in North America, especially in the Mississippi River Delta areas in the states of Arkansas and Mississippi.

Rice cultivation began in California during the California Gold Rush, when an estimated 40,000 Chinese laborers immigrated to the state and grew small amounts of the grain for their own consumption. However, commercial production began only in 1912 in the town of Richvale in Butte County.[23] By 2006, California produced the second largest rice crop in the United States,[24] after Arkansas, with production concentrated in six counties north of Sacramento.[25] Unlike the Mississippi Delta region, California's production is dominated by short- and medium-grain japonica varieties, including cultivars developed for the local climate such as Calrose, which makes up as much as eighty five percent of the state's crop.[26]

References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris

More than 100 varieties of rice are commercially produced primarily in six states (Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and California) in the U.S.[27] According to estimates for the 2006 crop year, rice production in the U.S. is valued at $1.88 billion, approximately half of which is expected to be exported. The U.S. provides about 12% of world rice trade.[27] The majority of domestic utilization of U.S. rice is direct food use (58%), while 16 percent is used in processed foods and beer respectively. The remaining 10 percent is found in pet food.[27]


[edit] Australia
Although attempts to grow rice in the well-watered north of Australia have been made for many years, they have consistently failed because of inherent iron and manganese toxicities in the soils and destruction by pests.

In the 1920s it was seen as a possible irrigation crop on soils within the Murray-Darling Basin that were too heavy for the cultivation of fruit and too infertile for wheat.[28]

Because irrigation water, despite the extremely low runoff of temperate Australia, was (and remains) very cheap, the growing of rice was taken up by agricultural groups over the following decades. Californian varieties of rice were found suitable for the climate in the Riverina, and the first mill opened at Leeton in 1951.

Even before this Australia's rice production greatly exceeded local needs,[28] and rice exports to Japan have become a major source of foreign currency. Above-average rainfall from the 1950s to the middle 1990s[29] encouraged the expansion of the Riverina rice industry, but its prodigious water use in a practically waterless region began to attract the attention of environmental scientists. These became severely concerned with declining flow in the Snowy River and the lower Murray River.

Although rice growing in Australia is exceedingly efficient and highly profitable due to the cheapness of land, several recent years of severe drought have led many to call for its elimination because of its effects on extremely fragile aquatic ecosystems. The Australian rice industry is somewhat opportunistic, with the area planted varying significantly from season to season depending on water allocations in the Murray and Murrumbidgee irrigation regions.


[edit] World production and trade

[edit] Production and export

Paddy rice output in 2005.World production of rice[30] has risen steadily from about 200 million tonnes of paddy rice in 1960 to 600 million tonnes in 2004. Milled rice is about 68% of paddy rice by weight. In the year 2004, the top four producers were China (26% of world production), India (20%), Indonesia (9%) and Bangladesh.

World trade figures are very different, as only about 5–6% of rice produced is traded internationally. The largest three exporting countries are Thailand (26% of world exports), Vietnam (15%), and the United States (11%), while the largest three importers are Indonesia (14%), Bangladesh (4%), and Brazil (3%). Although China and India are the top two largest producers of rice in the world, both countries consume the majority of the rice produced domestically leaving little to be traded internationally.


[edit] Price
In March to May 2008, the price of rice rose greatly due to a rice shortage. In late April 2008, rice prices hit 24 cents a pound, twice the price that it was seven months earlier.[31]

On the 30th of April, 2008, Thailand announced the project of the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries (OREC) with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice.[32][33]


[edit] Worldwide consumption
Consumption of rice by country—2003/2004
(million metric ton)[34]
China 135
India 125
Egypt 3.9
Indonesia 37
Bangladesh 26
Brazil 24
Vietnam 18
Thailand 10
Myanmar 10
Philippines 9.7
Japan 8.7
Mexico 7.3
South Korea 5.0
United States 3.9
Malaysia 2.7
Source:
United States Department of Agriculture
Between 1961 and 2002, per capita consumption of rice increased by 40%.

Rice is the most important crop in Asia. In Cambodia, for example, 90% of the total agricultural area is used for rice production. See The Burning of the Rice by Don Puckridge for the story of rice production in Cambodia [13].

U.S. rice consumption has risen sharply over the past 25 years, fueled in part by commercial applications such as beer production.[35] Almost one in five adult Americans now report eating at least half a serving of white or brown rice per day.[36]


[edit] Environmental impacts
In many countries where rice is the main cereal crop, rice cultivation is responsible for most of the methane emissions.[37] Rice requires much more water to produce than other grains.[38]

As sea levels rise, rice will become more inclined to remain flooded for longer periods of time. Longer stays in water cuts the soil off from atmospheric oxygen and causes fermentation of organic matter in the soil. During the wet season, rice cannot hold the carbon in anaerobic conditions. The microbes in the soil convert the carbon into methane which is then released through the respiration of the rice plant or through diffusion of water. Current contributions of methane from agriculture is ~15% of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, as estimated by the IPCC. Further rise in sea level of 10-85 centimeters would then stimulate the release of more methane into the air by rice plants. Methane is twenty times more effective as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.[39]


[edit] Pests and diseases
Main article: List of rice diseases

Pest on a rice plant in Assam, IndiaRice pests are any organisms or microbes with the potential to reduce the yield or value of the rice crop (or of rice seeds).[40] (Jahn et al. 2007) Rice pests include weeds, pathogens, insects, rodents, and birds. A variety of factors can contribute to pest outbreaks, including the overuse of pesticides and high rates of nitrogen fertilizer application.[41] Weather conditions also contribute to pest outbreaks. For example, rice gall midge and army worm outbreaks tend to follow periods of high rainfall early in the wet season, while thrip outbreaks are associated with drought.[42].

One of the challenges crop protection specialists are trying to help address is the development of rice pest management techniques which are sustainable. In other words, to manage crop pests in such a manner that future crop production is not threatened.([43] At present, rice pest management includes cultural techniques, pest-resistant rice varieties, and pesticides (which include insecticide). Increasingly, there is evidence that farmers' pesticide applications are often unnecessary.[44][45][46][47][48] By reducing the populations of natural enemies of rice pests,[49] misuse of insecticides can actually lead to pest outbreaks (Cohen et al. 1994). Botanicals, so-called “natural pesticides”, are used by some farmers in an attempt to control rice pests, but in general the practice is not common. Upland rice is grown without standing water in the field. Some upland rice farmers in Cambodia spread chopped leaves of the bitter bush (Chromolaena odorata) over the surface of fields after planting. This practice probably helps the soil retain moisture and thereby facilitates seed germination. Farmers also claim the leaves are a natural fertilizer and helps suppress weed and insect infestations.[50]

Among rice cultivars there are differences in the responses to, and recovery from, pest damage.[51] Therefore, particular cultivars are recommended for areas prone to certain pest problems. The genetically based ability of a rice variety to withstand pest attacks is called resistance.[52] Three main types of plant resistance to pests are recognized as nonpreference, antibiosis, and tolerance.[53] Nonpreference (or antixenosis) describes host plants which insects prefer to avoid; antibiosis is where insect survival is reduced after the ingestion of host tissue; and tolerance is the capacity of a plant to produce high yield or retain high quality despite insect infestation.[54] Over time, the use of pest resistant rice varieties selects for pests that are able to overcome these mechanisms of resistance. When a rice variety is no longer able to resist pest infestations, resistance is said to have broken down. Rice varieties that can be widely grown for many years in the presence of pests, and retain their ability to withstand the pests are said to have durable resistance. Mutants of popular rice varieties are regularly screened by plant breeders to discover new sources of durable resistance.[55]

Major rice pests include the brown [56][57] the rice gall midge,[58] the rice bug[59] hispa, the rice leaffolder,[60] stemborer[61] rats[62], and the weed Echinochloa crusgali[63] Rice weevils[64] are also known to be a threat to rice crops in the United States, Peoples Republic of China and Taiwan.

Major rice diseases include Rice Ragged Stunt,[65] Sheath Blight[66] and tungro.[67] Rice blast, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is the most significant disease affecting rice cultivation.


[edit] Cultivars
Main article: List of rice varieties
While most breeding of rice is carried out for crop quality and productivity, there are varieties selected for other reasons such as texture, smell and squishiness. Cultivars exist that are adapted to deep flooding, and these are generally called 'floating rice' [14].

The largest collection of rice cultivars is at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), with over 100,000 rice accessions [15] held in the International Rice Genebank [16]. Rice cultivars are often classified by their grain shapes and texture. For example, Thai Jasmine rice is long-grain and relatively less sticky, as long-grain rice contains less amylopectin than short-grain cultivars. Chinese restaurants usually serve long-grain as plain unseasoned steamed rice. Japanese mochi rice and Chinese sticky rice are short-grain. Chinese people use sticky rice which is properly known as "glutinous rice" (note: glutinous refer to the glue-like characteristic of rice; does not refer to "gluten") to make zongzi. The Japanese table rice is a sticky, short-grain rice. Japanese sake rice is another kind as well.

Indian rice cultivars include long-grained and aromatic Basmati (grown in the North), long and medium-grained Patna rice and short-grained Sona Masoori (also spelled Sona Masuri). In the state of Tamil Nadu, the most prized cultivar is ponni which is primarily grown in the delta regions of Kaveri River. Kaveri is also referred to as ponni in the South and the name reflects the geographic region where it is grown. In the Western Indian state of Maharashtra, a short grain variety called Ambemohar is very popular. this rice has a characteristic fragrance of Mango blossom.


Unpolished long-grain rice grains with bran
Polished Indian sona masuri rice grainsAromatic rices have definite aromas and flavours; the most noted cultivars are Thai fragrant rice, Basmati, Patna rice, and a hybrid cultivar from America sold under the trade name, Texmati. Both Basmati and Texmati have a mild popcorn-like aroma and flavour. In Indonesia there are also red and black cultivars.

High-yield cultivars of rice suitable for cultivation in Africa and other dry ecosystems called the new rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars have been developed. It is hoped that their cultivation will improve food security in West Africa.

Draft genomes for the two most common rice cultivars, indica and japonica, were published in April 2002. Rice was chosen as a model organism for the biology of grasses because of its relatively small genome (~430 megabase pairs). Rice was the first crop with a complete genome sequence.[68]

On December 16, 2002, the UN General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice. The declaration was sponsored by more than 40 countries.


[edit] Biotechnology

[edit] High-yielding varieties
Main article: High-yielding variety
The High Yielding Varieties are a group of crops created intentionally during the Green Revolution to increase global food production. Rice, like corn and wheat, was genetically manipulated to increase its yield. This project enabled labor markets in Asia to shift away from agriculture, and into industrial sectors. The first "modern rice", IR8 was produced in 1966 at the International Rice Research Institute which is based in the Philippines at the University of the Philippines' Los Banos site. IR8 was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named "Peta" and a Chinese variety named "Dee Geo Woo Gen."[69]

With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for reduced height(rht), gibberellin insensitive (gai1) and slender rice (slr1) in Arabidopsis and rice were identified as cellular signaling components of gibberellic acid (a phytohormone involved in regulating stem growth via its effect on cell division) and subsequently cloned. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. In the presence of nitrogen fertilizers, and intensive crop management, these varieties increase their yield two to three times.


[edit] Potentials for the future
As the UN Millennium Development project seeks to spread global economic development to Africa, the "Green Revolution" is cited as the model for economic development. With the intent of replicating the successful Asian boom in agronomic productivity, groups like the Earth Institute are doing research on African agricultural systems, hoping to increase productivity. An important way this can happen is the production of "New Rices for Africa" (NERICA). These rices, selected to tolerate the low input and harsh growing conditions of African agriculture are produced by the African Rice Center, and billed as technology from Africa, for Africa. The NERICA have appeared in The New York Times (October 10, 2007) and International Herald Tribune (October 9, 2007), trumpeted as miracle crops that will dramatically increase rice yield in Africa and enable an economic resurgence.


[edit] Golden rice
Main article: Golden rice
German and Swiss researchers have engineered rice to produce Beta-carotene, with the intent that it might someday be used to treat vitamin A deficiency. Additional efforts are being made to improve the quantity and quality of other nutrients in golden rice.[70] The addition of the carotene turns the rice gold.


[edit] Expression of human proteins
Ventria Bioscience has genetically modified rice to express lactoferrin, lysozyme, and human serum al***in which are proteins usually found in breast milk. These proteins have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal effects.[71]

Rice containing these added proteins can be used as a component in **** rehydration solutions which are used to treat diarrheal diseases, thereby shortening their duration and reducing recurrence. Such supplements may also help reverse anemia.[72]


[edit] Sayings
A proverbial saying in Japan states: "The farmer spends eighty-eight efforts on rice from planting to crop." This teaches the sense of mottainai and gratitude for the farmer and for rice itself.[73]
There is a Sri Lankan saying, 'deyyange haal kawila', meaning 'having eaten God’s rice'. This is used to explain a crazy person or his actions in general with humour. The reasoning behind this is that when the rice harvest is collected, a small fraction of the best part is dedicated to the gods and that is sacred - if a person eats that, they will be afflicted with curses and lose mental stability/act crazy.

[edit] See also
Basmati rice
Beaten rice
Bhutanese red rice
Black rice
Brown rice syrup
Fengyuan City
Forbidden rice
Inari
Indonesian rice table
Jasmine rice
List of rice dishes
List of rice varieties
New Rice for Africa
Nutritious Rice for the World
Protein per unit area
Puffed rice
Rice Belt
Rice bran oil
Rice ethanol
Rice wine
Risotto
Straw
System of Rice Intensification
Weedy rice
White rice
Wild rice
Rice shortage

[edit] References
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^ Risks of Talcum Powder
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^ a b Wadham, Sir Samuel; Wilson, R. Kent and Wood, Joyce; Land Utilization in Australia, 3rd ed. Published 1957 by Melbourne University Press; p. 246
^ Australian Bureau of Meteorology; Climatic Atlas of Australia: Rainfall; published 2000 by Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria
^ all figures from UNCTAD 1998–2002 and the International Rice Research Institute statistics (accessed September 2005)
^ "Cyclone fuels rice price increase", BBC News, 7 May 2008
^ "Mekong nations to form rice price-fixing cartel", Radio Australia, April 30, 2008.
^ "PM floats idea of five-nation rice cartel", Bangkok Post, May 1, 2008.
^ Nationmaster.com, Agriculture Statistics > Grains > Rice consumption (most recent) by country, http://www.nationmaster.com/gr...ns-rice-consumption, (http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/agr_gra_ric_con-agriculture-grains-rice-consumption,) retrieved on 2008-04-24
^ United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service, Briefing Rooms: Rice, http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Rice/, retrieved on 2008-04-24
^ Iowa State University (July 2005). Rice Consumption in the United States: New Evidence from Food Consumption Surveys. http://publications.iowa.gov/2781/.
^ Methane Emission from Rice Fields - Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming by Heinz-Ulrich Neue.
^ report12.pdf
^ IPCC. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. United Nations Environment Programme, 2007:Ch5, 8, and 10.[1]
^ Jahn et al. 2000
^ e.g. Jahn et al. 2005 [2]
^ Douangboupha et al. 2006
^ Jahn et al. 2001)
^ Jahn et al. 1996
^ 2004a,b)
^ [3]
^ [4]
^ [5]
^ (Jahn 1992)
^ (Jahn et al. 1999)
^ (Jahn et al. 2004c, Khiev et al. 2000)
^ [http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/glossary/default.htm#Glossary/D.htm Definition of resistance
^ Painter 1951, Smith 2005)
^ Kogan and Ortman, 1978
^ (e.g. Liu et al. 2005, Sangha et al. 2008)
^ planthopper
^ [6] (Preap et al. 2006), armyworms[7], the green leafhopper,
^ (Jahn and Khiev 2004)
^ rice bug (Jahn et al. 2004c)
^ (Murphy et al. 2006), [8]
^ [9]
^ (Leung et al. 2002)
^ (Pheng et al. 2001)
^ Rice weevils
^ Rice Ragged Stunt
^ Sheath Blight
^ Tungro
^ Gillis, Justing (August 11, 2005). "Rice Genome Fully Mapped". washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/....html?referrer=email (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/08/10/AR2005081001054.html?referrer=email).
^ Rice Varieties: IRRI Knowledge Bank. Accessed August 2006. [10]
^ Grand Challenges in Global Health, Press release, June 27, 2005
^ Nature's story
^ Bethell D. R., Huang J., et al. BioMetals, 17. 337 - 342 (2004).[11]
^ proverbial saying, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan), (Japanese)

[edit] General References
Cohen, J. E., K. Schoenly, K. L. Heong, H. Justo, G. Arida, A. T. Barrion, J. A. Litsinger. 1994. A Food Web Approach to Evaluating the Effect of Insecticide Spraying on Insect Pest Population Dynamics in a Philippine Irrigated Rice Ecosystem. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 747–763. doi:10.2307/2404165
Crawford, G.W. and C. Shen. 1998. The Origins of Rice Agriculture: Recent Progress in East Asia. Antiquity 72:858–866.
Crawford, G.W. and G.-A. Lee. 2003. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87–95.
Douangboupha, B., K. Khamphoukeo, S. Inthavong, J. Schiller, and G. Jahn. 2006. Pests and diseases of the rice production systems of Laos. Pp. 265–281. In J.M. Schiller, M.B. Chanphengxay, B. Linquist, and S. Appa Rao, editors. Rice in Laos. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 457 p. ISBN 978-971-22-0211-7.
Heong, KL, YH Chen, DE Johnson, GC Jahn, M Hossain, RS Hamilton. 2005. Debate Over a GM Rice Trial in China. Letters. Science, Vol 310, Issue 5746, 231–233 , 14 October 2005.
Huang, J., Ruifa Hu, Scott Rozelle, Carl Pray. 2005. Insect-Resistant GM Rice in Farmers' Fields: Assessing Productivity and Health Effects in China. Science (29 April 2005) Vol. 308. no. 5722, pp. 688–690. DOI: 10.1126/science.1108972
Jahn, G. C. 1992. Rice pest control and effects on predators in Thailand. Insecticide & Acaricide Tests 17:252–253.
Jahn, GC and B. Khiev. 2004. Gall midge in Cambodian lowland rice. pp. 71–76. In J. Benett, JS Bentur, IC Pasula, K. Krishnaiah, [eds]. New approaches to gall midge resistance in rice. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute and Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 195 p.
Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev, and C. Pol. 1996. Farmers’ pest management and rice production practices in Cambodian lowland rice. Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project (CIAP), Baseline Survey Report No. 6. CIAP Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 28 pages. [17]
Jahn, G. C., B. Khiev, S. Pheng, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management in rice. In H. J. Nesbitt [ed.] "Rice Production in Cambodia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 83–91.
Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management practices of lowland rice farmers in Cambodia. In K. L. Heong and M. M. Escalada [editors] "Pest Management Practices of Rice Farmers in Asia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 35–52. ISBN 971-22-0102-3
Jahn, G. C., C. Pol, B. Khiev, S. Pheng, and N. Chhorn. 1999. Farmer’s pest management and rice production practices in Cambodian upland and deepwater rice. Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project, Baseline Survey Report No. 7.[18]
Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev and C. Pol 2000. Ecological characterization of biotic constraints to rice in Cambodia. International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) 25 (3): 23–24.
Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, C. Pol, B. Khiev 2000. Characterizing biotic constraints to production of Cambodian rainfed lowland rice: limitations to statistical techniques. pp. 247–268 In T. P. Tuong, S. P. Kam, L. Wade, S. Pandey, B. A. M. Bouman, B. Hardy [eds.] “Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments.” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments, 5–9 December 1999, Bali, Indonesia. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 488 p.
Jahn, GC, B. Khiev, C. Pol, N. Chhorn, S. Pheng, and V. Preap. 2001. Developing sustainable pest management for rice in Cambodia. pp. 243–258, In S. Suthipradit, C. Kuntha, S. Lorlowhakarn, and J. Rakngan [eds.] “Sustainable Agriculture: Possibility and Direction” Proceedings of the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Sustainable Agriculture 18–20 October 1999, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Bangkok (Thailand): National Science and Technology Development Agency. 386 p.
Jahn, GC, NQ Kamal, S Rokeya, AK Azad, NI Dulu, JB Orsini, A Barrion, and L Almazan. 2004a. Completion Report on Livelihood Improvement Through Ecology (LITE), PETRRA IPM Subproject SP 27 02. Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA), IRRI, Dhaka. 20 pages text plus 20 pages appendices. [19]
Jahn, GC, NQ Kamal, S Rokeya, AK Azad, NI Dulu, JB Orsini, M Morshed, NMS Dhar, NA Kohinur 2004b. Evaluation Report on Livelihood Improvement Through Ecology (LITE), PETRRA IPM Subproject SP 27 02. Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA), IRRI, Dhaka. 42 pages plus 40 pages of annexes.[20]
Jahn, GC, I. Domingo, L. P. Almazan and J. Pacia. 2004c. Effect of rice bugs (Alydidae: Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius)) on rice yield, grain quality, and seed viability. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(6): 1923–1927.[21]
Jahn, GC, LP Almazan, and J Pacia. 2005. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938–943.[22]
Jahn, GC, JA Litsinger, Y Chen and A Barrion. 2007. Integrated Pest Management of Rice: Ecological Concepts. In Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management (eds. O. Koul and G.W. Cuperus). CAB International Pp. 315–366.
Khiev, B., G. C. Jahn, C. Pol, and N. Chhorn 2000. Effects of simulated pest damage on rice yields. IRRN 25 (3): 27–28.
Kogan, M., and E. F. Ortman. 1978. Antixenosis a new term proposed to defined to describe Painter’s “non-preference” modality of resistance. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24: 175-176.
Leung LKP, Peter G. Cox, Gary C. Jahn and Robert Nugent. 2002. Evaluating rodent management with Cambodian rice farmers. Cambodian Journal of Agriculture Vol. 5, pp. 21–26.
Liu, L., Z. Van, Q. Y. Shu, and M. Maluszynski. 2004. Officially released mutant varieties in China. Mutat. Breed. Rev 14: 1:64.
Ma, Jian Feng; Kazunori Tamai, Naoki Yamaji, Namiki Mitani, Saeko Konishi, Maki Katsuhara, Masaji Ishiguro, Yoshiko Murata, Masahiro Yano (2006). "A silicon transporter in rice". Nature 440 (7084): 688–691. doi:10.1038/nature04590.
Mitani, Namiki; Jian Feng Ma, Takashi Iwa****a (2005). "Identification of the silicon form in xylem sap of rice (Oryza sativa L.)". Plant Cell Physiol. 46 (2): 279–283. doi:10.1093/pcp/pci018. PMID 15695469. <a href="http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/c

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Sugar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Sugar (disambiguation).
For the common table sugar, see sucrose.

Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Sugar, granulated
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ
Carbohydrates 99.98 g
- Sugars 99.91 g
- Dietary fiber 0 g
Fat 0 g
Protein 0 g
Water 0.03 g
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.019 mg 1%
Calcium 1 mg 0%
Iron 0.01 mg 0%
Potassium 2 mg 0%

Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Sugars, brown
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ
Carbohydrates 97.33 g
- Sugars 96.21 g
- Dietary fiber 0 g
Fat 0 g
Protein 0 g
Water 1.77 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.008 mg 1%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.007 mg 0%
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.082 mg 1%
Vitamin B6 0.026 mg 2%
Folate (Vit. B9) 1 ?g 0%
Calcium 85 mg 9%
Iron 1.91 mg 15%
Magnesium 29 mg 8%
Phosphorus 22 mg 3%
Potassium 346 mg 7%
Sodium 39 mg 2%
Zinc 0.18 mg 2%

Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Magnified crystals of refined sugar.Sugar (see below for etymology) is a class of edible crystalline substances, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet, but also appears in fruit, honey, sorghum, sugar maple (in maple syrup), and in many other sources. It forms the main ingredient in candy. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes, obesity and tooth decay.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 Terminology
1.1 Popular
1.2 Scientific
1.3 Culinary/nutritional
2 History
3 Etymology
4 As a food
5 Human health
5.1 Tooth decay
5.2 Diabetes
5.3 Obesity
5.4 Gout
5.5 Cancer
5.6 United Nations nutritional advice
5.7 Debate on extrinsic sugar
5.8 Concerns of vegetarians and vegans
6 Other concerns
6.1 Animal welfare issues
7 Production
7.1 Cane
7.2 Beet
7.3 Cane versus beet
7.4 Culinary sugars
8 Chemistry
9 Measuring sugar
9.1 Dissolved sugar content
9.2 Purity
9.3 Baking weight/mass volume relationship
10 Trade and economics
11 See also
12 Notes
13 References
14 External links



Terminology

Popular
In non-scientific use, the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. In this informal sense, the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars.

Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel, preservation, and texture) of beverages and food. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars, including palm sugar and fructose, generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit.

Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. Generically known as "syrups", they may also have other more specific names such as "honey", molasses or treacle.


Scientific
Scientifically, sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"), such as glucose, store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy.

In a list of ingredients, any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose", "dextrose", "fructose", etc.) will likely denote a sugar. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water.

Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6.


Culinary/nutritional
In culinary terms, the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs, alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist, and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb), and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions).



History

A sugarloaf was a traditional form for sugar in the 17th to 19th centuries, which required a sugar nip to break off pieces.Main article: History of sugar
Originally, people chewed the cane raw to extract its sweetness. Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty, around AD 350.[2]

Sugarcane was originally from tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea.[3]

During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, Arab entrepreneurs adopted the techniques of sugar production from India and then refined and transformed them into a large-scale industry. Arabs set up the first large scale sugar mills, refineries, factories and plantations.

The 1390s saw the development of a better press, which doubled the juice obtained from the cane. This permitted economic expansion of sugar plantations to Andalucia and to the Algarve. The 1420s saw sugar production extended to the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores.

The Portuguese took sugar to Brazil. Hans Staden, published in 1555, writes that by 1540 Santa Catarina Island had 800 sugar mills and that the north coast of Brazil, Demarara and Suriname had another 2,000. Approximately 3,000 small mills built before 1550 in the New World created an unprecedented demand for cast iron gears, levers, axles and other implements. Specialist trades in mold-making and iron-casting developed in Europe due to the expansion of sugar production. Sugar mill construction developed technological skills needed for a nascent industrial revolution in the early 17th century.[citation needed]

After 1625 the Dutch carried sugarcane from South America to the Caribbean islands — where it became grown from Barbados to the Virgin Islands. The years 1625 to 1750 saw sugar become worth its weight in gold.[citation needed] With the European colonization of the Americas, the Caribbean became the world's largest source of sugar. These islands could supply sugarcane using slave labor and produce sugar at prices vastly lower than those of cane sugar imported from the East.

During the eighteenth century, sugar became enormously popular and the sugar market went through a series of booms. As Europeans established sugar plantations on the larger Caribbean islands, prices fell, especially in Britain. By the eighteenth century all levels of society had become common consumers of the former luxury product. At first most sugar in Britain went into tea, but later confectionery and chocolates became extremely popular. Suppliers commonly sold sugar in solid cones and consumers required a sugar nip, a pliers-like tool, to break off pieces.

Beginning in the late 18th century, the production of sugar became increasingly mechanized. The steam engine first powered a sugar mill in Jamaica in 1768, and soon after, steam replaced direct firing as the source of process heat. During the same century, Europeans began experimenting with sugar production from other crops. Andreas Marggraf identified sucrose in beet root and his student Franz Achard built a sugar beet processing factory in Silesia. However the beet-sugar industry really took off during the Napoleonic Wars, when France and the continent were cut off from caribbean sugar. Today 30% of the world's sugar is produced from beets.

Today, a large beet refinery producing around 1,500 tonnes of sugar a day needs a permanent workforce of about 150 for 24-hour production.


Etymology
In the case of sugar, the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar,[4] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara.[5] It came to English by way of French, Spanish and/or Italian, which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar, the Spanish word azúcar, the Italian word zucchero, the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). (Compare the OED.) The Greek word for "sugar", zahari, means "pebble". Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit).


As a food
Main article: History of sugar
Refined sugar was originally a luxury, but sugar eventually became sufficiently cheap and common to influence standard cuisine. Britain and the Caribbean islands have cuisines where the use of sugar became particularly prominent.

Sugar forms a major element in confectionery and in desserts. Cooks use it as a food preservative as well as for sweetening.


Human health
This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. WikiProject Health or the Health Portal may be able to help recruit one. (April 2008)

Human beings have long sought sugars, but aside from wild honey, have not had access to the large quantities that characterize the modern diet. Studies have indicated potential links between processed sugar consumption and health hazards, including obesity and tooth decay. John Yudkin showed that the consumption of sugar and refined sweeteners is closely associated with coronary heart disease. It is also considered as a source of endogenous glycation processes.


Tooth decay
Tooth decay has arguably become the most prominent health hazard associated with the consumption of sugar. **** bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans live in dental plaque and metabolize sugars into lactic acid. High concentrations of acid may result on the surface of a tooth, leading to tooth demineralization.[6][7]


Diabetes
Diabetes, a disease that causes the body to metabolize sugar poorly, occurs when either:

the body attacks the cells producing insulin, the chemical that allows the metabolizing of sugar in the body's cells (Type 1 diabetes)
the body's cells ignore insulin (Type 2 diabetes)
When glucose builds up in the bloodstream, it can cause two problems:

in the short term, cells become starved for energy because they do not have access to the glucose
in the long term, frequent glucose build-up increases the acidity of the blood, damaging many of the body's organs, including the eyes, kidneys, nerves and/or heart
Authorities advise diabetics to avoid sugar-rich foods to prevent adverse reactions.[8]


Obesity
In the United States of America, a scientific/health debate has started[citation needed] over the causes of a steep rise in obesity in the general population — and one view posits increased consumption of carbohydrates in recent[update] decades as a major factor.[9]

Obesity can result from a number of factors including:

an increased intake of energy-dense foods — high in fat and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients (see United Nations advice below); and
decreased physical activity.[10]
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and Continuous indicates that the population in the United States has increased its proportion of energy consumption from carbohydrates and decreased its proportion from total fat while obesity has increased. This implies, along with the United Nations report cited below, that obesity may correlate better with sugar consumption than with fat consumption, and that reducing fat consumption while increasing sugar consumption actually increases the level of obesity. The following table summarizes this study (based on the proportion of energy intake from different food sources for US Adults 20-74 years old, as carried out by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD[11]):

Year *** Carbohydrate Fat Protein Obesity
1971 Male 42.4% 36.9% 16.5% 12.1%
1971 Female 45.4% 36.1% 16.9% 16.6%
2000 Male 49.0% 32.8% 15.5% 27.7%
2000 Female 51.6% 32.8% 15.1% 34.0%

Another study [2] published in 2002 and conducted by the National Academy of Sciences over a 3-year period concluded: “There is no clear and consistent association between increased intakes of added sugars and BMI.” (BMI or "Body mass index" measures body-weight and height.)


Gout
Researchers have implicated sugary drinks high in fructose in a surge in cases of the painful joint disease gout.[12]


Cancer
A link between sugar and cancer has been conjectured for some time but this remains a controversial topic. Some recent studies lend support to this theory.[13] However no major medical or nutritional organization currently recommends reducing sugar consumption to prevent cancer.


United Nations nutritional advice
In 2003, four United Nations agencies (including the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization) commissioned a report compiled by a panel of 30 international experts. The panel stated that the total of free sugars (all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by manufacturers, cooks or consumers, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit juices) should not account for more than 10% of the energy intake of a healthy diet, while carbohydrates in total should represent between 55% and 75% of the energy intake.[14]


Debate on extrinsic sugar
Argument continues as to the value of extrinsic sugar (sugar added to food) compared to that of intrinsic sugar (naturally present in food). Adding sugar to food particularly enhances taste, but does increase the total number of calories, among other negative effects on health and physiology.

In the United States of America, sugar has become increasingly evident in food products, as more food manufacturers add sugar or high fructose corn syrup to a wide variety of consumables. Candy bars, soft drinks, chips, snacks, fruit juice, peanut butter, soups, ice cream, jams, jellies, yogurt, and many breads may have added sugars.


Concerns of vegetarians and vegans
The sugar refining industry often uses bone char (calcinated animal bones) for decolorizing.[15][16] This may concern some vegans and vegetarians; about a quarter of the sugar in the U.S. is processed using bone char as a filter and the rest is processed with activated carbon. As bone char does not get into the sugar, the relevant authorities consider sugar processed this way as parve/kosher.[16]


Other concerns

Animal welfare issues
Individuals concerned about animal welfare issues may object to the impact that the burning of the cane fields (a common part of the harvesting practice) has on insects, rats, snakes, and other life residing in the fields.[17]


Production

Harvested sugarcane from India ready for processing.Table sugar (sucrose) comes from plant sources. Two important sugar crops predominate: sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), in which sugar can account for 12% to 20% of the plant's dry weight. Some minor commercial sugar crops include the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), and the sugar maple (Acer saccharum). In the financial year 2001/2002, worldwide production of sugar amounted to 134.1 million tonnes.

The first production of sugar from sugarcane took place in India. Alexander the Great's companions reported seeing "honey produced without the intervention of bees" and it remained exotic in Europe until the Arabs started cultivating it in Sicily and Spain. Only after the Crusades did it begin to rival honey as a sweetener in Europe. The Spanish began cultivating sugarcane in the West Indies in 1506 (and in Cuba in 1523). The Portuguese first cultivated sugarcane in Brazil in 1532.

Most cane sugar comes from countries with warm climates, such as Brazil, India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Australia, the top sugar-producing countries in the world.[18] Brazil overshadows most countries, with roughly 30 million tonnes of cane sugar produced in 2006, while India produced 21 million, China 11 million, and Thailand and Mexico roughly 5 million each. Viewed by region, Asia predominates in cane sugar production, with large contributions from China, India and Thailand and other countries combining to account for 40% of global production in 2006. South America comes in second place with 32% of global production; Africa and Central America each produce 8% and Australia 5%. The United States, the Caribbean and Europe make up the remainder, with roughly 3% each.[18]

Beet sugar comes from regions with cooler climates: northwest and eastern Europe, northern Japan, plus some areas in the United States (including California). In the northern hemisphere, the beet-growing season ends with the start of harvesting around September. Harvesting and processing continues until March in some cases. The availability of processing plant capacity, and the weather both influence the duration of harvesting and processing - the industry can lay up harvested beet until processed, but a frost-damaged beet becomes effectively unprocessable.

The European Union (EU) has become the world's second-largest sugar exporter. The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU sets maximum quotas for members' production to match supply and demand, and a price. Europe exports excess production quota (approximately 5 million tonnes in 2003). Part of this, "quota" sugar, gets subsidised from industry levies, the remainder (approximately half) sells as "C quota" sugar at market prices without subsidy. These subsidies and a high import tariff make it difficult for other countries to export to the EU states, or to compete with the Europeans on world markets.

The United States sets high sugar prices to support its producers, with the effect that many former consumers of sugar have switched to corn syrup (beverage manufacturers) or moved out of the country (candymakers).

The cheap prices of glucose syrups produced from wheat and corn (maize) threaten the traditional sugar market. Used in combination with artificial sweeteners, they can allow drink manufacturers to produce very low-cost goods.


Cane
Main article: Sugarcane
Since the 6th century BC cane sugar producers have crushed the harvested vegetable material from sugarcane in order to collect and filter the juice. They then treat the liquid (often with lime (calcium oxide)) to remove impurities and then neutralize it. Boiling the juice then allows the sediment to settle to the bottom for dredging out, while the scum rises to the surface for skimming off. In cooling, the liquid crystallizes, usually in the process of stirring, to produce sugar crystals. Centrifuges usually remove the uncrystallized syrup. The producers can then either sell the resultant sugar, as is, for use; or process it further to produce lighter grades. This processing may take place in another factory in another country. Sugar cane appears fourth in the list [3] for agriculture in China.


Beet

Sugar beetsMain article: Sugar beet
Beet sugar producers slice the washed beets, then extract the sugar with hot water in a "diffuser". An alkaline solution ("milk of lime" and carbon dioxide from the lime kiln) then serves to precipitate impurities (see carbonatation). After filtration, evaporation concentrates the juice to a content of about 70% solids, and controlled crystallisation extracts the sugar. A centrifuge removes the sugar crystals from the liquid, which gets recycled in the crystalliser stages. When economic constraints prevent the removal of more sugar, the manufacturer discards the remaining liquid, now known as molasses.

Sieving the resultant white sugar produces different grades for selling.


Cane versus beet
Little perceptible difference exists between sugar produced from beet and that from cane. Chemical tests can distinguish the two, and some tests aim to detect fraudulent abuse of European Union subsidies or to aid in the detection of adulterated fruit juice.

The production of sugarcane needs approximately four times as much water as the production of sugar beet, therefore some countries that traditionally produced cane sugar (such as Egypt) have seen the building of new beet sugar factories recently[update]. On the other hand, sugar cane tolerates hot climates better. Some sugar factories process both sugar cane and sugar beets and extend their processing period in that way.

The production of sugar results in residues which differ substantially depending on the raw materials used and on the place of production. While cooks often use cane molasses in food preparation, humans find molasses from sugar beet unpalatable, and it therefore ends up mostly as industrial fermentation feedstock (for example in alcohol distilleries), or as animal feed. Once dried, either type of molasses can serve as fuel for burning.


Culinary sugars

Grainier, raw sugar.So-called raw sugars comprise yellow to brown sugars made by clarifying the source syrup by boiling and drying with heat, until it becomes a crystalline solid, with minimal chemical processing.[citation needed] Raw beet sugars result from the processing of sugar beet juice, but only as intermediates en route to white sugar. Types of raw sugar include demerara, muscovado, and turbinado. Mauritius and Malawi export significant quantities of such specialty sugars. Manufacturers sometimes prepare raw sugar as loaves rather than as a crystalline powder, by pouring sugar and molasses together into molds and allowing the mixture to dry. This results in sugar-cakes or loaves, called jaggery or gur in India, pingbian tang in China, and panela, panocha, pile, piloncillo and pão-de-açúcar in various parts of Latin America. In South America, truly raw sugar, unheated and made from sugarcane grown on farms, does not have a large market-share.

Mill white sugar, also called plantation white, crystal sugar, or superior sugar, consists of raw sugar where the production process does not remove colored impurities, but rather bleaches them white by exposure to sulfur dioxide. Though the most common form of sugar in sugarcane-growing areas, this product does not store or ship well; after a few weeks, its impurities tend to promote discoloration and clumping.

Blanco directo, a white sugar common in India and other south Asian countries, comes from precipitating many impurities out of the cane juice by using phosphatation — a treatment with phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide similar to the carbonatation technique used in beet sugar refining. In terms of sucrose purity, blanco directo is more pure than mill white, but less pure than white refined sugar.

White refined sugar has become the most common form of sugar in North America as well as in Europe. Refined sugar can be made by dissolving raw sugar and purifying it with a phosphoric acid method similar to that used for blanco directo, a carbonatation process involving calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, or by various filtration strategies. It is then further purified by filtration through a bed of activated carbon or bone char depending on where the processing takes place. Beet sugar refineries produce refined white sugar directly without an intermediate raw stage. White refined sugar is typically sold as granulated sugar, which has been dried to prevent clumping.

Granulated sugar comes in various crystal sizes — for home and industrial use — depending on the application:

Coarse-grained sugars, such as sanding sugar (also called "pearl sugar", "decorating sugar", nibbed sugar or sugar nibs) adds "sparkle" and flavor for decorating to baked goods, candies, cookies/biscuits and other desserts. The sparkling effect occurs because the sugar forms large crystals which reflect light. Sanding sugar, a large-crystal sugar, serves for making edible decorations. It has larger granules that sparkle when sprinkled on baked goods and candies and will not dissolve when subjected to heat.
Normal granulated sugars for table use: typically they have a grain size about 0.5 mm across
Finer grades result from selectively sieving the granulated sugar
caster (or castor[19]) (0.35 mm), commonly used in baking, originally sprinkled from a castor.
superfine sugar, also called baker's sugar, berry sugar, or bar sugar — favored for sweetening drinks or for preparing meringue
Finest grades
Powdered sugar, 10X sugar, confectioner's sugar (0.060 mm), or icing sugar (0.024 mm), produced by grinding sugar to a fine powder. The manufacturer may add a small amount of anticaking agent to prevent clumping — either cornstarch (1% to 3%) or tri-calcium phosphate.

Sugar cubes close-up.Retailers also sell sugar cubes or lumps for convenient consumption of a standardized amount. Suppliers of sugarcubes make them by mixing sugar crystals with sugar syrup. Jakub Kryštof Rad invented sugarcubes in 1841 in the Austrian Empire (what is now the Czech Republic).


Brown sugar crystals.Brown sugars come from the late stages of sugar refining, when sugar forms fine crystals with significant molasses content, or from coating white refined sugar with a cane molasses syrup. Their color and taste become stronger with increasing molasses content, as do their moisture-retaining properties. Brown sugars also tend to harden if exposed to the atmosphere, although proper handling can reverse this.

The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit juices. This includes all the sugars referred to above. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all.

Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Natural sugars come in fruit, grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.


Chemistry

Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body.Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Sugars include monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides - containing 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (-CHO) or ketone groups (C=O), where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds, making the sugars reactive. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. A notable exception, deoxyribose, as its name suggests, has a "missing" oxygen atom. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of water (H2O) per bond. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose, which is made of glucose, or DNA, which uses deoxyribose as a backbone.

As well as using classifications based on their reactive group, chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose, which form part of nucleic acids. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process, including NADH and ATP. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose, a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose, which has the formula C6H12O6, and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch, or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11.

Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium, with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.

Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. After digestion and absorption. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose, fructose, and galactose.

The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Note for example glycoproteins, proteins connected to one or more sugars.

Monosaccharides include fructose, glucose, galactose and mannose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar - made from one glucose and one fructose), lactose (milk sugar - made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11.

Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose, producing invert sugar. This resulting syrup, sweeter than the original sucrose,[20] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product.

If combined with fine ash, sugar will burn with a blue flame.


Measuring sugar
See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis


Dissolved sugar content
Scientists and the sugar industry use degrees Brix (symbol °Bx), introduced by Antoine Brix, as units of measurement of the mass ratio of dissolved substance to water in a liquid. A 25 °Bx sucrose solution has 25 grams of sucrose per 100 grams of liquid; or, to put it another way, 25 grams of sucrose sugar and 75 grams of water exist in the 100 grams of solution.

An infrared Brix sensor measures the vibrational frequency of the sugar molecules, giving a Brix degrees measurement. This does not equate to Brix degrees from a density or refractive index measurement because it will specifically measure dissolved sugar concentration instead of all dissolved solids. When using a refractometer, one should report the result as "refractometric dried substance" (RDS). One might speak of a liquid as having 20 °Bx RDS. This refers to a measure of percent by weight of total dried solids and, although not technically the same as Brix degrees determined through an infrared method, renders an accurate measurement of sucrose content, since sucrose in fact forms the majority of dried solids. The advent of in-line infrared Brix measurement sensors has made measuring the amount of dissolved sugar in products economical using a direct measurement.


Purity
Technicians usually measure the purity (sucrose content) of sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of plane-polarized light by a solution of sugar.


Baking weight/mass volume relationship
Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture.

The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions:

Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.88 oz
Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.06 oz
Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.23 oz
Bulk Density[21]

Dextrose Sugar 0.62 g/ml
Granulated Sugar 0.70 g/ml
Powdered Sugar 0.56 g/ml
Beet Sugar 0.80 g/ml

Trade and economics
Historically one of the most widely-traded commodities in the world, sugar accounts for around 2% of the global dry cargo market.[citation needed] International sugar prices show great volatility, ranging from around 3 to over 60 cents per pound in the past[update] 50 years. Of the world's 180-odd countries, around 100 produce sugar from beet or cane, a few more refine raw sugar to produce white sugar, and all countries consume sugar. Consumption of sugar ranges from around 3 kilograms per person per annum in Ethiopia to around 40 kg/person/yr in Belgium.[citation needed] Consumption per capita rises with income per capita until it reaches a plateau of around 35 kg per person per year in middle income countries.


World raw sugar price for the calendar years 1960 to 2006.Many countries subsidize sugar production heavily. The European Union, the United States, Japan and many developing countries subsidize domestic production and maintain high tariffs on imports. Sugar prices in these countries have often exceeded prices on the international market by up to three times; today[update], with world market sugar futures prices currently[update] strong, such prices typically exceed world prices by two times.

Within international trade bodies, especially in the World Trade Organization, the "G20" countries led by Brazil have long argued that because these sugar markets essentially exclude cane sugar imports, the G20 sugar producers receive lower prices than they would under free trade. While both the European Union and United States maintain trade agreements whereby certain developing and less developed country (LDCs) can sell certain quantities of sugar into their markets, free of the usual import tariffs, countries outside these preferred trade régimes have complained that these arrangements violate the "most favoured nation" principle of international trade. This has led to numerous tariffs and levies in the past.[22]

In 2004, the WTO sided with a group of cane sugar exporting nations (led by Brazil and Australia) and ruled the EU sugar-régime and the accompanying ACP-EU Sugar Protocol (whereby a group of African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries receive preferential access to the European sugar market) illegal.[23] In response to this and to other rulings of the WTO, and owing to internal pressures on the EU sugar-régime, the European Commission proposed on 22 June 2005 a radical reform of the EU sugar-régime, cutting prices by 39% and eliminating all EU sugar exports.[24] The African, Caribbean, Pacific and least developed country sugar exporters reacted with dismay to the EU sugar proposals,[25]. On 25 November 2005 the Council of the EU agreed to cut EU sugar prices by 36% as from 2009. In 2007 it seemed[26] that the U.S. Sugar Program could become the next target for reform. However, some commentators expected heavy lobbying from the U.S. sugar industry, which donated $2.7 million to US House and US Senate incumbents in the 2006 US election, more than any other group of US food-growers.[27] Especially prominent lobbyists include The Fanjul Brothers, so-called "sugar barons" who made the single largest[update] individual contributions of soft money to both the Democratic and Republican parties in the political system of the United States of America.[28][29]

Small quantities of sugar, especially specialty grades of sugar, reach the market as 'fair trade' commodities; the fair trade system produces and sells these products with the understanding that a larger-than-usual fraction of the revenue will support small farmers in the developing world. However, whilst the Fairtrade Foundation offers a premium of USD 60.00 per tonne to small farmers for sugar branded as "Fairtrade",[30] government schemes such the U.S. Sugar Program and the ACP Sugar Protocol[31] offer premiums of around USD 400.00 per tonne above world market prices. However, the EU announced on 14 September 2007 that it had offered "to eliminate all duties and quotas on the import of sugar into the EU".[32]

The Sugar Association has launched a campaign to promote sugar over artificial substitutes. The Association now[update] aggressively challenges many common beliefs regarding negative side effects of sugar consumption. The campaign aired a high-profile television commercial during the 2007 Prime Time Emmy Awards on FOX Television. The Sugar Association uses the trademark tagline "Sugar: sweet by nature."[33]


See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sugars
Barley sugar
Biobutanol
Caramel
Glycomics
Golden syrup
Holing cane
List of unrefined sweeteners
Sugar alcohol
Sugar plantations in the Caribbean
Sugar loaf
Sugar substitute
The Hawaiian Vibora Luviminda trades union
Saccharophilic pathogen

Notes
^ Wuebben, Joseph and Mike Carlson. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When." http://men.webmd.com/features/...-what-kinds-eat-when (http://men.webmd.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when)
^ Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1566398320. Page 311.
^ Sharpe, Peter (1998). Sugar Cane: Past and Present. Illinois: Southern Illinois University.
^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.
^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
^ Tooth Decay
^ What causes tooth decay?
^ What I need to know about Eating and Diabetes
^ What if It's All Been a Big Fat Lie? - New York Times
^ WHO | Obesity and overweight
^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7219473.stm retrieved 2008-02-06
^ Pär Stattin, Ove Björ, Pietro Ferrari, Annekatrin Lukanova, Per Lenner, Bernt Lindahl, Göran Hallmans, and Rudolf Kaaks (2007). "Prospective Study of Hyperglycemia and Cancer Risk". Diabetes Care 30: 561–567. doi:10.2337/dc06-0922. PMID 17327321. http://care.diabetesjournals.o...nt/abstract/30/3/561 (http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/30/3/561).
^ See table 6, page 56 of the WHO Technical Report Series 916, Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: online at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/...c911e07.htm#bm07.1.3 (http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.htm#bm07.1.3)
^ The Great Sugar Debate: Is it Vegan?
^ a b Yacoubou, MS, Jeanne (2007). "Is Your Sugar Vegan? An Update on Sugar Processing Practices" (PDF). Vegetarian Journal (Baltimore, MD: The Vegetarian Resource Group) 26 (4): 16–20. https://www.vrg.org/journal/vj...ue4/vj2007issue4.pdf (https://www.vrg.org/journal/vj2007issue4/vj2007issue4.pdf). Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
^ SKIL - How Sugar Cane Is Made
^ a b Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
^ The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) classifies both spellings as correct, but "castor" used to prevail.
^ scientificpsychic.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04
^ "Engineering Resources - Bulk Density Chart," Powder and Bulk [1]
^ www.americansugarcouncil.gov/i...tariffhist/history01 (http://www.americansugarcouncil.gov/info/tariffhist/history01)
^ http://www.wto.org/english/tra...sum_e/ds266sum_e.pdf (http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/1pagesum_e/ds266sum_e.pdf)
^ Agriculture - Sugar
^ ACP Group of States - The Fiji Communiqué on Sugar
^ International Sugar Trade Coalition
^ New York Times, October 18, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10...usiness/18sugar.html (http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/18/business/18sugar.html)
^ New York Times, November 11, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/29/opinion/29SAT1.html
^ http://www.motherjones.com/new...mojo_400/boller.html (http://www.motherjones.com/news/special_reports/coinop_congress/97mojo_400/boller.html)
^ FLO (Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International)
^ European Commission - External Trade - Trade Issues
^ European Commission - External Trade - Trade Issues
^ Sugar Association

References
Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1566398320. OCLC 44493265.
James, Glyn (2004). Sugarcane. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 063205476X. OCLC 51837990 84251137.
A C Hannah, The International Sugar Trade, Cambridge: Woodhead, 1996. ISBN 1-85573-069-3
William Dufty, Sugar Blues, ISBN 0-446-34312-9

External links
Cook's Thesaurus: Sugar
sugar at the Open Directory Project
Density of Sugar Factory Products
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar"
Categories: Carbohydrates | Excipients | Granular materials | Nutrition | Sugar
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Spaghetti
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Spaghetti (disambiguation).

Cooked spaghetti
Spaghetti served with tomato sauce and Parmesan cheeseSpaghetti is a long, thin, cylindrical pasta of Italian origin.[1] A variety of pasta dishes are based on it, from spaghetti with cheese and pepper or garlic and oil to a spaghetti with tomato, meat, and other sauces. Spaghetti is made of semolina or flour and water.

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Origins
3 Preparation
4 Serving
5 Cultural references
6 See also
7 References
8 External links



[edit] Etymology
Spaghetti is the plural form of the Italian word spaghetto, which is a diminutive of spago, meaning "thin string" or "twine". The word spaghetti can be literally translated as "little lines."


[edit] Origins
Chinese noodles pre-date Italian pasta,[2] and Arab traders most likely became introduced to them due to their trade routes with China. Historically, people in Italy ate pasta in the form of gnocchi-like dumplings – pasta fresca eaten as soon as it was prepared. It has now been asserted that the Muslims who populated Southern Italy (around the 12th Century) were the first to develop the innovation of working pasta from grain into thin long forms,[3][4] capable of being dried out and stored for months or years prior to consumption (see Peter Robb's Midnight in Sicily pp 94-96 for details). Possibly, Muslim traders with links to Arab trade routes to China may have been introduced to pasta or noodles that way. The Saracens, originally from North Africa, invaded southern Italy in the 9th century and occupied Sicily for 200 years. Pasta is now associated with Italians as a whole. The popularity of pasta spread to the whole of Italy after the establishment of pasta factories in the 19th century, enabling the mass production of pasta for the Italian market.[5]

In the United States around the end of the 1800s, spaghetti was offered in restaurants as Spaghetti Italienne (which likely consisted of extremely soggy noodles and a tomato sauce diluted with broth) and it wasn't until decades later that it came to be prepared with garlic or peppers.[6] Canned spaghetti, kits for making spaghetti, and spaghetti with meat***** became popular, and the dish has become a staple in that country.[6]


[edit] Preparation

Spaghetti during cookingSpaghetti is cooked by boiling the pasta in water and adding either salt or olive oil. The consistency or texture of spaghetti changes as it is cooked. The most popular consistency is al dente (Italian 'to the tooth'); that is, soft but with texture, sometimes even with bite in the center. Others prefer their spaghetti cooked to a softer consistency. The best dried spaghetti is made from durum wheat semolina. Inferior spaghetti is often found produced with other kinds of flour, especially outside Italy. Fresh spaghetti should be prepared with grade '00' flour.[citation needed]. There are two other variants of spaghetti that require different cooking times. Spaghettini ("thin spaghetti") (also "angel hair spaghetti") takes less time (usually two minutes less) to cook to al dente form than regular spaghetti. There is also spaghettoni ("thick spaghetti") which takes longer to cook. All three types of spaghetti are larger than the other round-rod pastas (like vermicelli).


[edit] Serving

Classic Spaghetti Carbonara.An emblem of Italian cuisine, spaghetti is frequently served with tomato sauce, which may contain various herbs (especially oregano, and basil), olive oil, meat, or vegetables. Other spaghetti preparations include using Bolognese sauce, carbonara, and chili. Grated hard cheeses, such as Pecorino Romano, Parmesan, and Asiago cheese, are often added.

The manner of eating spaghetti varies according to local customs, but it is traditionally eaten by twisting the spaghetti around a fork.[citation needed] Eating spaghetti with a fork and a spoon is considered perfectly polite in parts of the United States,[citation needed] although this method is disparaged by some. In East Asia, many people use chopsticks as a form of eating rather than forks, as chopsticks are customary in most East Asian countries.[citation needed]



[edit] Cultural references
On April Fools' Day, 1957, the BBC ran a very successful spoof documentary explaining how spaghetti is grown on spaghetti trees.[7]
The parody religion Pastafarianism holds that the universe was created by a Flying Spaghetti Monster.[8]
"Spaghetti" can be used to describe objects which are complicated or tangled, such as spaghetti code or Spaghetti Junction.
Spaghettieis is a mock dessert which looks like spaghetti with tomato sauce.

[edit] See also
Carbonara
Lai fun
Spaghetti squash
Capellini
List of pasta
Fideo

[edit] References
^ spaghetti. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/spaghetti (accessed: June 03, 2008).
^ (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article577909.ece)
^ (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFD91630F934A35751C1A96E948260)
^ (http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/198607/pasta)
^ (The Italian Kitchen Bible by Kate Whiteman, Jeni Wright and Angela Boggiano, (Hermes House) p.12, 13)
^ a b Levenstein, Harvey; in Carole M. Counihan (ed.) (2002). Food in the USA: A Reader. Routledge. pp. 77-89. ISBN 0-415-93232-7.
^ BBC News. "1957: BBC fools the nation". http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisda..._2819000/2819261.stm (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/1/newsid_2819000/2819261.stm).
^ "The dangers of creationism in education". Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. http://assembly.coe.int/Main.a.../Doc07/EDOC11375.htm (http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc07/EDOC11375.htm). Retrieved on 2009-07-14.

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Spaghetti
Paper on the physics of fragmenting spaghetti (PDF)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaghetti"
Categories: Pasta | Italian loanwords
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Jean-Claude Van Damme
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This article needs reorganization to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. There is good information here, but it is poorly organized; editors are encouraged to be bold and make changes to the overall structure to improve this article. (July 2009)

"Van Damme" redirects here. For other uses, see Van Damme (disambiguation).
Jean-Claude Van Damme

Born 18 October 1960 (1960-10-18) (age 48)
Sint-Agatha-Berchem, Brussels, Belgium
Spouse(s) Maria Rodriguez: 1980–1984
Cynthia Derderian: 1985–1986
Darcy LaPier: 1994–1997 (1 child)
Gladys Portugues: 1987–1992, and 1999– (2 children)
Jean-Claude Van Damme (born Jean-Claude Camille François Van Vaerenbergh 18 October 1960(1960-10-18)) is a Belgian martial artist and actor who is best known for martial arts and action movies, the most successful being Bloodsport, Hard Target, Timecop, and Universal Soldier. His Belgian background and his physique furnished him the nickname The Muscles from Brussels.

Contents [hide]
1 Personal life
2 Film career
2.1 Filmography
2.2 TV
2.2.1 Dual roles
3 Fight Career
4 References
5 Further reading
6 External links



[edit] Personal life
Van Damme was born Jean-Claude Camille François Van Vaerenbergh[1] (also spelled Varenburg)[2] in Berchem-Sainte-Agathe (Brussels), Belgium, the son of Eliana and Eugène Van Vaerenbergh, who was an accountant and owned a flower shop.[3][4] He began martial arts at the age of ten, enrolled by his father in a Shotokan karate school. His styles consist of kickboxing, Shotokan karate, Muay Thai, and taekwondo.[5] He eventually earned his black belt in karate,[6] later winning the European Karate Association's middleweight championship in a stunning upset versus the former champion Michael J. Heming[5] (although he has claimed that he was "twice world champion").[7] He also started lifting weights to improve his physique, which eventually led to a Mr. Belgium bodybuilding title.[8] At the age of 16 he took up ballet, which he studied for five years. He says of ballet that it "is an art, but it's also one of the most difficult sports. If you can survive a ballet workout, you can survive a workout in any other sport."[9] In the French-speaking world, Van Damme is well known for the picaresque aphorisms that he delivers on a wide range of topics (personal well-being, the environment, etc.) in a sort of Zen franglais. [10] Most iconic and often quoted was his repeated use of the English word aware during an interview for a French channel, to convey the notion of self-awareness as a key to success.

In a 2009 interview in the British newspaper The Sun, promoting his film JCVD ("He deserves not a black belt, but an Oscar®."—TIME magazine), he indicated he experienced a period of homelessness in Los Angeles "sleeping on the street and starving in L.A."[11]

Van Damme has been married five times, including two marriages with his current wife, bodybuilder and fitness competitor Gladys Portugues. Van Damme has three children: Kristopher (born 1987), Bianca (born 1990), and Nicholas (born 1995).


[edit] Film career
This section requires expansion.

In 1982, Van Damme and childhood friend, Michel Qissi, relocated to America in the hope of becoming action stars.[12] They both were cast in extras in the film, Breakin'. After a small part in Missing In Action, Van Damme was next cast in the movie No Retreat, No Surrender, as the role of the villain, Ivan the Russian. His breakout film was Bloodsport (also featuring Qissi), based on the alleged true story of Frank Dux. Shot on a meager 1.5 million dollar budget, it became a U.S. box-office hit in the spring of 1988. He then starred in the higher budgeted movie, Cyborg. His last role for 1989 was Kurt Sloane in the successful, Kickboxer where Qissi had the role of main villain, Tong Po. In this movie, his character fought to avenge his brother who had been paralyzed by a Thai kickboxing champion (Qissi).[13]

Double Impact featured Van Damme in the dual role of Alex and Chad Wagner, two brothers fighting to avenge the deaths of their parents. This movie reunited him with his former Bloodsport star, Bolo Yeung. He then starred opposite Dolph Lundgren in the action movie Universal Soldier. While it grossed $36,299,898 in the U.S., it was an even bigger success overseas, making over $65 million, well over its modest $20 million budget, making it Van Damme's highest grossing film at the time.

Van Damme followed Nowhere To Run and Hard Target with Timecop in 1994. The film was a huge success, grossing over $100 million worldwide. In the film, Van Damme played a time traveling cop, who tries to prevent the death of his wife. It remains his highest grossing movie to date.[14]

After his role in the poorly received Street Fighter, his projects started to fail at the box office. The Quest (1996), which he directed; Maximum Risk (1996) and Double Team (1997) were also box-office flops. [15]

His last theatrical released movie was Universal Soldier: The Return. All his movies after this, up until 2008's JCVD, had been direct to video releases.

Van Damme had also worked for director John McTiernan for the 1987 movie Predator as the titular alien, before being removed and replaced by Kevin Peter Hall.

Van Damme will reprise his role as Luc Devereaux in the upcoming movie Universal Soldiers: The Next Generation.

JCVD was offered a lead role in Sylvester Stallone's upcoming film The Expendables. Stallone called Van Damme personally to offer him the role, but Van Damme turned it down, citing that he "doesn't want his career going down that route."[16]


[edit] Filmography

Van Damme in 2007Year Title Role Director
1984 Breakin' Guy dancing in the background Silberg, JoelJoel Silberg
Monaco Forever *** Karate Man Levy, William A.William A. Levy
1985 No Retreat, No Surrender Ivan Krushensky Yuen, CoreyCorey Yuen
1988 Bloodsport Frank Dux Arnold, NewtNewt Arnold
Black Eagle Andrei Carson, EricEric Carson
1989 Cyborg Gibson Rickenbacker Pyun, AlbertAlbert Pyun
Kickboxer Kurt Sloane DiSalle, MarkMark DiSalle, David Worth
1990 Death Warrant Louis Burke Serafian, DeranDeran Serafian
Lionheart Lyon Gaultier Lettich, SheldonSheldon Lettich
1991 Double Impact Alex Wagner/Chad Wagner Lettich, SheldonSheldon Lettich
1992 Universal Soldier Luc Deveraux/GR44 Emmerich, RolandRoland Emmerich
1993 Hard Target Chance Boudreaux Woo, JohnJohn Woo
Last Action Hero Cameo Appearance McTiernan, JohnJohn McTiernan
Nowhere to Run Sam Gillen Harmon, RobertRobert Harmon
1994 Street Fighter Colonel William F. Guile de Souza, Steven E.Steven E. de Souza
Timecop Max Walker Hyams, PeterPeter Hyams
1995 Sudden Death Darren McCord Hyams, PeterPeter Hyams
Friends Himself Crane, DavidDavid Crane
1996 Maximum Risk Alain Moreau/Mikhail Suverov Lam, RingoRingo Lam
The Quest Christopher Dubois Van Damme ?Jean-Claude Van Damme
1997 Double Team Jack Quinn Hark, TsuiTsui Hark
1998 Legionnaire Alain Lefevre MacDonald, PeterPeter MacDonald
Knock Off Marcus Ray Hark, TsuiTsui Hark
1999 Universal Soldier: The Return Luc Devereaux Rodgers, MicMic Rodgers
Desert Heat Eddie Lomax Avildsen, John G.John G. Avildsen
2001 The Order Rudy Cafmeyer/Charles Le Vaillant Lettich, SheldonSheldon Lettich
Replicant Edward "The Torch" Garrotte/Replicant Lam, RingoRingo Lam
2002 Derailed Jacques Kristoff Misiorowski, BobBob Misiorowski
2003 In Hell Kyle LeBlanc Lam, RingoRingo Lam
2004 Wake of Death Ben Archer Martinez, PhillipePhillipe Martinez
Narco Jean's Ghost by Lenny Aurouet, TristanTristan Aurouet, Gilles Lellouche
2006 The Hard Corps Phillip Sauvage Lettich, SheldonSheldon Lettich
Second in Command Sam Keenan Fellows, SimonSimon Fellows
S?nav Charles Sorak, Omer FarukOmer Faruk Sorak
2007 Until Death Anthony Stowe Fellows, SimonSimon Fellows
2008 The Shepherd: Border Patrol Jack Robideaux Florentine, IsaacIsaac Florentine
JCVD Jean-Claude Van Damme (a fictional character based on himself) El Mechri, MabroukMabrouk El Mechri
2009 The Eagle Path[17] Frenchy Van Damme ?Jean-Claude Van Damme
Universal Soldiers: The Next Generation Luc Deveraux John Hyams
2010 Karate The Piston Clarkson, RossRoss Clarkson
Weapon Derek Chase Mulcahy, RussellRussell Mulcahy


[edit] TV
Year Title Episode Role
1996 Friends "The One After the Superbowl" Himself
2006 Las Vegas "Die Fast, Die Furious" Himself
2009 Robot Chicken "Maurice Was Caught" Jean-Claude Van Damme/Count Dracula/Little Orphan Annie's father


[edit] Dual roles
Van Damme has been cast in "dual roles" in a single film many times during his career. Most cases involve two distinct characters, but others (TimeCop) involve the same character from different periods of time-travel. These scenes often necessitate special editing or blue-screen cinematography to have two versions of the actor interacting in the same scene. Those "dual-role" movies to date are

Double Impact: Van Damme plays twin brothers separated at birth and raised in different countries.
Timecop: Van Damme plays two versions of the same character overlapping in space-time continuum.
Maximum Risk: Van Damme plays twin brothers separated at birth, one of which was murdered.
The Order: Van Damme plays two different characters in different eras.
Replicant: Van Damme plays a serial killer and his futuristic clone and mafioso rockstar Repli Gotti.

[edit] Fight Career
At the age of 12, Jean-Claude Van Damme began his martial arts training at Centre National De Karate (National Center of Karate) under the guidance of Master Claude Goetz in Ixelles, Belgium. Van Damme trained for four years and he earned a spot on the Belgium Karate Team.[18]

Jean-Claude made his debut in 1976, at the age of 16.[19] Competing under his birth name of Jean Claude Van Varenberg, Jean-Claude was staggered by a round-house kick thrown by Toon Van Oostrum in Brussels, Belgium.[20] Van Damme was badly stunned, but came back to knockout Van Oostrum moments later.

In 1977, at the WAKO Open International in Belgium, Jean-Claude lost a decision to fellow team mate Patrick Teugels.[21] The experience left an impact on Claude Goetz and he felt that Jean-Claude needed more training before competing again.

After six months of intense training and sparring, Master Goetz decided to unleash his prized pupil on the European Full-Contact scene. Jean-Claude won his first tournament by scoring three knockout victories in one evening. However, in a 1978 match for the Belgium lightweight title, he again lost a decision to Patrick Teugels.[22] Once again, the loss left an impact on Claude Goetz and a few months later at Iseghem, Belgium, Van Damme came back and knocked out Emile Leibman in the first round. In 1979, Jean-Claude and the Belgium Team became European Team Champions.[23]

Next, Jean-Claude faced Sherman Bergman, a kick-boxer from Florida (USA) with a long string of knockout victories.[24] For the first and only time in his career, Jean-Claude was knocked to the canvas after absorbing a powerful left hook.[25] However, Jean-Claude climbed off the canvas and with a perfectly timed ax-kick, knocked Bergman out cold in 59 seconds of the first round. Van Damme ended 1979 with a stoppage of Gilberto (Gil) Diaz in one round.

In 1980, Jean-Claude Van Damme defeated former Great Britain karate champion Micheal Heming. Next, Van Damme scored a knockout over France's Georges Verlugels in two rounds.[26] After these victories, Jean-Claude caught the attention of the European martial arts community. Professional Karate Magazine publisher and editor Mike Anders, and multiple European champion Geet Lemmens tabbed Jean-Claude Van Damme as an upcoming prospect. However, Jean-Claude's ambitions now focused in the direction of movie acting.

Van Damme ended his fight career at the Forest Nationals in Brussels. He knocked Patrick Teugels down and scored a first round technical knockout victory. Teugels suffered a nose injury and was unable in continue.

Following the victory, Van Damme retired from martial arts competition. His final fight record was 18–1, with all wins being knockouts and the loss being a decisions after two rounds.[27][28][29]

Fight Record [27] Date Event Opponent Result
1976 European Karate Union Van Oostrum, ToonToon Van Oostrum Win, 1 round KO
1977 Netherlands Kick Boxing Devos, MauriceMaurice Devos Win, 1 round TKO
1978 European Karate Union Strauss, Eric BrunoEric Bruno Strauss Win, 1 round KO[30]
1978 European Karate Union Juvillier, MichelMichel Juvillier Win, 1 round KO
1978 European Karate Union Lang, OrlandoOrlando Lang Win, 1 round TKO
1978 World All Style Leibman, EmileEmile Leibman Win, 1 round KO
1978 World All Style Nollet, CyrilleCyrille Nollet Win, 1 round TKO
1979 World All Style Robaeys, AndreAndre Robaeys Win, 1 round KO
1979 World All Style Piniarski, JacquesJacques Piniarski Win, 1 round KO
1979 World All Style Risberg, RolfRolf Risberg Win, 1 round KO
1979 November World Full Contact Bergman, ShermanSherman Bergman Win, 1 round KO[28][29]
1979 November World Full Contact Diaz, Gilberto (Gil)Gilberto (Gil) Diaz Win, 1 round TKO
1979 November World Full Contact Teugels, PatrickPatrick Teugels Loss, 2 round decision
1980 March European Professional Benamou, Mustapha-AhmadMustapha-Ahmad Benamou Win, 1 round KO
1980 March European Professional Muhammad, Bekim-MoussaBekim-Moussa Muhammad Win, 1 round TKO
1980 March European Professional Heming, Micheal J.Micheal J. Heming Win, 2 round TKO [5]
1980 March Professional Karate Assoc. Verlugels, GeorgesGeorges Verlugels Win, 2 round KO [31]
1980 European Professional Kovac, AndresAndres Kovac Win, 2 round KO
1980 Forest Nationals (Brussels) Teugels, PatrickPatrick Teugels Win, 1 round TKO


[edit] References
^ Not over the Undertaker. (The Fans Speak Out). | Wrestling Digest (, 2003)
^ 'Sudden Death' star Jean-Claude Van Damme isn't so tough - just ask him. | Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service (, 1995)
^ Jean-Claude Van Damme Biography (1960-)
^ Jean-Claude van Damme Biography - Yahoo! Movies
^ a b c Belgian Bruiser Muscles Into B-Movie Scene ', John Stanley, San Francisco Chronicle, 2 April 1989
^ Karate black belt)
^ 'Van Damme speaks language of karate', Louis B Parks, Houston Chronicle, 29 April 1988
^ '******* interview', Lawrence Grobel, *******, January 1, 1995
^ 'Van Damme gets his kicks from acting now, not karate', Jae-Ha Kim, Chicago Sun-Times, 14 April 1989
^ Abstract Thinker
^ Rollings, Grant (February 6, 2009). "Jean-Claude Van Damme interview". Sun (London, England). Van Damme: "My eldest son doesn't know how to deal with society because I over-protect him because of my last life of being on the street and sleeping on the street and starving in L.A. I didn't want him to have that."
^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0702680/bio
^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000241/bio
^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000241/bio
^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000241/bio
^ Brunton, Richard (2008-11-29). "Van Damme turned down Stallone's The Expendables". Filmstalker.co.uk. http://www.filmstalker.co.uk/a...d_down_stallone.html (http://www.filmstalker.co.uk/archives/2008/11/van_damme_turned_down_stallone.html). Retrieved on 2009-04-08.
^ Jean-Claude Van Damme Official Website
^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000241/bio
^ http://phimanh.vnexpress.net/N...en/2007/12/3B9AE65C/ (http://phimanh.vnexpress.net/News/Dien-vien/2007/12/3B9AE65C/)
^ http://www.123allcelebs.com/bi...n_damme-683_eng.html (http://www.123allcelebs.com/biography_of_jean-claude_van_damme-683_eng.html)
^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHYf40a_dfc
^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHYf40a_dfc
^ http://www.jcvandamme.net/cnk/...ais/CNKen/cnken.html (http://www.jcvandamme.net/cnk/Anglais/CNKen/cnken.html)
^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1870022/bio
^ http://www.123allcelebs.com/bi...n_damme-683_eng.html (http://www.123allcelebs.com/biography_of_jean-claude_van_damme-683_eng.html)
^ http://www.fightingarts.com/re...g/article.php?id=320 (http://www.fightingarts.com/reading/article.php?id=320)
^ a b "Video available on YouTube". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHYf40a_dfc.
^ a b "Jean-Claude Van Damme: IMDb Bio". http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000241/bio.
^ a b "Jean-Claude Van Damme at AllCelebs". http://www.123allcelebs.com/bi...n_damme-683_eng.html (http://www.123allcelebs.com/biography_of_jean-claude_van_damme-683_eng.html).
^ http://www.movie-collection.co...laude-van-damme.html (http://www.movie-collection.com/celebs/jean-claude-van-damme.html)
^ http://www.fightingarts.com/re...g/article.php?id=320 (http://www.fightingarts.com/reading/article.php?id=320)

[edit] Further reading
YouTube Video: JC Van Damme vs Patrick Teugels (1980)-The True Story
WAKO: MARTIAL ARTS (Traditions, History, People, by John Corcoran & Emil Farkas. Gallery Books, W.H. Smith Publishers, Inc. 112 Madison, New York City 10016. 1988. Pages: 60, 265.
PKA World Heavyweight Title: MARTIAL ARTS, by John Corcoran & Emil Farkas. 1988. Pages: 285–286.
EKU: MARTIAL ARTS, by John Corcoran & Emil Farkas. 1988. Pages: 210, 393.
Inside Kung-Fu Presents: Martial Artists One on One, March 1990: Jean-Claude Van Damme, pages 16–25, by John Steven Soet.
Karate Kung-Fu Illustrated: April, 1991, Gunning for Van Damme, by Tim Vandehey.
Xuat Tinh Som (Tre Today News), 31 December 2007: Jean-Claude Van Damme.

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jean-Claude Van Damme
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Jean-Claude Van Damme
Official site (English)
Jean-Claude Van Damme at the Internet Movie Database
Interview with Patri(c)k Teugels
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Claude_Van_Damme"
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Rodenticide
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Rat poison)
Jump to: navigation, search

A wild rat
Warning sign in a Chicago neighborhood"Rat poison" redirects here. For the UNIX window manager, see ratpoison. For other methods of killing rodents, see "alternatives" below.
Rodenticides are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rodents.

Single feed baits are chemicals sufficiently dangerous that the first dose is sufficient to kill.

Rodents are difficult to kill with poisons because their feeding habits reflect their place as scavengers. They will eat a small bit of something and wait, and if they don't get sick, they continue. An effective rodenticide must be tasteless and odorless in lethal concentrations, and have a delayed effect.

Contents [hide]
1 Poisonous chemicals
1.1 Anticoagulants
1.2 Metal phosphides
1.3 Hypercalcemia
1.4 Other
1.5 Combinations
2 Alternatives
3 List of rat eradications
4 References
5 External links



[edit] Poisonous chemicals

[edit] Anticoagulants
Anticoagulants are defined as chronic (death occurs after 1 - 2 weeks post ingestion of the lethal dose, rarely sooner), single-dose (second generation) or multiple-dose (first generation) rodenticides, acting by effectively blocking of the vitamin K cycle, resulting in inability to produce essential blood-clotting factors (mainly coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII (proconvertin), IX (Christmas factor) and X (Stuart factor)).

In addition to this specific metabolic disruption, massive toxic doses of 4-hydroxycoumarin or 4-hydroxythiacoumarin and indandione anticoagulants cause damage to tiny blood vessels (capillaries), increasing their permeability, causing diffuse internal bleedings (haemorrhagias). These effects are gradual, developing over several days, but claims that they are painless are unfounded: in humans both warfarin poisoning and haemophilia commonly cause moderate to severe pain from bleeding into muscles and joints[1]. In the final phase of the intoxication, the exhausted rodent collapses in hypovolemic circulatory shock or severe anemia and dies calmly.

The main benefit of anticoagulants over other poisons is that the time taken for the poison to induce death means that the rats do not associate death with eating the poison.

First generation rodenticidal anticoagulants generally have shorter elimination half-lives,[2] require higher concentrations (usually between 0.005 and 0.1%) and consecutive intake over days in order to accumulate the lethal dose, and less toxic than second generation agents.
Second generation agents are far more toxic than first generation. They are generally applied in lower concentrations in baits (usually in order 0.001 - 0.005%), are lethal after a single ingestion of bait and are also effective against strains of rodents that became resistant to first generation anticoagulants; thus, the second generation anticoagulants are sometimes referred to as "superwarfarins". [3]
Class Examples
Coumarins/4-hydroxycoumarins First generation: warfarin, coumatetralyl
Second generation: difenacoum, brodifacoum, [4] and flocoumafen

1,3-indandiones diphacinone, chlorophacinone, [5] pindone
These are harder to group by generation. According to some sources, the indandiones are considered second generation.[6] However, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?, examples of first generation agents include chlorophacinone and diphacinone.[4]

Other Difethialone is considered a second generation anticoagulant rodenticide .[7]
Indirect Sometimes, anticoagulant rodenticides are potentiated by an antibiotic or bacteriostatic agent, most commonly sulfaquinoxaline. The aim of this association is that the antibiotic suppresses intestinal symbiotic microflora, which are a source of vitamin K. Diminished production of vitamin K by the intestinal microflora contributes to the action of anticoagulants. Added vitamin D also has a synergistic effect with anticoagulants.

Vitamin K1 has been suggested, and successfully used, as antidote for pets or humans accidentally or intentionally (poison assaults on pets, suicidal attempts) exposed to anticoagulant poisons. Some of these poisons act by inhibiting liver functions and in advanced stages of poisoning, several blood-clotting factors are absent, and the volume of circulating blood is diminished, so that a blood transfusion (optionally with the clotting factors present) can save a person who has been poisoned, an advantage over some older poisons.


[edit] Metal phosphides
Metal phosphides have been used as a means of killing rodents and are considered single-dose fast acting rodenticides (death occurs commonly within 1-3 days after single bait ingestion). A bait consisting of food and a phosphide (usually zinc phosphide) is left where the rodents can eat it. The acid in the digestive system of the rodent reacts with the phosphide to generate the toxic phosphine gas. This method of vermin control has possible use in places where rodents are resistant to some of the anticoagulants, particularly for control of house and field mice; zinc phosphide baits are also cheaper than most second-generation anticoagulants, so that sometimes, in the case of large infestation by rodents, their population is initially reduced by copious amounts of zinc phosphide bait applied, and the rest of population that survived the initial fast-acting poison is then eradicated by prolonged feeding on anticoagulant bait. Inversely, the individual rodents, that survived anticoagulant bait poisoning (rest population) can be eradicated by pre-baiting them with nontoxic bait for a week or two (this is important to overcome bait shyness, and to get rodents used to feeding in specific areas by specific food, especially in eradicating rats) and subsequently applying poisoned bait of the same sort as used for pre-baiting until all consumption of the bait ceases (usually within 2-4 days). These methods of alterning rodenticides with different modes of action gives actual or almost 100% eradications of the rodent population in the area, if the acceptance/palatability of baits are good (i.e., rodents feed on it readily).

Zinc phosphide is typically added to rodent baits in amount of around 0.75-2%. The baits have strong, pungent garlic-like odor characteristic for phosphine liberated by hydrolysis. The odor attracts (or, at least, does not repulse) rodents, but has repulsive effect on other mammals. Birds (notably wild turkeys) are not sensitive to the smell, and will feed on the bait, and thus become collateral damage.

The tablets or pellets (usually aluminium, calcium or magnesium phosphide for fumigation/gassing) may also contain other chemicals which evolve ammonia which helps to reduce the potential for spontaneous ignition or explosion of the phosphine gas.

Phosphides do not accumulate in the tissues of poisoned animals, therefore the risk of secondary poisoning is low.

Before the advent of anticoagulants, phosphides were the favored kind of rat poison. During the World War II, they came in use in United States because of shortage of strychnine due to the Japanese occupation of the territories where strychnine-producing plants are grown (Strychnos nux-vomica, in south-east Asia). Phosphides are rather fast acting rat poisons, resulting in the rats dying usually in open areas instead of in the affected buildings.

Phosphides used as rodenticides are:

aluminium phosphide (fumigant only)
calcium phosphide (fumigant only)
magnesium phosphide (fumigant only)
zinc phosphide (in baits)

[edit] Hypercalcemia
Calciferols (vitamins D), cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) are used as rodenticides. They are toxic to rodents for the same reason they are beneficial to humans: they affect calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the body. Vitamins D are essential in minute quantities (few IUs per kilogram body weight daily, only a fraction of a milligram), and like most fat soluble vitamins, they are toxic in larger doses, causing hypervitaminosis. If the poisoning is severe enough (that is, if the dose of the toxin is high enough), it leads to death. In rodents that consume the rodenticidal bait, it causes hypercalcemia, raising the calcium level, mainly by increasing calcium absorption from food, mobilising bone-matrix-fixed calcium into ionised form (mainly monohydrogencarbonate calcium cation, partially bound to plasma proteins, [CaHCO3]+), which circulates dissolved in the blood plasma. After ingestion of a lethal dose, the free calcium levels are raised sufficiently that blood vessels, kidneys, the stomach wall and lungs are mineralised/calcificated (formation of calcificates, crystals of calcium salts/complexes in the tissues, damaging them), leading further to heart problems (myocardial tissue is sensitive to variations of free calcium levels, affecting both myocardial contractibility and excitation propagation between atrias and ventriculas), bleeding (due to capillary damage) and possibly kidney failure. It is considered to be single-dose, cumulative (depending on concentration used; the common 0.075% bait concentration is lethal to most rodents after a single intake of larger portions of the bait) or sub-chronic (death occurring usually within days to one week after ingestion of the bait). Applied concentrations are 0.075% cholecalciferol and 0.1% ergocalciferol when used alone. There is an important feature of calciferols toxicology, that they are synergistic with anticoagulant toxicants, that means, that mixtures of anticoagulants and calciferols in same bait are more toxic than a sum of toxicities of the anticoagulant and the calciferol in the bait, so that a massive hypercalcemic effect can be achieved by a substantially lower calciferol content in the bait, and vice-versa, a more pronounced anticoagulant/hemorrhagic effects are observed if the calciferol is present. This synergism is mostly used in calciferol low concetration baits, because effective concentrations of calciferols are more expensive than effective concentrations of the most anticoagulants. The first application of a calciferol in rodenticidal bait was in the Sorex product Sorexa D (with a different formula than today's Sorexa D), back in early 1970s, which contained 0.025% warfarin and 0.1% ergocalciferol. Today, Sorexa CD contains a 0.0025% difenacoum and 0.075% cholecalciferol combination. Numerous other brand products containing either 0.075-0.1% calciferols (e.g. Quintox) alone or alongside an anticoagulant are marketed.

Although this rodenticide was introduced with claims that it was less toxic to nontarget species than to rodents, clinical experience has shown that rodenticides containing cholecalciferol are a significant health threat to dogs and cats. Cholecalciferol produces hypercalcemia, which results in systemic calcification of soft tissue, leading to renal failure, cardiac abnormalities, hypertension, CNS depression and GI upset.

Signs generally develop within 18-36 hours of ingestion and can include depression, anorexia, polyuria and polydipsia. As serum calcium concentrations increase, clinical signs become more severe, manifesting often via anorexia, vomiting and constipation in the pet. Inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine is a direct result of hypercalcemia. As hypercalcemia persists, mineralization of the kidneys results in progressive renal insufficiency.

Additional anticoagulant renders the bait more toxic to pets as well as human. Upon single ingestion, solely calciferol-based baits are considered generally safer to birds than second generation anticoagulants or acute toxicants. A specific antidote for calciferol intoxication is calcitonin, a hormone that lowers the blood levels of calcium. The therapy with commercially available calcitonin preparations is, however, expensive.


[edit] Other

Civilian Public Service worker distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport Mississippi, ca. 1945.Other chemical poisons include:

ANTU (?-naphthylthiourea; specific against Brown rat, Rattus norvegicus)
Arsenic
Barium (a toxic metal) compound
Barium carbonate
Bromethalin (which affects the nervous system, no antidote)
Chloralose (narcotic acting condensation product of chloral and glucose)
Crimidine (2-chloro-N, N,6-trimethylpyrimidin-4-amine; a synthetic convulsant poison, antivitamin B6)
1,3-Difluoro-2-propanol ("Gliftor" in the former USSR)
Endrin (organochlorine cyclodiene insecticide, used in the past for extermination of voles in fields during winter by aircraft spraying)
Fluoroacetamide ("1081")
Phosacetim (a delayed-action organophosphorous rodenticide)
White phosphorus
Pyrinuron (an urea derivative)
Scilliroside
Sodium fluoroacetate ("1080")
Strychnine
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine ("tetramine")
Thallium (a toxic heavy metal) compounds
Zyklon B (hydrogen cyanide absorbed in an inert carrier)

[edit] Combinations
In some countries, fixed three-component rodenticides, i.e. anticoagulant + antibiotic + vitamin D, are used. Associations of a second-generation anticoagulant with an antibiotic and/or vitamin D are considered to be effective even against most resistant strains of rodents, though some second generation anticoagulants (namely brodifacoum and difethialone), in bait concentrations of 0.0025 - 0.005% are so toxic that resistance is unknown, and even rodents resistant to other rodenticides are reliably exterminated by application of these most toxic anticoagulants.


[edit] Alternatives
Anhydrous powdered maize/corn cobs, containing high fractions (over 40%) of ?-cellulose, which is incorporated into a solid, gastric-resistant matrix, that is dissolved in the gut. The ?-cellulose anhydrous powder released in the gut of the rodent disrupts water and electrolyte balance and so kills the rodent. This material is commonly formulated with taste and flavour additives to increase its palatability, and is compressed into granulate of appropriate size (granules of bigger size for rats, smaller granules for mice). This material is completely non-toxic, leaves no harmful residues, is environmentally friendly and accidental ingestion of it by pets or children is simply treated by giving laxatives, plenty of water and electrolytes. Dead rodents killed by this mean pose no risk of secondary poisoning. However, this method is said to be extremely painful for the rodents. Therefore this method may be illegal to be applied according to certain national legislation on animal welfare, e.g. in Germany.


[edit] List of rat eradications
Campbell Island, New Zealand, largest ever.
Rat Island (Alaska)
Mokapu Island, Molokai
Falkland Islands
San Jorge Islands, Mexico
Canna, Scotland

[edit] References
^ Choinière M, Melzack R (December 1987). "Acute and chronic pain in hemophilia". Pain 31 (3): 317–31. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(87)90161-8. PMID 3501097.
^ Vandenbroucke V, Bousquet-Melou A, De Backer P, Croubels S (October 2008). "Pharmacokinetics of eight anticoagulant rodenticides in mice after single **** administration". J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 31 (5): 437–45. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2885.2008.00979.x. PMID 19000263. http://www3.interscience.wiley...31&issue=5&spage=437 (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0140-7783&date=2008&volume=31&issue=5&spage=437).
^ Kotsaftis P, Girtovitis F, Boutou A, Ntaios G, Makris PE (September 2007). "Haemarthrosis after superwarfarin poisoning". Eur. J. Haematol. 79 (3): 255–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2007.00904.x. PMID 17655702. http://www3.interscience.wiley...79&issue=3&spage=255 (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0902-4441&date=2007&volume=79&issue=3&spage=255).
^ a b "Final Risk Mitigation Decision for Ten Rodenticides | Pesticides | US EPA". http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/...inalriskdecision.htm (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/rodenticides/finalriskdecision.htm). Retrieved on 2008-12-24.
^ "LONG ACTING ANTICOAGULANT RODENTICIDES". http://www.addl.purdue.edu/new...rs/1995/rodent.shtml (http://www.addl.purdue.edu/newsletters/1995/rodent.shtml). Retrieved on 2008-12-24.
^ "Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicosis in the Dog and Cat". http://www.vet.uga.edu/VPP/clerk/Harrell/index.php. Retrieved on 2008-12-24.
^ Saravanan K, Kanakasabai R, Thiyagesan K (June 2003). "Field evaluation of difethialone, a new second generation anticoagulant rodenticide in the rice fields". Indian J. Exp. Biol. 41 (6): 655–8. PMID 15266918.

[edit] External links
National Pesticide Information Center
Fact Sheet on EPA's Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision for Nine Rodenticides
EPA Rodenticide Cluster Reregistration Eligibility Decision Fact Sheet
Wildcare Bay Area - Rodenticide Use Information
[hide]v • d • ePest control: rodenticides

Anticoagulants/
vitamin K antagonists coumarins/4-Hydroxycoumarins: 1st generation (Warfarin, Coumatetralyl) • 2nd generation (Brodifacoum, Difenacoum, Flocoumafen)
1,3-Indandiones: Chlorophacinone • Pindone • Diphacinone

other: Difethialone

Convulsants Crimidine • Phenylsilatrane • Strychnine • Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine

Calciferols Cholecalciferol • Ergocalciferol

Inorganic compounds Aluminium phosphide • Arsenic • Barium carbonate • Calcium phosphide • Cyanide • Thallium • Zinc phosphide

Organochlorine Chloralose • Endrin

Organophosphorus Phosacetim

Metabolic poisons Bromethalin • Fluoroacetamide • 1,3-Difluoro-2-propanol (Gliftor) • Sodium fluoroacetate

Other ?-Naphthylthiourea • Norbormide • Pyrinuron • Scilliroside


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Poison
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For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation).

EU standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC. skull and crossbones became a standard symbol for poison.Treatment for
Toxicology and poison
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v • d • e
In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause disturbances to organisms,[1] usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism. Legally and in hazardous chemical labelling, poisons are especially toxic substances; less toxic substances are labelled "harmful", "irritant", or not labelled at all.

In medicine (particularly veterinary) and in zoology, a poison is often distinguished from a toxin and a venom. Toxins are poisons produced via some biological function in nature, and venoms are usually defined as biologic toxins that are injected by a bite or sting to cause their effect, while other poisons are generally defined as substances which are absorbed through epithelial linings such as the skin or gut.

Contents [hide]
1 Terminology
2 Uses of poison
3 Biological poisoning
4 Poisoning management
4.1 Initial management
4.2 Decontamination
4.3 Antidotes
4.4 Enhanced excretion
4.5 Further treatment
5 See also
6 References
7 External links



[edit] Terminology
Some poisons are also toxins, usually referring to naturally produced substances, such as the bacterial proteins that cause tetanus and botulism. A distinction between the two terms is not always observed, even among scientists.

Animal toxins that are delivered subcutaneously (e.g. by sting or bite) are also called venom. In normal usage, a poisonous organism is one that is harmful to consume, but a venomous organism uses poison to defend itself while still alive. A single organism can be both venomous and poisonous.

The derivative forms "toxic" and "poisonous" are synonymous.

Within chemistry and physics, a poison is a substance that obstructs or inhibits a reaction, for example by binding to a catalyst. For an example, see nuclear poison.

Paracelsus, the father of toxicology, once wrote: "Everything is poison, there is poison in everything. Only the dose makes a thing not a poison." The phrase "poison" is often used colloquially to describe any harmful substance, particularly corrosive substances, carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and harmful pollutants, and to exaggerate the dangers of chemicals. The legal definition of "poison" is stricter. A medical condition of poisoning can also be caused by substances that are not legally required to carry the label "poison".


[edit] Uses of poison
See also: History of poison

"Poisoning of Queen Bona" by Jan Matejko.Throughout human history, intentional application of poison has been used as a method of assassination, murder, suicide and execution.[2][3] As a method of execution, poison has been ingested, as the ancient Athenians did (see Socrates), inhaled, as with carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide (see gas chamber), or injected (see lethal injection). Many languages describe lethal injection with their corresponding words for "poison shot". Poison's lethal effect can be combined with its allegedly magical powers; an example is the Chinese gu poison. Poison was also employed in gunpowder warfare. For example, the 14th century Chinese text of the Huo Long Jing written by Jiao Yu outlined the use of a poisonous gunpowder mixture to fill cast iron grenade bombs.[4]

On the whole, however, poisons are usually not used for their toxicity, but may be used for their other properties. The property of toxicity itself has limited non-lethal applications: mainly for controlling pests and weeds, cleaning and maintenance, and for preserving building materials and food stuffs. Where possible, specific agents which are less poisonous to humans have come to be preferred, but exceptions such as phosphine continue in use.

Most poisonous materials still in use are used for their chemical or physical properties other than being poisonous. Many over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin and Tylenol, are quite toxic if ingested in sufficiently large quantities. Alcohol is also toxic if too much is ingested in a short enough time. In laboratory environments, where specific chemical properties are often required, the most effective, easiest, safest, or cheapest option for use in a chemical synthesis may be a poisonous material. If a toxic substance possesses these properties more exactly than a non-toxic one, the toxic substance is superior. Chromic acid is an example of such a "simple to use" reagent, but reactivity, in particular, is important. Hydrogen fluoride (HF), for example, is both poisonous and extremely corrosive. However, it has a high affinity (free energy) for silicon, which is exploited by using HF to etch glass or to manufacture silicon semiconductor chips.

On the other hand, certain medical treatments actually make deliberate use of the toxicity of certain substances. Antibiotics (originally harvested from organisms but now artificially produced in laboratories) are highly disruptive to the biochemistry of micro-organisms while having almost no direct effect upon humans. Similarly, the drugs used in chemotherapy are quite toxic; the reason chemotheraputic drugs have far more severe side effects than antibiotics is that their toxicity is not as narrowly tailored. Their benefit arises from the fact that they are—hopefully—more toxic to cancerous cells than normal ones. Such substances could be classified as poisons under the categories defined above, as they are generally artificial in nature, but are not generally discussed as such.


[edit] Biological poisoning
Acute poisoning is exposure to a poison on one occasion or during a short period of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning. In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as lye, are classified as corrosives rather than poisons.

Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not occur immediately or after each exposure. The patient gradually becomes ill, or becomes ill after a long latent period. Chronic poisoning most commonly occurs following exposure to poisons that bioaccumulate such as mercury and lead.

Contact or absorption of poisons can cause rapid death or impairment. Agents that act on the nervous system can paralyze in seconds or less, and include both biologically derived neurotoxins and so-called nerve gases, which may be synthesized for warfare or industry.

Inhaled or ingested cyanide, used as a method of execution in gas chambers, almost instantly starves the body of energy by inhibiting the enzymes in mitochondria that make ATP. Intravenous injection of an unnaturally high concentration of potassium chloride, such as in the execution of prisoners in parts of the United States, quickly stops the heart by eliminating the cell potential necessary for muscle contraction.

Most biocides, including pesticides, are created to act as poisons to target organisms, although acute or less observable chronic poisoning can also occur in non-target organism, including the humans who apply the biocides and other beneficial organisms. For example, the herbicide 2,4-D imitates the action of a plant hormone, to the effect that the lethal toxicity is specific to plants. Indeed, 2,4-D is not a poison, but classified as "harmful" (EU).

Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly, by toxication. An example is "wood alcohol" or methanol, which is not poisonous itself, but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver, and the genetic variability of certain liver enzymes makes the toxicity of many compounds differ between individuals.

The study of the symptoms, mechanisms, treatment and diagnosis of biological poisoning is known as toxicology.

Exposure to radioactive substances can produce radiation poisoning, an unrelated phenomenon.


[edit] Poisoning management
Poison Control Centers (reachable at 1-800-222-1222 in the US worldwide) provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of suspected exposure to poisons or toxic substances.

[edit] Initial management
Initial management for all poisonings includes ensuring adequate cardiopulmonary function and providing treatment for any symptoms such as seizures, shock, and pain.

[edit] Decontamination
If the toxin was recently ingested, absorption of the substance may be able to be decreased through gastric decontamination. This may be achieved using activated charcoal, gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation, or nasogastric aspiration. Routine use of emetics (syrup of Ipecac), cathartics or laxatives are no longer recommended.
Activated charcoal is the treatment of choice to prevent absorption of the poison. It is usually administered when the patient is in the emergency room or by a trained emergency healthcare provider such as a Paramedic or EMT. However, charcoal is ineffective against metals, Na, K, alcohols, glycols, acids, and alkalis.
Whole bowel irrigation cleanses the bowel, this is achieved by giving the patient large amounts of a polyethylene glycol solution. The osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol solution is not absorbed into the body, having the effect of flushing out the entire gastrointestinal tract. Its major uses are following ingestion of sustained release drugs, toxins that are not absorbed by activated charcoal (i.e. lithium, iron), and for the removal of ingested packets of drugs (body packing/smuggling).[5]
Gastric lavage, commonly known as a stomach pump, is the insertion of a tube into the stomach, followed by administration of water or saline down the tube. The liquid is then removed along with the contents of the stomach. Lavage has been used for many years as a common treatment for poisoned patients. However, a recent review of the procedure in poisonings suggests no benefit.[6] It is still sometimes used if it can be performed within 1 h of ingestion and the exposure is potentially life threatening.
Nasogastric aspiration involves the placement of a tube via the nose down into the stomach, the stomach contents are then removed via suction. This procedure is mainly used for liquid ingestions where activated charcoal is ineffective, e.g. ethylene glycol.
Emesis (i.e. induced by ipecac) is no longer recommended in poisoning situations.[7]
Cathartics were postulated to decrease absorption by increasing the expulsion of the poison from the gastrointestinal tract. There are two types of cathartics used in poisoned patients; saline cathartics (sodium sulfate, magnesium citrate, magnesium sulfate) and saccharide cathartics (sorbitol). They do not appear to improve patient outcome and are no longer recommended.[8]

[edit] Antidotes
Some poisons have specific antidotes:

Poison/Drug Antidote
paracetamol (acetaminophen) N-acetylcysteine
vitamin K anticoagulants, e.g. warfarin vitamin K
opioids naloxone
iron (and other heavy metals) desferrioxamine, Deferasirox or Deferiprone
benzodiazepines flumazenil
ethylene glycol ethanol, fomepizole or Thiamine
methanol ethanol or fomepizole
cyanide amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite & sodium thiosulfate
Organophosphates Atropine & Pralidoxime
Magnesium Calcium Gluconate
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil, Diltiazem) Calcium Gluconate
Beta-Blockers (Propranolol, Sotalol) Calcium Gluconate and/or Glucagon
Isoniazid Pyridoxine
Atropine Physostigmine
Thallium Prussian Blue


[edit] Enhanced excretion
In some situations elimination of the poison can be enhanced using diuresis, hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, hyperbaric medicine, peritoneal dialysis, or exchange transfusion.

[edit] Further treatment
In the majority of poisonings the mainstay of management is providing supportive care for the patient, i.e. treating the symptoms rather than the poison.

[edit] See also
Antidote
Biosecurity
Food taster
LD50
Lethal injection
List of extremely hazardous substances
List of fictional toxins
List of poisonings
List of poisonous plants
Toxicity
Toxicology
Toxics use reduction
Venom
Mr. Yuk

[edit] References
^ poison at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
^ Kautilya suggests employing means such as seduction, secret use of weapons, poison etc. S.D. Chamola, Kautilya Arthshastra and the Science of Management: Relevance for the Contemporary Society, p. 40. ISBN 8178711265.
^ Kautilya urged detailed precautions against assassination—tasters for food, elaborate ways to detect poison. "Moderate Machiavelli? Contrasting The Prince with the Arthashastra of Kautilya". Critical Horizons, vol. 3, no. 2 (September 2002). Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1440-9917 (Print) 1568-5160 (Online). DOI: 10.1163/156851602760586671.
^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 7. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 180.
^ "Position paper: whole bowel irrigation". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (6): 843–54. 2004. doi:10.1081/CLT-200035932. PMID 15533024.
^ Vale JA, Kulig K; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. (2004). "Position paper: gastric lavage". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (7): 933–43. doi:10.1081/CLT-200045006. PMID 15641639.
^ American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres Clinical Toxicologists (2004). "Position paper: Ipecac syrup". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (2): 133–43. doi:10.1081/CLT-120037421. PMID 15214617.
^ Toxicology, American Academy of Clinical (2004). "Position paper: cathartics". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (3): 243–53. doi:10.1081/CLT-120039801. PMID 15362590.

[edit] External links
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
American Association of Poison Control Centers
American College of Medical Toxicology
ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center
Clinical Toxicology Teaching Wiki
Find Your Local Poison Control Centre Here (Worldwide)
Poison Prevention and Education Website
[hide]v • d • ePoisonings, toxicities, and overdoses (T36-T65, 960-989) (history)

Inorganic Metals Toxic metals Lead · Mercury · Cadmium · Silver · Thallium · Tin · Beryllium · Cobalt

Dietary minerals Manganese · Copper · Iron · Chromium · Zinc · Selenium


Metalloids Arsenic

Nonmetals/halogen compounds Fluoride · Chlorine

Other Radiation poisoning


Organic
Phosphorus Pesticides: Organophosphates

Nitrogen Cyanide

CHO alcohol (Ethanol, Methanol, Ethylene glycol)
Carbon monoxide · Oxygen toxicity


Pharmaceuticals Drug overdoses nervous system Salicylate · Paracetamol · Opioids · Benzodiazepines · TCAs · Anticholinesterase


cardiovascular system Digoxin toxicity · Dipyridamole


Vitamins Vitamin A · Vitamin D · Vitamin E


Biological
(including venom,
toxin,
food poisoning) Fish/seafood Shellfish poisoning (Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Diarrheal shellfish poisoning, Amnesic shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning) · Ciguatera · Ichthyoallyeinotoxism · Scombroid · Haff disease

Other vertebrates snake venom (Alpha-Bungarotoxin, Ancrod, Batroxobin)
amphibian venom: Batrachotoxin · Bombesin · Bufotenin · Physalaemin

birds/quail: Coturnism

Arthropods arthropod venom: Bee sting/bee venom (Apamin, Melittin) · spider venom (Latrotoxin/Latrodectism) · scorpion venom (Charybdotoxin)
Tick paralysis

Poisonous plants/
derivatives Mushroom poisoning · Lathyrism · Ergotism · Strychnine poisoning · Cinchonism · Locoism (Pea struck)



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This page was last modified on 1 August 2009 at 02:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.
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Crocodile
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For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation).
Crocodile
Fossil range: Late Cretaceous - Recent


Nile Crocodile
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Reptilia

Order: Crocodilia

Family: Crocodylidae
Cuvier, 1807

Genera
Crocodylus
Osteolaemus
See full taxonomy.

A crocodile is any species belonging to the family Crocodylidae (sometimes classified instead as the subfamily Crocodylinae). The term can also be used more loosely to include all members of the order Crocodilia: i.e. the true crocodiles, the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae) and the gharials (family Gavialidae), or even the Crocodylomorpha which includes prehistoric crocodile relatives and ancestors. Crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodiles tend to congregate in freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, wetlands and sometimes in brackish water. They feed mostly on vertebrates like fish, reptiles, and mammals, sometimes on invertebrates like mollusks and crustaceans, depending on species. They are an ancient lineage, and are believed to have changed little since the time of the dinosaurs. They are believed to be 200 million years old whereas dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago; crocodiles survived great extinction events.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Description
3 Biology and behaviour
3.1 Size
3.2 Age
4 Taxonomy of the Crocodylidae
5 Crocodiles and Humans
5.1 Danger to humans
5.2 Crocodile products
6 References
7 Further reading
8 See also
9 External links



[edit] Etymology
Look up crocodile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The word crocodile comes from the Ancient Greek ?????????? (crocodilos), "lizard," used in the phrase ho crocodilos ho potamós, "the lizard of the [Nile] river."

There are several variant Greek forms of the word attested, including the later form ??????????? (crocodeilos)[2] found cited in many English reference works.[3] In the Koine Greek of Roman times, crocodilos and crocodeilos would have been pronounced identically, and either or both may be the source of the Latinized form crocod?lus used by the ancient Romans.

Crocodilos/crocodeilos itself is described in reference sources as a corruption of crocè ("pebbly"), and drilos/dreilos supposedly meaning "worm" although attested only as "(man with circumcized) *****".[4] It is unclear how well supported this analysis is. The meaning of crocè is explained as describing the skin texture of lizards (or crocodiles) in most sources, but is alternately claimed to refer to a supposed habit of (lizards or crocodiles) basking on pebbly ground.[5]

The form crocodrillus is attested in Medieval Latin.[4] It is not clear whether this is a medieval corruption or derives from alternate Greco-Latin forms (late Greek corcodrillos and corcodrillion are attested).

A (further) corrupted form cocodrille is found in Old French and was borrowed into Middle English as cocodril(le). The Modern English form crocodile was adapted directly from the Classical Latin crocod?lus in the 16th Century, replacing the earlier form.

The use of -y- in the scientific name Crocodylus (and forms derived from it) is a corruption introduced by Laurenti (1768).


[edit] Description
Crocodiles are similar to alligators and caiman; for their common biology and differences between them, see Crocodilia.

Crocodiles, like dinosaurs, have the abdominal ribs modified into gastralia.Crocodiles are among the more biologically complex reptiles despite their prehistoric look. Unlike other reptiles, they incorporate muscles used for aquatic locomotion into respiration (e.g. M. diaphragmaticus), giving them the functional equivalent of a diaphragm;[6] a cerebral cortex; and a four-chambered heart. Their external morphology on the other hand is a sign of their aquatic and predatory lifestyle. A crocodile’s physical traits allow it to be a successful predator. They have a streamlined body that enables them to swim swiftly. Crocodiles also tuck their feet to their sides while swimming, which makes them faster by decreasing water resistance. They have webbed feet which, although not used to propel the animal through the water, allow it to make fast turns and sudden moves in the water or initiate swimming. Webbed feet are an advantage in shallower water where the animals sometimes move around by walking.

Crocodiles have a palatal flap, a rigid tissue at the back of the mouth that blocks the entry of water. The palate has a special path from the nostril to the glottis that bypasses the mouth. The nostrils are closed during submergence. Like other archosaurs, crocodilians are diapsid, although their post-temporal fenestrae are reduced. The walls of the braincase are bony but they lack supratemporal and postfrontal bones.[1] Their tongues are not free but held in place by a membrane which limits movement; as a result, crocodiles are unable to stick out their tongues.[7]

Crocodilian scales have pores that are believed to be sensory, analogous to the lateral line in fishes. They are particularly seen on their upper and lower jaws. Another possibility is that they are secretory, as they produce an oily substance that appears to flush mud off.[1]

Crocodiles are very fast over short distances, even out of water. Since crocodiles feed by grabbing and holding onto their prey, they have evolved sharp teeth for tearing and holding onto flesh, and powerful muscles that close the jaws and hold them shut. These jaws can bite down with immense force, by far the strongest bite of any animal. The crocodile's bite force is more than 5,000 pounds per square inch (340 atm),[8] compared to just 335 pounds per square inch (22.8 atm) for a rottweiler, 400 pounds per square inch (27 atm) for a large great white shark, or 800 pounds per square inch (54 atm) to 1,000 pounds per square inch (68 atm) for a hyena. The jaws are opened, however, by a very weak set of muscles. Crocodiles can thus be subdued for study or transport by taping their jaws or holding their jaws shut with large rubber bands cut from automobile inner tubes. All crocodiles have sharp and powerful claws. They have limited lateral (side-to-side) movement in their neck.


[edit] Biology and behaviour
Crocodiles are ambush hunters, waiting for fish or land animals to come close, then rushing out to attack. As cold-blooded predators, they are lethargic, therefore survive long periods without food, and rarely need to actively go hunting. Despite their slow appearance, crocodiles are top predators in their environment, and various species have been observed attacking and killing sharks.[9] A famous exception is the Egyptian Plover which is said to enjoy a symbiotic relationship with the crocodile. According to unauthenticated reports, the plover feeds on parasites that infest the crocodile's mouth and the reptile will open its jaws and allow the bird to enter to clean out the mouth.[10]

Many large crocodilians swallow stones (called gastroliths or stomach stones) and they are believed to be of use in acting as ballast to balance their body. Other suggestions have been made that they may have a function similar to that of grit in birds, which is in crushing food.[1]

Salt glands are present in the tongues of most crocodylids and they have a pore opening on the surface of the tongue. They appear to be similar to those in marine turtles, however these seem to be absent in Alligatoridae.[1]

Crocodilians can produce sounds during distress and in aggressive displays. They can also hear well and the tympanic membranes are concealed by flat flaps that may be raised or lowered by muscles.[1]


Crocodile farm in MexicoCrocodiles eat fish, birds, mammals and occasionally smaller crocodiles.

Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, but they also are farmed commercially. Their hide is tanned and used to make leather goods such as shoes and handbags, whilst crocodile meat is also considered a delicacy. The most commonly farmed species are the Sal****er and Nile crocodiles, while a hybrid of the Sal****er and the rare Siamese Crocodile is also bred in Asian farms. Farming has resulted in an increase in the Sal****er crocodile population in Australia, as eggs are usually harvested from the wild, so landowners have an incentive to conserve crocodile habitat.

Crocodiles are more closely related to birds and dinosaurs than to most animals classified as reptiles, the three being included in the group Archosauria ('ruling reptiles'). See Crocodilia for more information.

Crocodile embryos do not have *** chromosomes, and unlike humans *** is not determined genetically. *** is determined by temperature, with males produced at around 31.6 °C, and females produced at slightly lower and higher temperatures. The average incubation period is around 80 days, and also is dependent upon temperature.[11]

It has been observed that crocodiles may possess a form of homing instinct. Three rogue sal****er crocodiles were relocated 400 kilometres by helicopter in northern Australia but had returned to their original locations within three weeks, based on data obtained from tracking devices attached to the reptiles.[12]

The land speed record for a crocodile is 17 km/h (11 mph) measured in a galloping Australian freshwater crocodile. [13] Maximum speed varies from species to species. Certain types of crocodiles can indeed gallop, including Cuban crocodiles, New Guinea crocodiles, African dwarf crocodiles, and even small Nile crocodiles. For most species, the fastest they can move is a kind of "belly run", where the body moves in a snake-like fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro. Crocodiles can reach speeds of 10 or 11 km/h (around 7 mph) when they "belly run", and often faster if they're slipping down muddy tidal riverbanks. Another form of locomotion is the "high walk" where the body is raised clear off the ground.


Siamese Crocodile sleeping with its mouth open to pantCrocodiles do not have sweat glands, so they release heat through their mouths. Consequently, they often sleep with their mouth open and may even pant like a dog.[14]


[edit] Size

Large Sal****er Crocodile in captivity in AustraliaSize greatly varies between species, from the dwarf crocodile to the sal****er crocodile. Species of Palaeosuchus and Osteolaemus grow to an adult size of just 1 metre (3.3 ft) to 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). Larger species can reach over 4.85 metres (15.9 ft) long and weigh well over 1,200 kilograms (2,600 lb). Crocodilians show pronounced sexual dimorphism with males growing much larger and more rapidly than females.[1] Despite their large adult size, crocodiles start their life at around 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long. The largest species of crocodile is the sal****er crocodile, found in northern Australia, throughout south-east Asia, and in the surrounding waters.

The largest recorded crocodile is a giant sal****er crocodile measured at 8.6 metres (28 ft) and 1,352 kilograms (2,980 lb) shot in Australia, Queensland in 1957. A replica of this crocodile has been made as a tourist attraction.[9] The largest living crocodile known is a 7.1 metres (23 ft) long sal****er crocodile, in Orissa, India. It lives in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and in June 2006, was entered in the Guinness Book of World Records.[15]

Two larger certifiable records are both of 6.2 metres (20 ft) crocodiles. The first crocodile was shot in the Mary River in the Northern Territory of Australia in 1974 by poachers and measured by wildlife rangers.[citation needed] The second crocodile was killed in 1983 in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea. In the case of the second crocodile it was actually the skin that was measured by zoologist Jerome Montague, and as skins are known to underestimate the size of the actual animal, it is possible this crocodile was at least another 10 cm longer.[citation needed]


Sweetheart, a large sal****er crocodile that attacked boats
This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. It may be deleted after Friday, 14 August 2009.The largest crocodile ever held in captivity is an Estuarine–Siamese hybrid named Yai (Thai: ????, meaning big) (born 10 June 1972) at the famous Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo, Thailand. This animal measures 6 metres (20 ft) in length and weighs 1,114.27 kilograms (2,456.5 lb).[citation needed]

The largest captive crocodile alive in the US is located in South Carolina. In June 2002, Alligator Adventure introduced Utan. At 20 feet (6.1 m) long and weighing in at more than a ton, "Utan", the largest crocodile to ever be exhibited in the United States, made his new home in Myrtle Beach.[citation needed]

Another huge captive specimen was a sal****er crocodile named Gomek. Gomek was captured by George Craig in Papua New Guinea and sold to St. Augustine Alligator Farm in Florida, USA. Gomek died of heart disease in February 1997. When he died, he was 5.5 metres (18 ft) long—as confirmed by St. Augustine Alligator Farm[citation needed]—and probably between 70 and 80 years old.

Yet another enormous crocodile, named Gustave by the Africans who have seen him, is responsible for over 300 human deaths, and allegedly ate an entire adult hippopotamus. He also stars in a film titled Primeval. The crocodile's length is said to be anywhere between 20 feet (6.1 m) to 30 feet (9.1 m) long. He lives along the Ruzizi River in Africa.[citation needed]

Wildlife experts, however, argue that the largest crocodile so far found in the Bhitarkanika was almost 25 feet (7.6 m) long, which could be traced from the skull preserved by the Kanika Royal Family. The crocodile was shot near Dhamara in 1926 and later its skull was preserved by the then Kanika King. Crocodile experts estimate the animal at about 7.62 metres (25.0 ft) long, as the size of the skull was measured one seventh of the total length of the body.[citation needed]


A statue of Saint Theodore of Amasea treading on a crocodile (Venice, Italy)
[edit] Age
There is no reliable way of measuring crocodile age, although several techniques are used to derive a reasonable guess. The most common method is to measure lamellar growth rings in bones and teeth—each ring corresponds to a change in growth rate which typically occurs once a year between dry and wet seasons.[16] Bearing these inaccuracies in mind, the oldest crocodilians appear to be the largest species. C. porosus is estimated to live around 70 years on average, and there is limited evidence that some individuals may exceed 100 years. One of the oldest crocodiles recorded died in a zoo in Russia. A male freshwater crocodile at the Australia Zoo is estimated to be 130 years old. He was rescued from the wild by Bob Irwin and Steve Irwin after being shot twice by hunters. As a result of the shootings, this crocodile (known affectionately as "Mr. Freshy") has lost his right eye.[17]


[edit] Taxonomy of the Crocodylidae

Crocodile farming in Australia
A bask of crocodiles
American Crocodile at La Manzanilla, Jalisco, Mexico
Skull of the extinct Voay robustusMost species are grouped into the genus Crocodylus. The other extant genus, Osteolaemus, is monotypic (as is Mecistops, if recognized).

Family Crocodylidae
Subfamily †Mekosuchinae (extinct)
Subfamily Crocodylinae
Genus Crocodylus
Crocodylus acutus, American Crocodile
Crocodylus cataphractus, Slender-snouted Crocodile (studies in DNA and morphology suggest that this species may be more basal than Crocodylus, and therefore belongs in its own genus, Mecistops)[18]
Crocodylus intermedius, Orinoco Crocodile
Crocodylus johnsoni, Freshwater Crocodile
Crocodylus mindorensis, Philippine Crocodile
Crocodylus moreletii, Morelet's Crocodile or Mexican Crocodile
Crocodylus niloticus, Nile Crocodile or African Crocodile (the subspecies found in Madagascar is sometimes called the Black Crocodile)
Crocodylus novaeguineae, New Guinea Crocodile
Crocodylus palustris, Mugger Crocodile, Marsh Crocodile, or Indian Crocodile
Crocodylus porosus, Sal****er Crocodile or Estuarine Crocodile
Crocodylus rhombifer, Cuban Crocodile
Crocodylus siamensis, Siamese Crocodile
Genus Osteolaemus
Osteolaemus tetraspis, Dwarf Crocodile (there has been controversy whether or not this is actually two species; current thinking is that there is one species with 2 subspecies: O. tetraspis tetraspis & O. t. osborni)
Genus †Asiatosuchus
Genus †Euthecodon
Genus †Rimasuchus (formerly Crocodylus lloydi)
Genus †Voay Brochu, 2007 (formerly Crocodylus robustus)
Some of the extinct relatives of true crocodiles, members of the larger group Crocodylomorpha, were herbivorous.


[edit] Crocodiles and Humans

[edit] Danger to humans
This section is missing citations or needs footnotes. Please help add inline citations to guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (June 2008)

Main article: Crocodile attacks
The larger species of crocodiles are very dangerous to humans. The main danger that crocodiles pose is not their ability to run after a person but their ability to strike before the person can react. The Sal****er and Nile Crocodiles are the most dangerous, killing hundreds of people each year in parts of south-east Asia and Africa. Mugger crocodiles and possibly the endangered Black Caiman are also very dangerous to humans. American alligators are less aggressive and rarely assault humans without provocation.

The most deaths in a single crocodile attack incident may have occurred during the Battle of Ramree Island, on February 19, 1945, in Burma. Nine hundred soldiers of an Imperial Japanese Army unit, in an attempt to retreat from the Royal Navy and rejoin a larger battalion of the Japanese infantry, crossed through 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) of mangrove swamps which contained Sal****er Crocodiles. Twenty Japanese soldiers were captured alive by the British, and almost five hundred are known to have escaped Ramree. Many of the remainder may have been eaten by the crocodiles, although gunfire from the British troops was undoubtedly a contributory factor.[citation needed].


[edit] Crocodile products
Main article: Crocodile farm

Crocodile leather wallets from Bangkok Crocodile FarmCrocodile leather can be made into goods such as wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes.

Crocodile meat is consumed in some countries, such as Australia, Ethiopia, Thailand, South Africa and also Cuba (in pickled form); it can also be found in specialty restaurants in some parts of the United States. The meat is white and its nutritional composition compares favourably with that of other meats[citation needed]. It tends to have a slightly higher cholesterol level than other meats[citation needed]. Crocodile meat has a delicate flavour; some describe it as a cross between chicken and crab[citation needed]. Cuts of meat include backstrap and tail fillet.

Crocodile oil has been used for centuries as a natural healing skin balm.


[edit] References
^ a b c d e f g Grigg, Gordon and Gans, Carl (1993) Morphology And Physiology Of The Crocodylia, in Fauna of Australia Vol 2A Amphibia and Reptilia, chapter 40, pages 326-336. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. PDF
^ http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mp...okodeilos&lang=greek (http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/vor?lookup=krokodeilos&lang=greek)
^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/crocodile
^ a b http://dictionary.com/browse/crocodile
^ http://etymonline.com/index.php?search=crocodile
^ Uriona TJ, Farmer CG. 2008. Recruitment of the diaphragmaticus, ischiopubis and other respiratory muscles to control pitch and roll in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1141-1147.
^ Huchzermeyer, Fritz (2003). Crocodiles: Biology, Husbandry and Diseases. CABI Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 9780851996561. http://books.google.co.uk/book...=frontcover#PPA13,M1 (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=4Arv-IUFnuoC&printsec=frontcover#PPA13,M1). Retrieved on 2000-01-07.
^ National Geographic documentary; "Bite Force", Brady Barr.
^ a b Sal****er Crocodile, Sal****er Crocodile Profile, Facts, Information, Photos, Pictures, Sounds, Habitats, Reports, News - National Geographic
^ Richford, Andrew S., and Christopher J. Mead (2003). "Pratincoles and Coursers". in Christopher Perrins (Ed.). Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 252–253. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
^ Britton, Adam. Estuarine Crocodile: Crocodylus porosus. Crocodilians: Natural History Conservation: Crocodiles, Caimans, Alligators, Gharials. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
^ Read MA, Grigg GC, Irwin SR, Shanahan D, Franklin CE (2007) Satellite Tracking Reveals Long Distance Coastal Travel and Homing by Translocated Estuarine Crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus. PLoS ONE 2(9): e949. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000949
^ Britton, Adam. "Crocodilian Biology Database FAQ, "How fast can a crocodile run?"". http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/cnhc/cbd-faq-q4.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-02.
^ Anitai, Stefan. "14 Amazing Facts About Crocodiles - Living dinosaurs". Softpedia. http://news.softpedia.com/news...ocodiles-69931.shtml (http://news.softpedia.com/news/14-Amazing-Facts-About-Crocodiles-69931.shtml). Retrieved on 2008-04-01.
^ "Orissa crocodile recognised as world's largest". Reuters. 2006-06-16. http://in.today.reuters.com/ne...0_India-255100-1.xml (http://in.today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=topNews&storyID=2006-06-16T161028Z_01_NOOTR_RTRJONC_0_India-255100-1.xml). Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
^ Britton Adam. Crocodilian Biology Database, FAQ. "How long do crocodiles live for?". Retrieved 9/11/2006.
^ profile of Mr Freshy at Australia Zoo website, accessed 1 February 2007
^ McAliley, Willis, Ray, White, Brochu & Densmore (2006). Are crocodiles really monophyletic?—Evidence for subdivisions from sequence and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39:16-32.

[edit] Further reading
Iskandar, DT (2000). Turtles and Crocodiles of Insular Southeast Asia and New Guinea. ITB, Ban****.
Crocodilian Biology Database, FAQ. "How long do crocodiles live for?" [sic] Adam Britton.
Crocodilian Biology Database, FAQ. "How fast can a crocodile run?" Adam Britton.

[edit] See also
Wikispecies has information related to: Crocodilia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Crocodilia
Wikiversity has learning materials about Crocodile
Crocodile attacks
Crocodile exoskeleton
Crocodile oil
Mekosuchine crocodiles
Crocodiles in sewers
The Crocodile Hunter
Steve Irwin
Gustave (crocodile)
Crocodillin

[edit] External links
Crocodilian Online
Crocodilian Biology Database
Crocodile Attacks in Australia
BBC news finds powerful agent in crocodile blood
90m years old fossils of crocodile found in Brazil
Crocodylidae
[show]v • d • eExtant Crocodilian species

Kingdom: Animalia · Phylum: Chordata · Class: Sauropsida · (unranked): Archosauria · Superorder: Crocodylomorpha

[show] Family Gavialidae

Tomistoma False gharial (T. schlegelii)

Gavialis Gharial (G. gangeticus)



[show] Family Alligatoridae

Alligatorinae
(Alligators) Alligator American Alligator (A. mississippiensis) · Chinese Alligator (A. sinensis)


Caimaninae
(Caimans) Paleosuchus Cuvier's Dwarf Caiman (P. palpebrosus) · Smooth-fronted Caiman (P. trigonatus)

Caiman Spectacled Caiman (C. crocodilus) · Broad-snouted Caiman (C. latirostris) · Yacare Caiman (C. yacare)

Melanosuchus Black Caiman (M. niger)




[hide] Family Crocodylidae (Crocodiles)

Crocodylinae Crocodylus American Crocodile (C. acutus) · Slender-snouted Crocodile (C. cataphractus) · Orinoco Crocodile (C. intermedius) · Freshwater Crocodile (C. johnsoni) · Philippine crocodile (C. mindorensis) · Morelet's Crocodile (C. moreletii) · Nile crocodile (C. niloticus) · New Guinea Crocodile (C. novaeguineae) · Mugger Crocodile (C. palustris) · Sal****er Crocodile (C. porosus) · Cuban Crocodile (C. rhombifer) · Siamese Crocodile (C. siamensis)

Osteolaemus Dwarf Crocodile (O. tetraspis)




[show]v • d • eRelated articles on alligators, caimans, crocodiles and gharials

Topics Alligator–Crocodile differentation · Crocodile exoskeleton · Crocodillin · Foramen of Panizza · Gastralium · List of crurotarsans · Madras Crocodile Bank Trust · The Croc Festival

Human
interaction U.S. Alligator fatalities · Crocodile attacks · Crocodile tears · Famous crocodiles and alligators · Sewer alligator


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodile"
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Insect repellent
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Bug spray)
Jump to: navigation, search

Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent.An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. There are also insect repellent products available based on sound production, particularly ultrasound (inaudibly high frequency sounds). These electronic devices have been shown to have no effect as a mosquito repellent by studies done by the EPA and many universities.[1]

Insect repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, Dengue fever, bubonic plague, and West Nile fever. Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include the insects flea, fly, and mosquito; and the arachnid tick.

Common insect repellents include:

DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide)
Essential oil of the lemon eucalyptus and its active ingredient p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD)
Icaridin, also known as picaridin, Bayrepel, and KBR 3023
Nepetalactone, also known as "catnip oil"
Citronella oil
Permethrin
Neem oil
Bog Myrtle
Usually insect repellents work by masking human scent, or by using a scent which insects naturally avoid.[citation needed] Permethrin is different in that it is actually a contact insecticide.

Contents [hide]
1 Repellent effectiveness
2 Repellent safety
3 Insect repellents from natural sources
4 Inactive substances
5 Less effective methods
6 See also
7 References
8 Notes
9 External links



[edit] Repellent effectiveness
Synthetic repellents tend to be more effective and/or longer lasting than 'natural' repellents.[2][3] However, some plant-based repellents are comparable to, or somewhat better than synthetics - depending on the formula.[2][4][5] Essential oil repellents can be short-lived in their effectiveness, since essential oils can evaporate completely.

A test of various insect repellents by an independent consumer organization found that repellents containing DEET or picaridin are more effective than repellents with 'natural' active ingredients. All the synthetics gave almost 100% repellency for the first 2 hours, where the natural repellent products were most effective for the first 30–60 minutes, and required reapplication to be effective over several hours.[6] However, some products in the market like essential oil candle and natural herb mosquito coil can give protection to an entire room up to 8 hours.

For protection against mosquitos, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control issued a statement in May 2008 recommending equally DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus and IR3535 for skin. [7] Permethrin is recommended for clothing, gear, or bed nets.[2] In an earlier report, the CDC found oil of lemon eucalyptus to be more effective than other plant-based treatments, with a similar effectiveness to low concentrations of DEET.[7] However, a 2006 published study found in both cage and field studies that a product containing 40% oil of lemon eucalyptus was just as effective as products containing high concentrations of DEET. [8] Research has also found that neem oil is mosquito repellent for up to 12 hours.[9] Citronella oil's mosquito repellency has also been verified by research,[10] including effectiveness in repelling Aedes aegypti,[11][12] but requires reapplication after 30–60 minutes.


[edit] Repellent safety

DEET
Icaridin
p-Menthane-3,8-diol (PMD)Regarding safety with insect repellent use on children and pregnant women:

Children may be at greater risk for adverse reactions to repellents, in part, because their exposure may be greater.
Keep repellents out of the reach of children.
Do not allow children to apply repellents to themselves.
Use only small amounts of repellent on children.
Do not apply repellents to the hands of young children because this may result in accidental eye contact or ingestion.
Try to reduce the use of repellents by dressing children in long sleeves and long pants tucked into boots or socks whenever possible. Use netting over strollers, playpens, etc.
As with chemical exposures in general, pregnant women should take care to avoid exposures to repellents when practical, as the fetus may be vulnerable.
Regardless of which repellent product used, it is recommended that the label is read before use and directions carefully followed.[13] Usage instructions for repellents vary from country to country. Some insect repellents are not recommended for use on younger children.[7]

In the DEET Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) the United States Environmental Protection Agency? (EPA) reported 14 to 46 cases of potential DEET associated seizures, including 4 deaths. The EPA states: "... it does appear that some cases are likely related to DEET toxicity," but observed that with 30% of the US population using DEET, the likely seizure rate is only about one per 100 million users.[14]

The Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University states that, "Everglades National Park employees having extensive DEET exposure were more likely to have insomnia, mood disturbances and impaired cognitive function than were lesser exposed co-workers".[15]

The EPA states that citronella oil shows little or no toxicity and has been used as a topical insect repellent for 60 years. However, the EPA also states that citronella may irritate skin and cause dermatitis in certain individuals.[16] Canadian regulatory authorities concern with citronella based repellents is primarily based on data-gaps in toxicology, not on incidents.[17][18]

Within countries of the European Union, Implementation of Regulation 98/8/EC, commonly referred to as the Biocidal Products Directive, has severely limited the number and type of insect repellents available to European Consumers. Only a small number of active ingredients have been supported by manufacturers in submitting dossiers to the EU Authorities. In general, only formulations containing Deet, Picaridin (also known as Saltidin or Bayrepel) and Citridiol are available. Most "natural" insect repellents such as Citronella, Neem Oil, Herbal Extracts are no longer permitted for sale as insect repellents in the EU (Although this does not preclude them from being sold for "other" purposes, as long as the label does not indicate they are a biocide (insect repellent)


[edit] Insect repellents from natural sources
There are many preparations from naturally occurring sources that are repellent to certain insects. Some of these act as insecticides while others are only repellent.

Achillea alpina (mosquitos)
alpha-terpinene (mosquitos)[19]
Basil[20] (NB: a dose similar to the one as a food ingredient should be used for the time being.
Further information: Ocimum basilicum
)
Callicarpa americana (Beautyberry)[21]
Camphor (moths)[22]
Carvacrol (mosquitos)[19]
Castor oil (mosquitos)[23]
Catnip oil (nepetalactone against mosquitos)[24]
Cedar oil (mosquitos)[23]
Celery extract (mosquitos)[19] In clinical testing an extract of celery was demonstrated to be at least equally effective to 25% DEET[25], although the commercially availability of such an extract is not known.
Cinnamon[26] (leaf oil kills mosquito larvae)[27]
Citronella oil (repels mosquitos)[23]
Clove oil (mosquitos)[23] (NB: a dose similar to the one as a food ingredient should be used for the time being.)
Further information: Oil of cloves
Eucalyptus oil (70%+ eucalyptol), (cineol is a synonym), mosquitos, flies, dust mites[28])
Fennel oil (mosquitos)[19]
Garlic (rice weevil, wheat flour beetle)[29] (NB: a dose similar to the one as a food ingredient should be used for the time being)
Geranium oil (also known as Pelargonium graveolens) [30], [23]
Lavender[31][32]
Lemon eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora) essential oil and its active ingredient p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD)
Lemongrass[33] (NB: a dose similar to the one as a food ingredient should be used for the time being
Further information: Cymbopogon flexuosus
)
Lemongrass oil (mosquitos)[23]
Marigolds
Marjoram (Spider mites Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis)[34]
Neem oil (Repels or kills mosquitos, their larvae and a plethora of other insects including those in agriculture)
Peppermint (mosquitos)[35]
Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) (mosquitos,[28] fleas[36]), but very toxic to pets.[36]
Rosemary[34] (mosquitos)[23]
Spanish Flag Lantana camara (against Tea Mosquito Bug, Helopeltis theivora) [37]
Solanum villosum berry juice (against Stegomyia aegypti mosquitos)[38]
Tea tree[39]
Thyme (mosquitos)[19]

[edit] Inactive substances
While soybean oil has no direct insect repellent activity, it is used as a fixative to extend the short duration of action of essential oils such as geranium oil in several commercial products.[2][40]

Other commercial products offered for household mosquito "control" include small electrical mats, mosquito repellent vapor, DEET-impregnated wrist bands, and mosquito coils containing a form of the chemical allethrin. Mosquito-repellent candles containing citronella oil are sold widely in the U.S. All of these have been used with mixed reports of success and failure.


[edit] Less effective methods
Some old studies suggested that the ingestion of large doses of thiamin could be effective as a **** insect repellent against mosquito bites. However, there is now conclusive evidence that thiamin has no efficacy against mosquito bites. [41][42][43][44] Some claim that plants like wormwood or sagewort, lemon balm, lemon grass, lemon thyme and the mosquito plant (Pelargonium) will act against mosquitoes. However, scientists have determined that these plants are “effective” for a limited time only when the leaves are crushed and applied directly to the skin.[45]

There are several, widespread, unproven theories about mosquito control such as the assertion that vitamin B, in particular B1 (thiamine), garlic, ultrasonic devices, incense, can be used to repel or control mosquitoes.[46][47] Moreover, some manufacturers of "mosquito repelling" ultrasonic devices have been found to be fraudulent,[48] and their devices were deemed "useless" in tests by the UK Consumer magazine Which?[49]


[edit] See also
List of organic fumigants
Insecticide
Mosquito control
Mosquito net
Pest control
Category:Insecticide brands
RID Insect Repellent
Slug tape

[edit] References
Iowa State University Study: Nepetalactone 10 times more effective than DEET
EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC

[edit] Notes
^ EurekaAlert (April 17, 2007). "Mosquito repellents that emit high-pitched sounds don't prevent bites". Press release. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_...04/jws-mrt041607.php (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-04/jws-mrt041607.php).
^ a b c d M. S. Fradin and J. F. Day (2002). "Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents against Mosquito Bites". N Engl J Med 347 (1): 13–18. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011699. PMID 12097535.
^ Collins, D.A.; Brady, J.N.; Curtis, C.F. (1993). "Assessment of the efficacy of Quwenling as a Mosquito repellent". Phytotherapy Research 7 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650070106.
^ Mishra AK, Singh N, Sharma VP, 1995 "Use of neem oil as a mosquito repellent in tribal villages of mandla district, madhya pradesh", Indian J Malariol, Sep;32(3):99-103 Pubmed
^ Collins, D.A.; Brady, J.N.; Curtis, C.F. (1993). "Assessment of the efficacy of Quwenling as a Mosquito repellent". Phytotherapy Research 7 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650070106.
^ "Test: Mosquito Repellents, The Verdict" Choice, The Australian Consumers Association
^ a b c "Updated Information regarding Insect Repellents". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 8 May 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbi...repellentupdates.htm (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/repellentupdates.htm).
^ Carroll SP, Loye J, 2006, Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 22(3):507-514, 510
^ Mishra AK, Singh N, Sharma VP, 1995 "Use of neem oil as a mosquito repellent in tribal villages of mandla district, madhya pradesh", Indian J Malariol, Sep;32(3):99-103 Pubmed
^ Jeong-Kyu KIM, Chang-Soo KANG, Jong-Kwon LEE, Young-Ran KIM, Hye-Yun HAN, Hwa Kyung YUN, Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Two Natural Aroma Mosquito Repellent Compounds, Citronella and Citronellal, Entomological Research 35 (2), 117–120, 2005
^ Ibrahim Jantan, and Zaridah Mohd. Zaki, Development of environment-friendly insect repellents from the leaf oils of selected Malaysian plants, ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC), May 1998.
^ Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyan Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasom L, Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites, Phytother Res. 2005 Apr;19(4):303-9 [1]
^ "Health Advisory: Tick and Insect Repellents", Information factsheet, Department of Health, New York State
^ "Reregistration Eligibility Decision: DEET." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. September 1998. pp39-40
^ Deet
^ "U.S. EPA Citronella Factsheet". http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/...factsheet_021901.htm (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/ingredients/factsheets/factsheet_021901.htm). Retrieved on July 20 2007.
^ (PDF) Re-evaluation of Citronella Oil and Related Active Compounds for Use as Personal Insect Repellents. Pest Management Regulatory Agency (Canada). 17 September 2004. ISBN 0-662-38012-6. http://www.pmra-arla.gc.ca/eng...cr/pacr2004-36-e.pdf (http://www.pmra-arla.gc.ca/english/pdf/pacr/pacr2004-36-e.pdf).
^ "So Then: Who’s Afraid of Citronella Oil? Update!" Cropwatch Newsletter Vol 2,Issue 1, No. 1
^ a b c d e "Natural Mosquito Repellents - Which Natural Mosquito Repellents Work Best?". altmedicine.about.com. http://altmedicine.about.com/o...index/a/mosquito.htm (http://altmedicine.about.com/od/aznaturalremedyindex/a/mosquito.htm). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
^ Taverne, Janice (2001). "Malaria on the Web and the mosquito-repellent properties of basil". Trends in Parasitology 17 (6): 299–300. doi:10.1016/S1471-4922(01)01978-X.
^ "A Granddad's Advice May Help Thwart Mosquitoes". www.sciencedaily.com (http://www.sciencedaily.com). http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.../02/060201233218.htm (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/02/060201233218.htm). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
^ "Camphor (white)". www.aromatherapy-oil.co.uk (http://www.aromatherapy-oil.co.uk). http://www.aromatherapy-oil.co.uk/camphor.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
^ a b c d e f g "Natural Mosquito Repellents". chemistry.about.com. http://chemistry.about.com/cs/...work/a/aa050503a.htm (http://chemistry.about.com/cs/howthingswork/a/aa050503a.htm). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
^ "Catnip Repels Mosquitoes More Effectively Than DEET". www.sciencedaily.com (http://www.sciencedaily.com). http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.../08/010828075659.htm (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/08/010828075659.htm). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu...les&logdbfrom=pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18853188?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed)
^ Beck, Leslie, Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food, http://www.lesliebeck.com/ingr...hp?featured_food=80, (http://www.lesliebeck.com/ingredient_index.php?featured_food=80,) retrieved on 2007-05-01
^ "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". www.sciencedaily.com (http://www.sciencedaily.com). http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.../07/040716081706.htm (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040716081706.htm). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
^ a b "Natural Insect and Rodent Repellents - Quick & Simple". www.quickandsimple.com (http://www.quickandsimple.com). http://www.quickandsimple.com/...ct-rodent-repellents (http://www.quickandsimple.com/how-to/organize-clean/natural-insect-rodent-repellents). Retrieved on 2009-01-02.
^ Rahman, G. K. M. M.; N. Motoyama (1998). "Identification of the active components of garlic causing repellent effect against the rice weevil and the wheat flour beetle". Nihon Oyo Doubutsu Konchu Gakkai Taikai Koen Youshi 42: 211. http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/...19991699A0654161.php (http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/199916/000019991699A0654161.php). Retrieved on 22 November.
^ Botha, B. M.; C. M. McCrindle (2000). "An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her) for potential use by resource-limited animal owners". http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibi...rences&therow=132095 (http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=132095). Retrieved on 30 May 2009.
^ Jaenson, Thomas G. T. et al. (2006). "Repellency of Oils of Lemon Eucalyptus, Geranium, and Lavender and the Mosquito Repellent MyggA Natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Laboratory and Field". Journal of Medical Entomology 43 (4): 731 – 736. doi:10.1603/0022-2585(2006)43[731:ROOOLE]2.0.CO;2.
^ Cook, Samantha M. et al. (2007). "Responses of Phradis parasitoids to volatiles of lavender, Lavendula angustifolia —a possible repellent for their host, Meligethes aeneus". BioControl (Springer) 52 (5): 591–598. doi:10.1007/s10526-006-9057-x.
^ Oyedele, A.O. et al. (2002). "Formulation of an effective mosquito-repellent topical product from Lemongrass oil". Phytomedicine 9 (3): 259–262. doi:10.1078/0944-7113-00120.
^ a b Momen, F. M. et al. (2001). "Repellent and Oviposition-Deterring Activity of Rosemary and Sweet Marjoram on the Spider Mites Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis (Acari: Tetranychidae)". Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica (Akadémiai Kiadó) 36 (1 - 2): 155–164. doi:10.1556/APhyt.36.2001.1-2.18.
^ Ansari, M. A. et al. (2000). "Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil". Bioresource Technology 71 (3): 267–271. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00079-6.
^ a b "Warnings". bitsandbrew.com. http://bitsandbrew.com/warning1.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-02.
^ Deka, M. K. et al. (22 Apr). "Antifeedant and Repellent Effects of Pongam (Pongamia Pinnata) and Wild Sage (Lantana Camara) on Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis Theivora)". Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 68 (5): 274. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=10690847. Retrieved on 22 November.
^ "Common Weed, Ayurvedic Nightshade, Deadly For Dengue Mosquito". www.sciencedaily.com (http://www.sciencedaily.com). http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.../04/080402194403.htm (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080402194403.htm). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
^ U.S. Patent 5,738,863
^ Barnard, D.R. and R. Xue. 2004. Laboratory evaluation of mosquito repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 41(4):726-730.
^ BMJ Clinical Evidence
^ Ives AR, Paskewitz SM (2005). "Testing vitamin B as a home remedy against mosquitoes". J. Am. Mosq. Control. Assoc. 21 (2): 213–217. doi:10.2987/8756-971X(2005)21[213:TVBAAH]2.0.CO;2. PMID 16033124. http://apt.allenpress.com/perl...AH%5D2.3.CO%3B2&ct=1 (http://apt.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1043%2F8756-971X(2005)021%5B0213%3ATVBAAH%5D2.3.CO%3B2&ct=1).
^ Khan AA, Maibach HI, Strauss WG, Fenley WR. (2005). "Vitamin B1 is not a systemic mosquito repellent in man". Trans. St. Johns Hosp. Dermatol. Soc. 55 (1): 99–102. PMID 4389912.
^ Strauss WG, Maibach HI, Khan AA (1968). "Drugs and disease as mosquito repellents in man". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 17 (3): 461–464. PMID 4385133.
^ [2]
^ Insect bites and stings. DermNet NZ[dead link]
^ http://www.vnh.org/NHB/HW9421Mosquito2.html[dead (http://www.vnh.org/NHB/HW9421Mosquito2.html%5Bdead) link]
^ Lentek International-08/28/02
^ "The great mosquito sting". 6 Sept 2005. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pag...1429&in_page_id=1774 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/health/healthmain.html?in_article_id=361429&in_page_id=1774). Retrieved on 2007-08-09.

[edit] External links
Choosing and Using Insect Repellents - National Pesticide Information Center
Alan Wood. "Insect Repellents". Compendium of Pesticide Common Names. http://www.alanwood.net/pestic...sect_repellents.html (http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/class_insect_repellents.html).
Jeanie Lerche Davis (2003). "Best Insect Repellent for Mosquitoes: Bug Experts Rate Products to Keep West Nile Virus at Bay". WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/news/2003...t-mosquito-repellent (http://www.webmd.com/news/20030408/best-mosquito-repellent).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (28 April 2005). "CDC Adopts New Repellent Guidance". Press release. http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/r050428.htm.
Department of Health, New York State. "Health Advisory: Tick and Insect Repellents". http://www.health.state.ny.us/...e/education/2737.htm (http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/westnile/education/2737.htm).
Plant parts with Insect-repellent Activity from the chemical Borneol (Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases)
Understanding ingredients and differences between insect repellents
Mosquito repellents; Florida U
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Kit Kat
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For other uses of "Kit Kat" or "Kit Cat", see Kit Kat (disambiguation).
Kit Kat

Type Confectionery
Current owner Nestlé
(The Hershey Company under licence)
Country of origin United Kingdom
Introduced 1935
Markets World
A Kit Kat is a confection which was first created by Rowntree Limited of York, England, and now produced worldwide by Nestlé, which acquired Rowntree in 1988,[1] except in the USA where it is made under licence by Hershey's. Each bar consists of fingers composed of three layers of crème-filled wafer, covered in an outer layer of chocolate. Each finger can be snapped from the bar one at a time.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Global confection
3 Brand name and appearance
4 Marketing and promotion
5 Kit Kat varieties
5.1 Standard finger bars
5.2 Large single finger Chunky bars
5.3 Other Kit Kat forms and shapes
6 Ingredients
6.1 UK
6.2 USA
6.3 Canada
6.4 Canada (Dark Kit Kat)
7 Big Brother UK Series 7 golden ticket draw
8 References
9 External links



[edit] History

USA Kit KatThe original four-finger version of this chocolate-covered biscuit bar was developed after a worker at the Rowntree's factory in York put a suggestion in the suggestion box for a snack that a 'man could have in his lunch box for work'.[citation needed] It was launched in September 1935 in the UK as Rowntree's Chocolate Crisp (price: 2d). The two-finger version was launched on May 15, 1936. Rowntree's Chocolate Crisp was renamed Kit Kat Chocolate Crisp in 1937, and later just Kit Kat after World War II. The name is believed to have come from the Kit-Cat Club, an eighteenth-century political club for artists.[2]


USA 4-finger Kit KatThe traditional bar has four fingers which each measure approximately 1 cm by 9 cm. The Kit Kat Chunky (known as Big Kat in the U.S.) has one large finger approximately 2.5 cm wide and was introduced in 1999. Kit Kat bars contain varying numbers of fingers depending on the market, ranging from the half-finger sized Kit Kat Petit in Japan to the three-fingered variants in Arabia to the twelve-finger Kit Kat family-size bars in Australia and France. Kit Kat bars are sold either individually or in bags, boxes or multi-packs. In the UK and Canada, Nestlé also produces a Kit Kat ice cream; and in Malaysia, Kit Kat Drumsticks.

[edit] Global confection
The Kit Kat has been manufactured by Nestlé for Canada, Germany, Japan, and Australia. Kit Kat bars available in the United States are manufactured under licence by The Hershey Company, a Nestlé competitor, due to a prior licensing agreement with Rowntree. Kit Kat bars are manufactured in 15 countries: UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Algeria, South Africa, Germany, Japan, China, Malaysia, India, Turkey, Venezuela and Bulgaria.

In the UK, Kit Kat is the number one brand both as a confectionery item and as a biscuit. In both the US and Canada, the Kit Kat is also extremely popular and is one of the top ten candy bar brands.


Japanese strawberry-flavoured Kit KatIn recent years, Kit Kats have also become very popular in Japan, a phenomenon attributed to the coincidental similarity between the bar's name and the Japanese phrase kitto katsu, which roughly translates to "You will surely win!" This has reportedly led to parents and children buying them for school examination days as a sort of good luck charm.[3] However, transliteration is not always in Nestlé's favour - kitto katto (where 'katto' is taken to be a katakana transliteration of the English verb 'cut') is understood to bestow Kit Kat with the less positive significance of "you will surely miss the cut". As such, gifts of a single kit-kat are a running joke for senior high school students taking the University Entrance Examinations in some areas. It is also in Japan that Kit Kat has in recent years seen a variety of different flavours emerge, although each for a limited time. Some examples include, maple syrup, melon, vanilla bean, grape, apple, banana, caramel, kiwifruit, azuki, green tea, yuzu and cherry blossom. Further building on the teen market, Nestlé created a music label in 2005 and bundled Kit Kats with CDs which has propelled the Kit Kat to become the #1 selling biscuit in Japan.[4] The year 2003 was a turning point for the Kit Kat bar as well as the confectionery industry in general. The popularity of low carb diets and the push to healthier eating stifled sales growth in many parts of the world. In addition, fierce competition from Cadbury's newly formed Dairy Milk superbrand also contributed to sales of the Kit Kat decreasing considerably in its home market of the UK and threatened to depose it from its #1 position.[5][6] The solution adopted by Nestlé and others was to increase dramatically the number of new and unique variations of their confections and market them as limited or special editions whereby they would usually only be available for a few months at a time so as not to impact the sales of their permanent edition counterparts.[7] The strategy initially reversed the decline of the Kit Kat[8]and has been adopted worldwide by Nestlé, Hershey, Mars and others with similar success.[9][10]

This has resulted in many new flavours and varieties of the Kit Kat and other confections appearing globally since then. While some flavours have been hits, many have flopped, alienating some consumers in the process, causing Nestlé to scale back on new releases.

In late 2005 Chris White, the managing director of Nestlé Rowntree abruptly left his job amid controversy that his marketing strategies may in fact have had a negative impact on Kit Kat and confection sales in the long term.[11] Also, in September 2006 Nestlé announced they were eliminating 25% of their workforce in York and moving production of Smarties to Germany. One of the reasons given for the cuts and moves was so that the York factory could be modernised for Kit Kat production to continue.[12]

As dark chocolate has seen increased demand and favour worldwide because of its purported health benefits, September 2006 saw the launch of the four-finger Kit Kat Fine Dark in the UK as a permanent edition as well as new packaging for the entire brand.[citation needed] Hershey, which had previously sold the four-finger Kit Kat Dark in the US several years ago as a limited edition, is also expected to re-introduce the bar as a permanent edition in the near future.


[edit] Brand name and appearance
The traditional red wrapper of the original bar briefly became blue between 1945 - 1947. As a result of milk shortages after the end of World War II, the milk chocolate coating was suspended and a dark chocolate was used instead during that period.

In the UK, Nestlé has confirmed that the correct spelling of the brand name is KIT KAT.


The United States version of the logo.The Hershey Company has a licence to produce Kit Kat bars in the United States which dates from 1969, when Hershey executed a licensing agreement for both the Kit Kat and the Rolo with Rowntree. Nestlé, which has a substantial presence in the US, had to honour the licensing agreement which allows Hershey to retain the Kit Kat / Rolo licence so long as Hershey is not sold. This was a factor in Hershey's failed attempt to attract a serious buyer in 2002.[13][14]

Hershey's Kit Kat packaging and advertising in the USA has differed from the branding used in every other country where it is sold, although in 2002 Hershey Kit Kats finally started to adopt the slanted ellipse logo used worldwide by Nestlé (Though the ellipse is red and the text is white, rather than the other way around).


[edit] Marketing and promotion
After launching in the 1930s, Rowntree's Chocolate Crisp was originally advertised as "the biggest little meal" and "the best companion to a cup of tea". During the Second World War, Kit Kat was depicted as a valuable wartime foodstuff, with the slogan "what active people need". 'Kitty the Kat' arrived in the late 1940s to emphasise the "rich full cream milk" qualities of the bar and, thanks to contemporary improvements in production methods, also highlighted the new and improved 'snap' by responding to a biscuit being broken off screen. The first Kit Kat poster appeared in 1951, and the first colour TV advert appeared in 1969.

Since 1957, the slogan for the Kit Kat in the UK and elsewhere has been "Have a break... have a Kit Kat". However, in 1995, Nestlé sought to trademark the "Have a break" portion. After a ten year legal battle which was contested by rival Mars, the European Court of Justice ruled on July 7, 2005 to send the case back to the British Courts.[15]

In the meantime, Nestlé UK changed the slogan in 2004 to "Make the most of your break".[16] The new slogan was not embraced outside of the UK and recently Nestlé Rowntree has returned to using the original slogan.

The "classic" American version of the "Gimme a Break" Kit Kat jingle (in use in the US since 1986) was written by Ken Shuldman (lyrics) and Michael A. Levine (music) for the DDB Advertising Agency. Versions of the original have been covered by Carrie Underwood, Shawn Colvin, and many studio singers as well as people who have appeared on-camera in the commercials. The jingle was cited in a study by University of Cincinnati researcher James A. Kellaris as one of the top ten "earworms" - bits of melody that become stuck in your head. Another version of the advertising jingle 'Gimme a break' created for Kit Kat "Factory" commercial in the USA was an original recording by Andrew W.K. W.K. was hired to write a new musical version for their "Gimme a break" slogan. Variations on the Andrew W.K. advertisement included executive dance routines in corporate offices, and a network news room. However, the "classic" song has also been used again since the newer version first aired in 2004.

A 1989 advertisement for Kit Kat, in which a giant panda in a zoo "takes a break" came 30th in Channel 4's "100 Greatest Adverts" poll in 2000. Another memorable 1980s UK TV advert for Kit Kat featured a music mogul auditioning a new band, ending with the line "You can't sing, you can't play, you look awful" (Pause) "You'll go a long way."

KitKash is one of the most recent Kit Kat promotions by Nestlé. Premiering in Australia and New Zealand in 2004, each Kit Kat wrapper contained a unique code inside. A winning code was potentially worth $20, $50, $100 or even $10,000. In 2005 the UK's KitKash involved registering an account on the KitKash website and accumulating the codes which each had a point value in order to buy, bid or win products on the site. In 2006 KitKash has been expanded in the UK to include KitKash points in many of Nestlé's other confections as well as spread to Germany (ChocoCash) and France (Kit Kat Kode). USA Kit Kats are also part of the action thanks to Hershey (WrapperCash).

In late 2004, through to the end of 2006, Nestlé Rowntree sponsored York City F.C.. As a result the club's home-ground, Bootham Crescent, was renamed to KitKat Crescent.[17]


[edit] Kit Kat varieties
This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2008)

Many varieties of Kit Kat have existed, either temporarily or permanently: There are often country-specific limited edition bars (not listed). (listed by primary market or origin)

The Kit Kat Orange was the first flavour variant. It was introduced in the UK in 1996, followed in 1997 by the Kit Kat Dark and Kit Kat Mint.[citation needed] As of 2008, all three are available as permanent editions in the UK in two finger multipacks, along with the Kit Kat Original and Kit Kat White.

A three-finger Kit Kat is produced for the Middle East, simply to match a denomination of the local currency and make the product a convenient, one-coin purchase.

A wide variety of promotional items exist, ranging from the obvious (such as mugs, pens, oven gloves and tea-towels) to the somewhat less obvious (such as Kit Kat coats for small dogs). Recently in Japan, Kit Kats have come packaged with CD singles and a special limited edition double pack of Kit Kat Crispy Monogatari came bundled with a mini book featuring six short stories, one of which is written by Koji Suzuki, author of the Ring cycle series of books. The brand is often declined into special edition products in different markets to commemorate festivals such as St. Valentine's Day.

Japan has pushed Kit Kat flavours the most. Kit Kat Japan also has unique "Regional" variations such as a mango-flavoured Kit Kat available only in Kyushu and Okinawa.

Kit Kat is also available in jars that are dispensed from vending machines in Japan.


[edit] Standard finger bars
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (July 2009)

The standard finger bars include mini single fingers (pe**** or miniatures), two finger mini bars, four (or three) finger standard bars, and "king size" bars (five to eight fingers).


A UK standard 2 finger bar in 2008 packagingKit Kat Original — (different taste & texture in different countries)
Kit Kat Fine Dark — UK, Spain & Germany variant of Kit Kat Dark Chocolate
Kit Kat Cacao 61% — Japan — newer version of Kit Kat Bitter with 61% cocoa content
Kit Kat Sakura (Cherry blossom) — Japan —
Kit Kat Cacao 72% — Japan — dark chocolate pe**** with 72% cocoa content
Kit Kat White Creme — US permanent edition — current version of US Kit Kat White made with vegetable oil based candy coating rather than pure white chocolate
Kit Kat White — Japan & Spain
Kit Kat Iced Tea — Japan
Kit Kat Caramel and Salt — Japan
Kit Kat Kinako (soybean flour) — Japan
Kit Kat Wa Guri (Chestnut flavour) — Japan
Kit Kat Green Tea — Japan
Kit Kat Milky White — Germany variant of Kit Kat White Chocolate
Kit Kat Mint — UK permanent edition, US limited edition — mint flavoured milk chocolate coating
Kit Kat Mint Chocolate — Australia — mint green colour wafers
Kit Kat Apple — Japan
Kit Kat Orange — UK permanent edition, US, Japan, Malaysia limited edition.
Kit Kat International Recipe — Malaysia, Singapore and selected East Asian countries — The chocolate were made from Ghana cocoa beans thus having the tendencies to melt down very easily when compared to Kit Kat Original.
Kit Kat Café Latte with Hokkaid? Milk — Japan
Kit Kat Kiwifruit — Japan
Kit Kat Strawberry — Japan
Kit Kat Peach — Japan
Kit Kat Caramac — UK
Kit Kat Chocolate Overload — Australia — Milk Chocolate outside, chocolate creme filling and chocolate wafers
Kit Kat Gold — Japan — pe**** with fudge like covering and dusted cocoa powder on outside
Kit Kat Noisette (Hazelnut) — Germany
Kit Kat Lite — India — two finger bar with 50% less sugar
Kit Kat Carb Alternatives — US — low carb version with 50% less sugar carbs
Kit Kat Low Carb — UK
Kit Kat Cantaloupe; Japan
Kit Kat Pineapple; South Africa
Kit Kat Cappuccino; Poland
Kit Kat Triple Berry; Japan
Kit Kat Mango; Japan
Kit Kat Azuki (Red Bean); Japan
Kit Kat Green Grape Muscat; Japan[18]
Kit Kat Caramel Macchiato; Japan (September 2008)[19]
Kit Kat Zunda - mashed edamame beans; Japan (only in Yamagata prefecture)
Kit Kat Hascapp - Hokkaido blueberry; Japan (only in Hokkaido prefecture)
Kit Kat Soy Sauce - "Tokyo Limited Edition" ; Japan
Kit Kat Yakimorokoshi - grilled corn; Japan (only in Hokkaido prefecture)
Kit Kat Jyagaimo - potato; Japan (only in Hokkaido prefecture)
Kit Kat Daigakuimo - candied sweet potato; Japan
Kit Kat Kobe pudding - "Kobe Limited Edition" ; Japan
Kit Kat Houjicha - Japanese roasted tea ; Japan
Kit Kat Kokuto - Black sugar ; Japan
Kit Kat Watermelon and Salt ; Japan
Kit Kat Pumpkin ; Japan
Kit Kat Edamame ; Japan
Kit Kat Banana; Canada
Kit Kat Lemon Chocolate ; Japan (Valentine's limited edition)
Kit Kat Cookies & Chocolate ; Japan
Kit Kat Cookies PLUS ; Japan
Kit Kat Dark Chocolate; Italy
Kit Kat White Chocolate; Italy
Kit Kat Apple Vinegar; Japan

[edit] Large single finger Chunky bars
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (July 2009)

Kit Kat Chunky
Kit Kat Chunky and Kit Kat Chunky Peanut Butter, as sold in the UK (September 2006)Kit Kat Chunky — UK, Canada, everywhere besides US, Japan , Hong Kong
Kit Kat Big Kat — Japan & Hershey US version of Chunky
Kit Kat Big Kat Bitter — Japan
Kit Kat Black — Turkey — a dark chocolate chunky
Kit Kat Big Break — UK — extra large Chunky bar
Kit Kat Chunky M.A.X. (Maximum Appetite Xcitement) — Canada — another extra large Chunky bar
Kit Kat Chunky White — limited or permanent edition in many different countries
Kit Kat Cookie Dough — Australia
Kit Kat Chunky Hazelnut Cream — Germany
Kit Kat Honeycomb — Australia
Kit Kat caramel — US version of Kit Kat Chunky Caramel
Kit Kat Chunky Caramel — Canada, Australia and UK
Kit Kat Editions Golden Caramel — UK — same as Chunky Caramel
Kit Kat Editions Caramel Dream — Germany — another Chunky Caramel
Kit Kat Peanut butter — UK, Canada, Europe, Australia, — Chunky with peanut butter filling
Kit Kat Editions Tiramisu — UK
Kit Kat Extra Crispy — US — Chunky with a six layer wafer
Kit Kat Strawberry; Australia and raises funds for the National Breast Cancer Foundation
Kit Kat Cookies n Cream; Australia, released in August 2008.
Kit Kat Cinnamon; Canada
Kit Kat Coffee; Canada

[edit] Other Kit Kat forms and shapes
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (July 2009)

Kit Kat Choc'n'Go — France — box of individually wrapped fingers
Kit Kat Choc'n'Go Dark Choco — France limited edition — dark chocolate coating with caramelised cocoa pieces
Kit Kat Delight — Italy
Kit Kat Family Block — Australia — twelve finger family size bar
Kit Kat Family Block Chocolate Overload — Australia
Kit Kat I-Stick — Japan limited edition — Creamy bitter chocolate between wafers and dark chocolate coating — two stick format sold in cooler or freezer section of stores
Kit Kat Stick — Japan — box of individually wrapped long Kit Kat fingers
Kit Kat Stick Almond — Japan
Kit Kat Stick Half Bitter — Japan
Kit Kat Tablet — France — same as Kit Kat Family Block
Kit Kat Ball — France — bag of round bite-size pieces
Kit Kat Bites — US, Malaysia &, — similar to Kit Kat ball
Kit Kat Little — Japan — newer version of Kit Kat Baby
Kit Kat Pop Choc — UK, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands — also identical to Kit Kat Ball
Kit Kat Kubes — UK — square-shaped miniature pieces
Kit Kat Chunky — The Netherlands — Bigger size Kit Kat Chunky
Kit Kat Senses; UK & Ireland — hazelnut praline centred
Kit Kat Chunky Duo; UK; A little larger than a Kit Kat Chunky Kingsize, and split into two separate bars.
Kit Kat (Finger size) Almost half the size of a kit kat bar; Pakistan
Kit Kat Watermelon Minis; Japan[18]
Kit Kat Black Sugar Minis; Japan[18]
Kit Kat Cone - Ice-cream cone with vanilla ice-cream covered in chocolate with a single Kit Kat stick in the top; Japan, Denmark

[edit] Ingredients
Original Kit Kat ingredients unless otherwise stated, listed by decreasing weight:


[edit] UK
Milk chocolate (66%) (sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa mass, dried skimmed milk, whey powder, butterfat, vegetable fat, lactose, emulsifier (soya lecithin), flavouring), wheat flour, sugar, vegetable fat, cocoa mass, yeast, raising agent (sodium bicarbonate), salt, calcium sulphate (a.k.a Gypsum), flavouring. In 2006, the UK four-finger Kit Kat contained 233 dietary calories (kcal) (975 kilojoules). In 2009, the two-finger Kit Kat contained 107 calories.[citation needed]


[edit] USA
Sugar, wheat flour, cocoa butter, non-fat milk, chocolate, refined palm kernel oil, lactose, milk fat, soy lecithin, PGPR (emulsifier), yeast, artificial flavour, salt, sodium bicarbonate.


[edit] Canada
Milk Chocolate (Sugar, Modified Milk Ingredients, Cocoa Butter, Unsweetened Chocolate, Lactose, Soya Lecithin, Polyglycerol Polyricnoleate, Artificial Flavour), Wheat Flour, Sugar, Modified Palm Oil, Unsweetened Chocolate or Cocoa Powder, Sodium Bicarbonate, Soya Lecithin, Artificial Flavour. May contain Salt and Yeast.


[edit] Canada (Dark Kit Kat)
Dark Chocolate (Sugar, Unsweetened Chocolate, Cocoa Butter, Milk Ingredients, Soya Lechithin, Salt, Artificial Flavour), Wheat Flour, Sugar, Modified Palm Oil, Unsweetened Chocolate or Cocoa Powder, Sodium Bicarbonate, Soya Lechithin, Artificial Flavour. May contain Salt and/or Yeast.


[edit] Big Brother UK Series 7 golden ticket draw
During the first three weeks of Big Brother Series 7, Channel 4 conducted a promotion in conjunction with Nestle to distribute 100 golden tickets randomly throughout Kit Kat biscuits, in a style reminiscent of the story Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Members of the public finding these tickets were permitted to use them to give themselves a chance to become a Big Brother housemate and bypass the standard auditions process.

Golden ticket holders were invited to a television show where one of them, Susie Verrico, was chosen to enter the House by Aisleyne Horgan-Wallace, picking a ball out of a machine at random.

This contest caused some controversy, with the Advertising Standards Authority saying that the terms and conditions of the draw should have been made clearer in related advertisements, and that an independent adjudicator should have been present before and during the draw.[20]


[edit] References
^ "Nestle UK Website- History of Rowntree". http://www.nestle.co.uk/OurBra...tory+of+Rowntree.htm (http://www.nestle.co.uk/OurBrands/AboutOurBrands/ConfectioneryAndCakes/History+of+Rowntree.htm). Retrieved on 2007-04-04. "1988 - Nestlé SA buys Rowntree plc."
^ http://kitkat.co.uk/past/
^ Japan snaps up 'lucky' Kit Kats, BBC News, February 2, 2005
^ Kit Kat bags Platinum at Marketing Effectiveness Awards, Televisionpoint.com, Jun 29, 2006
^ Fat profits: Choc tactics, BBC News, 24 March, 2004
^ Consumers 'snub unhealthy brands', BBC News, 13 December, 2003
^ Robert Uhlig, Cheesecake Kit Kat? Give us a break, Daily Telegraph, February 19, 2004
^ http://www.irn-talkingshop.co....ghurt%20Boosts%20Kit (http://www.irn-talkingshop.co.uk/categorymanager/nestlerowntree/nestle%20temp/pressrelease/Lemon%20Yoghurt%20Boosts%20Kit) Kat.pdf
^ Limited Editions Are Latest Candy Craze, ABC News, July 18, 2005
^ Jenn Abelson, Limited-edition candies sweeten the marketplace, Boston Globe, May 2, 2005
^ Nestle: Crisis follows crisis at Nestle, Brand Republic, November 16, 2005 (pay)
^ [1] Reuters, September 9, 2006 (link now dead)
^ Nestlé quiet on Hershey sale, Confectionery News, August 05, 2002
^ Andrew Ross Sorkin, New York Times, Possible buyers, seller far apart on Hershey sale, San Francisco Chronicle, August 27, 2002
^ Kit Kat slogan dispute sent back to U.K. courts, International Herald Tribune, July 8, 2005
^ Slaven Marinovich, Kit Kat barred, Brand Channel, June 6, 2005 issue
^ Kat.shtml Kit Kat Crescent, BBC North Yorkshire, January 19, 2005
^ a b c http://rinkya.blogspot.com/200...order-on-rinkya.html (http://rinkya.blogspot.com/2008/09/new-kit-kats-for-order-on-rinkya.html) "New Kit Kats For Order On Rinkya!" (9 September 2008). Retrieved on 7 October 2008.
^ Kat/limited/kk_caramel_mac.html "??? ?????????????????". Retrieved 7 October 2008. (Japanese)
^ "ITV News Website:Big Brother contest slammed again". http://www.itv.com/news/entert...9c89259fbfc6132.html (http://www.itv.com/news/entertainment_3c26360018cbcc12d9c89259fbfc6132.html). Retrieved on 2006-10-11.

[edit] External links
Nestlé: Kit Kat
Kit Kat - Official UK Web Site
Kit Kat Italia – Official Web Site
Kit Kat Australia - Official Web Site
Kit Kat France - Official Web Site
KitKat Germany - Official Web Site
Kit Kat Japan - Official Web Site
Kit Kat New Zealand – Official Web Site
Kit Kat Russia – Official Web Site
Kit Kat Singapore – Official Web Site
Kit Kat Switzerland – Official Web Site
Kit Kat UK - Official Web Site
Kit Kat US - Official Web Site
[show]v • d • eNestlé

Corporate directors Günter Blobel · Peter Brabeck-Letmathe · Nobuyuki Idei · Henri Nestlé · Kaspar Villiger


Brands

Worldwide 100 Grand Bar · Abuelita · Aero · After Eight · Alpo · Arrowhead Water · Baby Ruth · Beggin' Strips · Beneful · Bertie Beetle · Big Turk · Breakaway · Butterfinger · Caramac · Carnation · Caro · Cerelac · Chico babies · Chipwich · Goobers · Raisinets · Chokito · Chunky · Coffee Crisp · Coffee-Mate · Creamola Foam · Deer Park Spring Water Co. · Dog Chow · Drammens Is · Dreyer's · Drumstick · Eskimo Pie · Gerber · Hjem-IS · Hot Pockets · Ice Screamers · Jelly Tots · Jenny Craig · Juicy Juice · KLIM · La Lechera · Lean Cuisine · Lion Bar · Mackintosh's Toffee · Maggi · Maggi noodles · Matchmakers · Maverick · Maxibon · Menier Chocolate · Milkybar · Milo · Mirage · Mövenpick · Munchies · Nescafé · Nespresso · Nesquik · Nestea · Nestle Fav*rites · Nestlé Crunch · Nestlé Pure Life · Nestlé Stixx · Nestlé Wonder Ball · Nido · ONE · Oompas · Ozarka · Parlour · Peppermint Crisp · Perrier · Perugina · Poland Spring · Polly Waffle · PowerBar · Pretzel flipz · Purina · Quality Street · Redskins · Rowntree's · Rowntree's Fruit Gums · Rowntree's Fruit Pastilles · San Pellegrino · Scorched Peanut Bar · Sin Parar · Sjora · Smarties · Sno-Caps · Spree · Stouffer's · Svitoch · Tender Vittles · Toffee Crisp · Toll House · Turtles · Vice versas · Violet Crumble · Walnut Whip · The Willy Wonka Candy Company · Yorkie


Worldwide
with exceptions Aquarel (Only Portugal, Spain and Brazil) · Cereal Partners Worldwide (not USA/Canada) · Häagen-Dazs1 (only USA/Canada) · Kit Kat2 (not USA) · Oh Henry!2 (not Canada) · Ovaltine3 (malt only in USA) · Rolo2 (not USA)


1 Brand owned by General Mills. 2 Local production rights owned by The Hershey Company. 3 Local rights and specific trade dress owned by Nestlé, but not worldwide.

See also Nestlé boycott · International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes


Annual revenue ? 98,5 billion CHF (8% profit) (2006) · Employees 305,000 · Stock symbol SIX: NESN OTCBB: NSRGY · Website nestle.com

[show]v • d • eConfectionery products of The Hershey Company

Italics indicates discontinued products.

Chocolate-based 5th Avenue · Almond Joy · Bar None · Cadbury Creme Egg2 · Cadbury Dairy Milk2 · Cherry Blossom · Glosette · Heath bar · Hershey bar · Hershey's Cookies 'n' Creme · Hershey's Kisses · Hershey's Kissables · Hershey's Miniatures · Hershey's S'mores · Hershey's Special Dark · Kit Kat2 · Krackel · Milk Duds · Mini Eggs2 · Mounds · Mr. Goodbar · NutRageous · Oh Henry!1 · Rolo2 · Reese's Fast Break · Reese's Peanut Butter Cups · ReeseSticks · Skor · Snack Barz · Swoops · Take 5 (Max 5) · Whatchamacallit · Whoppers · York Peppermint Pattie


Others Bubble Yum · Good & Plenty · Good & Fruity · Ice Breakers · Jolly Rancher · Koolerz · PayDay · Reese's Pieces · Twizzlers · Zagnut · ZERO


Hershey's also manufactures Cadbury-branded products in the United States and military chocolate for the U.S. armed forces.

1 Marketed in both the United States and Canada, but only sold as a Hershey's product within Canada.
2 Marketed in a number of countries, but only sold as a Hershey's product within the United States.


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kit_Kat"
Categories: British snack foods | Candy bars | Nestlé brands | Hershey brands | Products introduced in 1935
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Condom
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the male contraceptive device. For the female contraceptive device, see female condom. For the town in France, see Condom, Gers.
Condom

A rolled-up condom
Background
B.C. type Barrier
First use Ancient
Rubber: 1855
Latex: 1920
Polyurethane: 1994
Pregnancy rates (first year, latex)
Perfect use 2%
Typical use 10–18%
Usage
User reminders Latex condoms damaged by oil-based lubricants
Advantages and disadvantages
STD protection Yes
Benefits No medications or clinic visits required
A condom (pronounced /?k?nd?m/ (US) or /?k?nd?m/ (UK)) is a barrier device most commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the likelihood of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted diseases (STDs—such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV). It is put on a man's erect ***** and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner. Because condoms are waterproof, elastic, and durable, they are also used in a variety of secondary applications. These include collection of semen for use in infertility treatment as well as non-sexual uses such as creating waterproof microphones[1] and protecting rifle barrels from clogging.[2]

In the modern age, condoms are most often made from latex, but some are made from other materials such as polyurethane, or lamb intestine. A female condom is also available, most often made of polyurethane. As a method of contraception, male condoms have the advantage of being inexpensive, easy to use, having few side effects, and of offering protection against sexually transmitted diseases.[3][4] With proper knowledge and application technique—and use at every act of intercourse—users of male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate.[5]

Condoms have been used for at least 400 years.[6]:51,54-5 Since the nineteenth century, they have been one of the most popular methods of contraception in the world.[6]:173-4 While widely accepted in modern times, condoms have generated some controversy, primarily over what role they should play in *** education classes. Additionally, improper disposal of condoms contributes to litter problems,[7] and the Roman Catholic Church generally opposes condom use.[8]

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Before the 19th century
1.2 1800 through 1920s
1.3 Rubber and manufacturing advances
1.4 1930 to present
2 Etymology and other terms
3 Varieties
3.1 Materials
3.1.1 Natural latex
3.1.2 Synthetic
3.1.3 Lambskin
3.2 Spermicidal
3.3 Female
3.4 Textured
3.5 Other
4 Effectiveness
4.1 In preventing pregnancy
4.2 In preventing STDs
4.3 Causes of failure
5 Prevalence
6 Use
6.1 Role in *** education
6.2 Infertility treatment
6.3 Other uses
7 Debate and criticism
7.1 Disposal and environmental impact
7.2 Position of the Roman Catholic Church
7.3 Health issues
8 Cultural factors
9 Major manufacturers
10 Research
11 See also
12 References
13 Further reading
14 External links



History

A page from De Morbo Gallico (The French Disease), Gabriele Falloppio's treatise on syphilis. Published in 1564, it describes what is possibly the first use of condoms.Main article: History of condoms

Before the 19th century
Whether condoms were used in ancient civilizations is debated by archaeologists and historians.[6]:11 In ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, pregnancy prevention was generally seen as a woman's responsibility, and the only well documented contraception methods were female-controlled devices.[6]:17,23 In Asia before the fifteenth century, some use of glans condoms (devices covering only the head of the *****) is recorded. Condoms seem to have been used for contraception, and to have been known only by members of the upper classes. In China, glans condoms may have been made of oiled silk paper, or of lamb intestines. In Japan, they were made of tortoise shell or animal horn.[6]:60-1

In 16th century Italy, Gabriele Falloppio wrote a treatise on syphilis.[6]:51,54-5 The earliest documented strain of syphilis, first appearing in a 1490s outbreak, caused severe symptoms and often death within a few months of contracting the disease.[9][10] Fallopio's treatise is the earliest uncontested description of condom use: it describes linen sheaths soaked in a chemical solution and allowed to dry before use. The cloths he described were sized to cover the glans of the *****, and were held on with a ribbon.[6]:51,54-5[11] Fallopio claimed that an experimental trial of the linen sheath demonstrated protection against syphilis.[12]

After this, the use of ***** coverings to protect from disease is described in a wide variety of literature throughout Europe. The first indication that these devices were used for birth control, rather than disease prevention, is the 1605 theological publication De iustitia et iure (On justice and law) by Catholic theologian Leonardus Lessius, who condemned them as immoral.[6]:56 In 1666, the English Birth Rate Commission attributed a recent downward fertility rate to use of "condons", the first documented use of that word (or any similar spelling).[6]:66-8


A condom made from animal intestine circa 1900.In addition to linen, condoms during the Renaissance were made out of intestines and bladder. In the late 15th century, Dutch traders introduced condoms made from "fine leather" to Japan. Unlike the horn condoms used previously, these leather condoms covered the entire *****.[6]:61

From at least the 18th century, condom use was opposed in some legal, religious, and medical circles for essentially the same reasons that are given today: condoms reduce the likelihood of pregnancy, which some thought immoral or undesirable for the nation; they do not provide full protection against sexually transmitted infections, while belief in their protective powers was thought to encourage sexual promiscuity; and they are not used consistently due to inconvenience, expense, or loss of sensation.[6]:73,86-8,92

Despite some opposition, the condom market grew rapidly. In the 18th century, condoms were available in a variety of qualities and sizes, made from either linen treated with chemicals, or "skin" (bladder or intestine softened by treatment with sulfur and lye).[6]:94-5 They were sold at pubs, barbershops, chemist shops, open-air markets, and at the theater throughout Europe and Russia.[6]:90-2,97,104 They later spread to America, although in every place there were generally used only by the middle and upper classes, due to both expense and lack of *** education.[6]:116-21


1800 through 1920s
The early nineteenth century saw contraceptives promoted to the poorer classes for the first time. Writers on contraception tended to prefer other methods of birth control. Feminists of this time period wanted birth control to be exclusively in the hands of women, and disapproved of male-controlled methods such as the condom.[6]:129,152-3 Other writers cited both the expense of condoms and their unreliability (they were often riddled with holes, and often fell off or broke), but they discussed condoms as a good option for some, and as the only contraceptive that also protected from disease.[6]:88,90,125,129-30

Many countries passed laws impeding the manufacture and promotion of contraceptives.[6]:144,163-4,168-71,193 In spite of these restrictions, condoms were promoted by traveling lecturers and in newspaper advertisements, using euphemisms in places where such ads were illegal.[6]:127,130-2,138,146-7 Instructions on how to make condoms at home were distributed in the United States and Europe.[6]:126,136 Despite social and legal opposition, at the end of the nineteenth century the condom was the Western world's most popular birth control method.[6]:173-4


During World War I, the U.S. military was the only one that did not promote condom use. Posters such as these were intended to promote abstinence.Beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century, American rates of sexually transmitted diseases skyrocketed. Causes cited by historians include effects of the American Civil War, and the ignorance of prevention methods promoted by the Comstock laws.[6]:137-8,159 To fight the growing epidemic, *** education classes were introduced to public schools for the first time, teaching about venereal diseases and how they were transmitted. They generally taught that abstinence was the only way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.[6]:179-80 Condoms were not promoted for disease prevention because the medical community and moral watchdogs considered STDs to be punishment for sexual misbehavior. The stigma against victims of these diseases was so great that many hospitals refused to treat people who had syphilis.[6]:176

The German military was the first to promote condom use among its soldiers, beginning in the later 1800s.[6]:169,181 Early twentieth century experiments by the American military concluded that providing condoms to soldiers significantly lowered rates of sexually transmitted diseases.[6]:180-3 During World War I, the United States and (at the beginning of the war only) Britain were the only countries with soldiers in Europe who did not provide condoms and promote their use.[6]:187-90

In the decades after World War I, there remained social and legal obstacles to condom use throughout the U.S. and Europe.[6]:208-10 Founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud opposed all methods of birth control on the grounds that their failure rates were too high. Freud was especially opposed to the condom because it cut down on sexual pleasure. Some feminists continued to oppose male-controlled contraceptives such as condoms. In 1920 the Church of England's Lambeth Conference condemned all "unnatural means of conception avoidance." London's Bishop Arthur Winnington-Ingram complained of the huge number of condoms discarded in alleyways and parks, especially after weekends and holidays.[6]:211-2

However, European militaries continued to provide condoms to their members for disease protection, even in countries where they were illegal for the general population.[6]:213-4 Through the 1920s, catchy names and slick packaging became an increasingly important marketing technique for many consumer items, including condoms and cigarettes.[6]:197 Quality testing became more common, involving filling each condom with air followed by one of several methods intended to detect loss of pressure.[6]:204,206,221-2 Worldwide, condom sales doubled in the 1920s.[6]:210


Rubber and manufacturing advances
The rubber vulcanization process was patented by Charles Goodyear in 1844.[13] The first rubber condom was produced in 1855.[14] For many decades, rubber condoms were manufactured by wrapping strips of raw rubber around *****-shaped molds, then dipping the wrapped molds in a chemical solution to cure the rubber.[6]:148 In 1912, a German named Julius Fromm developed a new, improved manufacturing technique for condoms: dipping glass molds into a raw rubber solution.[14] Called cement dipping, this method required adding gasoline or benzene to the rubber to make it liquid.[6]:200 Latex, rubber suspended in water, was invented in 1920. Latex condoms required less labor to produce than cement-dipped rubber condoms, which had to be smoothed by rubbing and trimming. The use of water to suspend the rubber instead of gasoline and benzene eliminated the fire hazard previously associated with all condom factories. Latex condoms also performed better for the consumer: they were stronger and thinner than rubber condoms, and had a shelf life of five years (compared to three months for rubber).[6]:199-200

Until the twenties, all condoms were individually hand-dipped by semiskilled workers. Throughout the decade of the 1920s, advances in the automation of the condom assembly line were made. The first fully automated line was patented in 1930. Major condom manufacturers bought or leased conveyor systems, and small manufacturers were driven out of business.[6]:201-3 The skin condom, now significantly more expensive than the latex variety, became restricted to a niche high-end market.[6]:220


1930 to present
In 1930 the Anglican Church's Lambeth Conference sanctioned the use of birth control by married couples. In 1931 the Federal Council of Churches in the U.S. issued a similar statement.[6]:227 The Roman Catholic Church responded by issuing the encyclical Casti Connubii affirming its opposition to all contraceptives, a stance it has never reversed.[6]:228-9

In the 1930s, legal restrictions on condoms began to be relaxed.[15][6]:216,226,234 During this period, two of the few places where condoms became more restricted were Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany (limited sales as disease preventatives were still allowed).[6]:252,254-5 During the Depression, condom lines by Schmid gained in popularity. Schmid still used the cement-dipping method of manufacture which had two advantages over the latex variety. Firstly, cement-dipped condoms could be safely used with oil-based lubricants. Secondly, while less comfortable, these older-style rubber condoms could be reused and so were more economical, a valued feature in hard times.[6]:217-9 More attention was brought to quality issues in the 1930s, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began to regulate the quality of condoms sold in the United States.[6]:223-5

Throughout World War II, condoms were not only distributed to male U.S. military members, but also heavily promoted with films, posters, and lectures.[6]:236-8,259 European and Asian militaries on both sides of the conflict also provided condoms to their troops throughout the war, even Germany which outlawed all civilian use of condoms in 1941.[6]:252-4,257-8 In part because condoms were readily available, soldiers found a number of non-sexual uses for the devices, many of which continue to this day.

After the war, condom sales continued to grow. From 1955–1965, 42% of Americans of reproductive age relied on condoms for birth control. In Britain from 1950–1960, 60% of married couples used condoms. The birth control pill became the world's most popular method of birth control in the years after its 1960 début, but condoms remained a strong second. The U.S. Agency for International Development pushed condom use in developing countries to help solve the "world population crises": by 1970 hundreds of millions of condoms were being used each year in India alone.[6]:267-9,272-5 (This number has grown in recent decades: in 2004, the government of India purchased 1.9 billion condoms for distribution at family planning clinics.)[16]

In the 1960s and 1970s quality regulations tightened,[17] and more legal barriers to condom use were removed.[6]:276-9 In Ireland, legal condom sales were allowed for the first time in 1978.[6]:329-30 Advertising, however was one area that continued to have legal restrictions. In the late 1950s, the American National Association of Broadcasters banned condom advertisements from national television: this policy remained in place until 1979.[6]:273-4,285

After learning in the early 1980s that AIDS can be a sexually transmitted infection,[18] the use of condoms was encouraged to prevent transmission of HIV. Despite opposition by some political, religious, and other figures, national condom promotion campaigns occurred in the U.S. and Europe.[6]:299,301,306-7,312-8 These campaigns increased condom use significantly.[6]:309-17

Due to increased demand and greater social acceptance, condoms began to be sold in a wider variety of retail outlets, including in supermarkets and in discount department stores such as Wal-Mart.[6]:305 Condom sales increased every year until 1994, when media attention to the AIDS pandemic began to decline.[6]:303-4 The phenomenon of decreasing use of condoms as disease preventatives has been called prevention fatigue or condom fatigue. Observers have cited condom fatigue in both Europe and North America.[19][20] As one response, manufacturers have changed the tone of their advertisements from scary to humorous.[6]:303-4 New developments continue to occur in the condom market, with the first polyurethane condom—branded Avanti and produced by the manufacturer of Durex—introduced in the 1990s,[6]:324-5 and the first custom sized-to-fit condom, called TheyFit, introduced in 2003.[21] Worldwide condom use is expected to continue to grow: one study predicted that developing nations would need 18.6 billion condoms in 2015.[6]:342 Condoms have become an integral part of modern societies.


Etymology and other terms
The term condom first appears in the early 18th century. Its etymology is unknown. In popular tradition, the invention and naming of the condom came to be attributed to an associate of England's King Charles II, one "Dr. Condom" or "Earl of Condom". There is however no evidence of the existence of such a person, and condoms had been used for over one hundred years before King Charles II ascended to the throne.[6]:54,68

A variety of Latin etymologies have been proposed, including condon (receptacle),[22] condamina (house),[23] and cumdum (scabbard or case).[6]:70-1 It has also been speculated to be from the Italian word guantone, derived from guanto, meaning glove.[24] William E. Kruck wrote an article in 1981 concluding that, "As for the word 'condom', I need state only that its origin remains completely unknown, and there ends this search for an etymology."[25] Modern dictionaries may also list the etymology as "unknown".[26]

Other terms are also commonly used to describe condoms. In North America condoms are also commonly known as prophylactics, or rubbers. In Britain they may be called French letters.[27] Additionally, condoms may be referred to using the manufacturer's name.


Varieties
Most condoms have a reservoir tip or teat end, making it easier to accommodate the man's ejaculate. Condoms come in different sizes, from oversized to snug and they also come in a variety of surfaces intended to stimulate the user's partner. Condoms are usually supplied with a lubricant coating to facilitate penetration, while flavored condoms are principally used for **** ***. As mentioned above, most condoms are made of latex, but polyurethane and lambskin condoms are also widely available.


Materials

Natural latex

An unrolled latex condomLatex has outstanding elastic properties: Its tensile strength exceeds 30 MPa, and latex condoms may be stretched in excess of 800% before breaking.[28] In 1990 the ISO set standards for condom production (ISO 4074, Natural latex rubber condoms), and the EU followed suit with its CEN standard (Directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices). Every latex condom is tested for holes with an electrical current. If the condom passes, it is rolled and packaged. In addition, a portion of each batch of condoms is subject to water leak and air burst testing.[29]

Latex condoms used with oil-based lubricants such as vaseline are likely to break or slip off due to loss of elasticity caused by the oils.[30]


Synthetic
The most common non-latex condoms are made from polyurethane. Condoms may also be made from other synthetic materials, such as AT-10 resin, and most recently polyisoprene.[31]

Polyurethane condoms tend to be the same width and thickness as latex condoms, with most polyurethane condoms between 0.04 mm and 0.07 mm thick.[32] Polyurethane is also the material of many female condoms.

Polyurethane can be considered better than latex in several ways: it conducts heat better than latex, is not as sensitive to temperature and ultraviolet light (and so has less rigid storage requirements and a longer shelf life), can be used with oil-based lubricants, is less allergenic than latex, and does not have an odor.[33] Polyurethane condoms have gained FDA approval for sale in the United States as an effective method of contraception and HIV prevention, and under laboratory conditions have been shown to be just as effective as latex for these purposes.[34]

However, polyurethane condoms are less elastic than latex ones, and may be more likely to slip or break than latex,[33][35] and are more expensive.

Polyisoprene is a synthetic version of natural rubber latex. While significantly more expensive,[36] it has the advantages of latex (such as being softer and more elastic than polyurethane condoms)[31] without the protein which is responsible for latex allergies.[36]


Lambskin
Condoms made from sheep intestines, labeled "lambskin", are also available. They provide more sensation and are less allergenic than latex. However, there is an increased risk of transmitting STDs compared to latex because of pores in the material, which are thought to be large enough to allow infectious agents to pass through, albeit blocking the passage of sperm.[37] Lambskin condoms are also significantly more expensive than other types.


Spermicidal
Some latex condoms are lubricated at the manufacturer with a small amount of a nonoxynol-9, a spermicidal chemical. According to Consumer Reports, spermicidally lubricated condoms have no additional benefit in preventing pregnancy, have a shorter shelf life, and may cause urinary-tract infections in women.[38] In contrast, application of separately packaged spermicide is believed to increase the contraceptive efficacy of condoms.[39]

Nonoxynol-9 was once believed to offer additional protection against STDs (including HIV) but recent studies have shown that, with frequent use, nonoxynol-9 may increase the risk of HIV transmission.[40] The World Health Organization says that spermicidally lubricated condoms should no longer be promoted. However, it recommends using a nonoxynol-9 lubricated condom over no condom at all.[41] As of 2005, nine condom manufacturers have stopped manufacturing condoms with nonoxynol-9 and Planned Parenthood has discontinued the distribution of condoms so lubricated.[42].


Female

Female condomMain article: Female condom
Female condoms have been available since 1988. They are larger and wider than male condoms but equivalent in length. They have a flexible ring-shaped opening, and are designed to be inserted into the vagina. They also contain an inner ring which aids insertion and helps keep the condom from sliding out of the vagina during coitus. One line of female condoms is made from polyurethane or nitrile polymer. A competing manufacturer makes a line of female condoms out of latex. This latex version has a sponge at the closed end, which helps to anchor it inside the vagina.[43]


Textured
Textured condoms include studded and ribbed condoms which can provide extra sensations to both partners. The studs or ribs can be located on the inside, outside, or both; alternatively, they are located in specific sections to provide directed stimulation to either the g-spot or perineum. Many textured condoms which advertise "mutual pleasure" also are bulb-shaped at the top, to provide extra stimulation to the male.[44] Studded condoms should be avoided with **** intercourse as they can irritate and possibly tear the walls of the anus. Some women experience irritation during vaginal intercourse with studded condoms.


Other
A collection condom is used to collect semen for fertility treatments or sperm analysis. These condoms are designed to maximize sperm life.

An anti-rape condom is worn by the female. It is designed to cause pain to the attacker, hopefully allowing the victim a chance to escape.

Some condom-like devices are intended for entertainment only, such novelty condoms may not provide protection against pregnancy and STDs.[45]


Effectiveness

In preventing pregnancy
See also: Comparison of birth control methods#Effectiveness of various methods
The effectiveness of condoms, as of most forms of contraception, can be assessed two ways. Perfect use or method effectiveness rates only include people who use condoms properly and consistently. Actual use, or typical use effectiveness rates are of all condom users, including those who use condoms incorrectly or don't use condoms at every act of intercourse. Rates are generally presented for the first year of use.[5] Most commonly the Pearl Index is used to calculate effectiveness rates, but some studies use decrement tables.[46]:141

The typical use pregnancy rate among condom users varies depending on the population being studied, ranging from 10–18% per year.[47] The perfect use pregnancy rate of condoms is 2% per year.[5] Condoms may be combined with other forms of contraception (such as spermicide) for greater protection.[39]


In preventing STDs

A giant condom on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS DaySee also: Safe ***
Condoms are widely recommended for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They have been shown to be effective in reducing infection rates in both men and women. While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of organisms that cause AIDS, genital herpes, genital warts, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other diseases.[4]

According to a 2000 report by the National Institutes of Health, correct and consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission by approximately 85% relative to risk when unprotected, putting the seroconversion rate (infection rate) at 0.9 per 100 person-years with condom, down from 6.7 per 100 person-years. The same review also found condom use significantly reduces the risk of gonorrhea for men.[48]

A 2006 study reports that proper condom use decreases the risk of transmission for human papillomavirus by approximately 70%.[49] Another study in the same year found consistent condom use was effective at reducing transmission of herpes simplex virus-2 also known as genital herpes, in both men and women.[50]

Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom. Infectious areas of the genitals, especially when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, and as a result, some diseases can be transmitted by direct contact.[51] The primary effectiveness issue with using condoms to prevent STDs, however, is inconsistent use.[29]

Condoms may also be useful in treating potentially precancerous cervical changes. Exposure to human papillomavirus,[52] even in individuals already infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes. The use of condoms helps promote regression of these changes. In addition, researchers in the UK suggest that a hormone in semen can aggravate existing cervical cancer, condom use during *** can prevent exposure to the hormone.[53]


Causes of failure
The Wikibook Sexual Health has a page on the topic of
Barrier Birth Control and Spermicide
Condoms may slip off the ***** after ejaculation,[54] break due to improper application or physical damage (such as tears caused when opening the package), or break or slip due to latex degradation (typically from usage past the expiration date, improper storage, or exposure to oils). The rate of breakage is between 0.4% and 2.3%, while the rate of slippage is between 0.6% and 1.3%.[48] Even if no breakage or slippage is observed, 1–2% of women will test positive for semen residue after intercourse with a condom.[55][56] "Double bagging," using two condoms at once, also increases the risk of condom failure.[57][58]

Different modes of condom failure result in different levels of semen exposure. If a failure occurs during application, the damaged condom may be disposed of and a new condom applied before intercourse begins — such failures generally pose no risk to the user.[59] One study found that semen exposure from a broken condom was about half that of unprotected intercourse; semen exposure from a slipped condom was about one-fifth that of unprotected intercourse.[60]

Standard condoms will fit almost any *****, although many condom manufacturers offer "snug" or "magnum" sizes. Some manufacturers also offer custom sized-to-fit condoms, with claims that they are more reliable and offer improved sensation/comfort.[21][61][62] Some studies have associated larger *****es and smaller condoms with increased breakage and decreased slippage rates (and vice versa), but other studies have been inconclusive.[30]

Experienced condom users are significantly less likely to have a condom slip or break compared to first-time users, although users who experience one slippage or breakage are more likely to suffer a second such failure.[63] An article in Population Reports suggests that education on condom use reduces behaviors that increase the risk of breakage and slippage.[64] A Family Health International publication also offers the view that education can reduce the risk of breakage and slippage, but emphasizes that more research needs to be done to determine all of the causes of breakage and slippage.[30]

Among people who intend condoms to be their form of birth control, pregnancy may occur when the user has *** without a condom. The person may have run out of condoms, or be traveling and not have a condom with them, or simply dislike the feel of condoms and decide to "take a chance." This type of behavior is the primary cause of typical use failure (as opposed to method or perfect use failure).[65]

Another possible cause of condom failure is sabotage. One motive is to have a child against a partner's wishes or consent.[66] Some commercial *** workers from Nigeria reported clients sabotaging condoms in retaliation for being coerced into condom use.[67] Using a fine needle to make several pinholes at the tip of the condom is believed to significantly impact their effectiveness.[56][46]:306-307


Prevalence
The prevalence of condom use varies greatly between countries. Most surveys of contraceptive use are among married women, or women in informal unions. Japan has the highest rate of condom usage in the world: in that country, condoms account for almost 80% of contraceptive use by married women. On average, in developed countries, condoms are the most popular method of birth control: 28% of married contraceptive users rely on condoms. In the average less-developed country, condoms are less common: only 6-8% of married contraceptive users choose condoms.[68]

Condom use for disease prevention also varies. Among *** men in the United States, one survey found that 35% had used two condoms at the same time, a practice called "double bagging".[69] (While intended to provide extra protection, double bagging actually increases the risk of condom failure.)


Use

How to put on a condomMale condoms are usually packaged inside a foil wrapper, in a rolled-up form, and are designed to be applied to the tip of the ***** and then unrolled over the erect *****. It is important that some space be left in the tip of the condom so that semen has a place to collect; otherwise it may be forced out of the base of the device. After use, it is recommended the condom be wrapped in tissue or tied in a knot, then disposed of in a trash receptacle.[7]

Some couples find that putting on a condom interrupts ***, although others incorporate condom application as part of their foreplay. Some men and women find the physical barrier of a condom dulls sensation. Advantages of dulled sensation can include prolonged erection and delayed ejaculation; disadvantages might include a loss of some sexual excitement.[4]


Role in *** education
Condoms are often used in *** education programs, because they have the capability to reduce the chances of pregnancy and the spread of some sexually transmitted diseases when used correctly. A recent American Psychological Association (APA) press release supported the inclusion of information about condoms in *** education, saying "comprehensive sexuality education programs... discuss the appropriate use of condoms", and "promote condom use for those who are sexually active."[70]

In the United States, teaching about condoms in public schools is opposed by some religious organizations.[71] Planned Parenthood, which advocates family planning and *** education, argues that no studies have shown abstinence-only programs to result in delayed intercourse, and cites surveys showing that 75% of American parents want their children to receive comprehensive sexuality education including condom use.[72]


Infertility treatment
Common procedures in infertility treatment such as semen analysis and intrauterine insemination (IUI) require collection of semen samples. These are most commonly obtained through ************, but an alternative to ************ is use of a special collection condom to collect semen during sexual intercourse.

Collection condoms are made from silicone or polyurethane, as latex is somewhat harmful to sperm. Many men prefer collection condoms to ************, and some religions prohibit ************ entirely. Also, compared with samples obtained from ************, semen samples from collection condoms have higher total sperm counts, sperm motility, and percentage of sperm with normal morphology. For this reason, they are believed to give more accurate results when used for semen analysis, and to improve the chances of pregnancy when used in procedures such as intracervial or intrauterine insemination.[73] Adherents of religions that prohibit contraception, such as Catholicism, may use collection condoms with holes *****ed in them.[46]:306-307

Condom therapy is sometimes prescribed to infertile couples when the female has high levels of antisperm antibodies. The theory is that preventing exposure to her partner's semen will lower her level of antisperm antibodies, and thus increase her chances of pregnancy when condom therapy is discontinued. However, condom therapy has not been shown to increase subsequent pregnancy rates.[74]


Other uses
Condoms excel as multipurpose containers because they are waterproof, elastic, durable, and will not arouse suspicion if found. Ongoing military utilization begun during World War II includes:

Tying a non-lubricated condom over the muzzle of the rifle barrel in order to prevent barrel fouling by keeping out detritus.[2]
The OSS used condoms for a plethora of applications, from storing corrosive fuel additives and wire garrotes (with the T-handles removed) to holding the acid component of a self-destructing film canister, to finding use in improvised explosives.[75]
Navy SEALs have used doubled condoms, sealed with neoprene cement, to protect non-electric firing assemblies for underwater demolitions—leading to the term "Dual Waterproof Firing Assemblies."[76]
Other uses of condoms include:

Covers for endovaginal ultrasound probes.[77] Covering the probe with a condom reduces the amount of blood and vaginal fluids that the technician must clean off between patients.
Condoms can be used to hold water in emergency survival situations.[78]
Condoms have also been used to smuggle cocaine and other drugs across borders and into prisons by filling the condom with drugs, tying it in a knot and then either swallowing it or inserting it into the ******. These methods are very dangerous; if the condom breaks, the drugs inside can cause an overdose.[79]
In Soviet gulags, condoms were used to smuggle alcohol into the camps by prisoners who worked outside during daylight. While outside, the prisoner would ingest an empty condom attached to a thin piece of rubber tubing, the end of which was wedged between his teeth. The smuggler would then use a syringe to fill the tubing and condom with up to three liters of raw alcohol, which the prisoner would then smuggle back into the camp. When back in the barracks, the other prisoners would suspend him upside down until all the spirit had been drained out. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn records that the three liters of raw fluid would be diluted to make seven liters of crude vodka, and that although such prisoners risked an extremely painful and unpleasant death if the condom burst inside them, the rewards granted them by other prisoners encouraged them to run the risk.[80]
In his book entitled Last Chance to See, Douglas Adams reported having used a condom to protect a microphone he used to make an underwater recording. According to one of his traveling companions, this is standard BBC practice when a waterproof microphone is needed but cannot be procured.[1]
Condoms are used by engineers to keep soil samples dry during soil tests.[81]
Condoms are used in the field by engineers to initially protect sensoring equipment embedded in the steel or aluminum nose-cones of Cone Penetration Test (CPT) probes when entering the surface to conduct soil resistance tests to determine the bearing strength of soil.[82]
Condoms are used as a one-way valve by paramedics when performing a chest decompression in the field. The decompression needle is inserted through the condom, and inserted into the chest. The condom folds over the hub allowing air to exit the chest, but preventing it from entering.[83]

Debate and criticism

Disposal and environmental impact

Used condom thrown on the streetExperts, such as AVERT, recommend condoms be disposed of in a garbage receptacle, as flushing them down the toilet may cause plumbing blockages and other problems.[7][84]

While biodegradable,[7] latex condoms damage the environment when disposed of improperly. According to the Ocean Conservancy, condoms, along with certain other types of trash, cover the coral reefs and smother sea grass and other bottom dwellers. The United States Environmental Protection Agency also has expressed concerns that many animals might mistake the litter for food.[85]

Condoms made of polyurethane, a plastic material, do not break down at all. The plastic and foil wrappers condoms are packaged in are also not biodegradable. However, the benefits condoms offer are widely considered to offset their small landfill mass.[7] Frequent condom or wrapper disposal in public areas such as a parks have been seen as a persistent litter problem.[86]


Position of the Roman Catholic Church
See also: Catholic teachings on sexual morality#Use of condoms
The Roman Catholic Church directly condemns any artificial birth control or sexual acts, aside from intercourse between married heterosexuals with the intention of a pregnancy.[87]

However, the use of condoms to combat STDs is not specifically addressed by Catholic doctrine, and is currently a topic of debate among theologians and high-ranking Catholic authorities. A few, such as Belgian Cardinal Godfried Danneels, believe the Catholic Church should actively support condoms used to prevent disease, especially serious diseases such as AIDS.

To date, statements from the Vatican have argued that condom-promotion programs encourage promiscuity, thereby actually increasing STD transmission.[88] In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI asserted that handing out condoms is not the solution to combating AIDS and actually makes the problem worse. [89]

The Roman Catholic Church is the largest organized body of any world religion.[90] This church has hundreds of programs dedicated to fighting the AIDS epidemic in Africa,[91] but its opposition to condom use in these programs has been highly controversial.[92]


Health issues
Dry dusting powders are applied to latex condoms before packaging to prevent the condom from sticking to itself when rolled up. Previously, talc was used by most manufacturers, but cornstarch is currently the most popular dusting powder.[93] Talc is known to be toxic if it enters the abdominal cavity (i.e. via the vagina). Cornstarch is generally believed to be safe, however some researchers have raised concerns over its use.[93][94]

Nitrosamines, which are potentially carcinogenic in humans,[95] are believed to be present in a substance used to improve elasticity in latex condoms.[96] A 2001 review stated that humans regularly receive 1,000 to 10,000 times greater nitrosamine exposure from food and tobacco than from condom use and concluded that the risk of cancer from condom use is very low.[97] However, a 2004 study in Germany detected nitrosamines in 29 out of 32 condom brands tested, and concluded that exposure from condoms might exceed the exposure from food by 1.5- to 3-fold.[96][98]


Cultural factors
Cultural attitudes toward gender, contraception, and *** affect condom use and perceptions about condoms around the world. In less-developed countries and among less-educated populations, misperceptions about how disease transmission and conception work may negatively affect the use of condoms. In cultures with more traditional gender roles, women may feel uncomfortable demanding that their partners use condoms.

Latino immigrants in the United States often face barriers to condom use. A study on female HIV prevention published in the Journal of *** Health Research asserts that Latino women often lack the attitudes needed to negotiate safe *** due to traditional gender-role norms in the Latino community, and may be afraid to bring up the subject of condom use with their partners. Women who participated in the study often reported that their male partners would be angry or possibly violent at the suggestion that they use condoms.[99] A similar phenomenon has been noted in a survey of low-income African-American women; the women in this study also reported a fear of violence at the suggestion that condoms be used.[100]

A telephone survey conducted by Rand Corporation and Oregon State University and published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes showed that belief in AIDS conspiracy theories among black men is linked to rates of condom use; as conspiracy beliefs grew, consistent condom use dropped. Female use of condoms was not similarly affected.[101]

In Africa, condom promotion in some areas has been impeded by anti-condom campaigns by some Muslim[102] and Catholic clergy.[88] Some women in Africa believe that condoms are "for prostitutes" and that respectable women should not use them.[102] A few clergy even promote the idea that condoms are deliberately laced with HIV.[103]

Among the Massai in Tanzania, condom use is hampered by an aversion to "wasting" sperm, which is given sociocultural importance beyond reproduction. Sperm is believed to be an "elixir" to women and to have beneficial health effects. Massai women believe that, after conceiving a child, they must have sexual intercourse repeatedly so that the additional sperm aids the child's development. Frequent condom use is also considered by some Massai to cause impotence.[104]

In much of the Western world, the introduction of the pill in the 1960s was associated with a decline in condom use.[6]:267-9,272-5 In Japan, **** contraceptives were not approved for use until September 1999, and even then access was more restricted than in other industrialized nations.[105] Perhaps because of this restricted access to hormonal contraception, Japan has the highest rate of condom usage in the world: in 2008, 80% of contracepting couples relied on condoms.[68]


Major manufacturers
See also: History of condoms#Major manufacturers
One analyst described the size of the condom market as something that "boggles the mind". Numerous small manufacturers, nonprofit groups, and government-run manufacturing plants exist around the world.[6]:322,328 Within the condom market, there are several major contributors, among them both for-profit businesses and philanthropic organizations. Most large manufacturers have ties to the business that reach back to the end of the 19th century.

Julius Schmid, Inc. was founded in 1882 and began the Shieks and Ramses brands of condoms.[6]:154-6 The London Rubber Company began manufacturing latex condoms in 1932, under the Durex brand.[6]:199,201,218 Both companies are now part of Seton Scholl Limited.[6]:327
Youngs Rubber Company, founded by Merle Youngs in late nineteenth century America, introduced the Trojan line of condoms[6]:191 now owned by Church and Dwight.[6]:323-4
Dunlop Rubber began manufacturing condoms in Australia in the 1890s. In 1905, Dunlop sold its condom-making equipment to one of its employees, Eric Ansell, who founded Ansell Rubber. In 1969, Ansell was sold back to Dunlop.[6]:327 In 1987, English business magnate Richard Branson contracted with Ansell to help in a campaign against HIV and AIDS. Ansell agreed to manufacture the Mates brand of condom, to be sold at little or no profit in order to encourage condom use. Branson soon sold the Mates brand to Ansell, with royalty payments made annually to the charity Virgin Unite.[6]:309,311[106] In addition to its Mates brand, Ansell currently manufactures Lifestyles for the U.S. market.[6]:333
In 1934 the Kokusia Rubber Company was founded in Japan. It is now known as the Okamoto Rubber Manufacturing Company.[6]:257
In 1970 Tim Black and Philip Harvey founded Population Planning Associates (now known as Adam & Eve). Population Planning Associates was a mail-order business that marketed condoms to American college students. Black and Harvey used the profits from their company to start a non-profit organization Population Services International,[6]:286-7,337-9 and Harvey later also founded another nonprofit company, DKT International, that annually sells millions of condoms at discounted rates in developing countries around the world.[6]:286-7,337-9

Research
See also: Male contraceptive
A spray-on condom made of latex is intended to be easier to apply and more successful in preventing the transmission of diseases. As of 2009, the spray-on condom was not going to market because the drying time could not be reduced below two to three minutes.[107][108][109]

The Invisible Condom, developed at Université Laval in Québec, Canada, is a gel that hardens upon increased temperature after insertion into the vagina or ******. In the lab, it has been shown to effectively block HIV and herpes simplex virus. The barrier breaks down and liquefies after several hours. As of 2005, the invisible condom is in the clinical trial phase, and has not yet been approved for use.[110]

Also developed in 2005 is a condom treated with an erectogenic compound. The drug-treated condom is intended to help the wearer maintain his erection, which should also help reduce slippage. If approved, the condom would be marketed under the Durex brand. As of 2007, it was still in clinical trials.[6]:345


See also
Condom machine
Spray-on condom

References
^ a b Carwardine, Mark; Adams, Douglas (1991). Last chance to see. [New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-58215-5.
^ a b Ambrose, Stephen E. (1994). D-Day, June 6, 1944: the climactic battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-71359-0.
^ "Male Condom". Feminist Women's Health Center. October 18, 2007. http://www.fwhc.org/birth-control/condom.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
^ a b c "Condom". Planned Parenthood. 2008. http://www.plannedparenthood.o...rol/condom-10187.htm (http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/condom-10187.htm). Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
^ a b c Hatcher, RA; Trussel J, Nelson AL, et al. (2007). Contraceptive Technology (19th ed.). New York: Ardent Media. ISBN 1-59708-001-2. http://www.contraceptivetechnology.com/table.html. Retrieved on 2009-07-26.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt Collier, Aine (2007). The Humble Little Condom: A History. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-556-6.
^ a b c d e "Environmentally-friendly condom disposal". Go Ask Alice!. December 20, 2002. http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/2311.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
^ Trujillo, Alfonso Cardinal López (2003-12-01). "Family Values Versus Safe ***". Pontifical Council for the Family. http://www.vatican.va/roman_cu...lo_en.html#Pregnancy (http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/family/documents/rc_pc_family_doc_20031201_family-values-safe-***-trujillo_en.html#Pregnancy). Retrieved on 2009-07-18.
^ Oriel, J.D. (1994). The Scars of Venus: A History of Venereology. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-19844-X.
^ Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 210. ISBN 0-393-03891-2.
^ "Special Topic: History of Condom Use". Population Action International. 2002. <a href="http://www.populationaction

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08-08-2009, 01:08 PM
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Cable
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation).

6" or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. These cables are connected to powerful pumps that pump the oil through them while in operation. Safety switches turn off the oil flow in the event of a leak, in order to limit the effects of a hydrocarbon fire.
Fire test in Sweden, showing rapid fire spread through burning of cable jackets from one cable tray to another.
500MCM 1C Power Cable MarkingA cable is two or more wires or ropes running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. In mechanics, cables are used for lifting and hauling; in electricity they are used to carry electrical currents. An optical cable contains one or more optical fibers in a protective jacket that supports the fibers. Mechanical cable is more specifically called wire rope.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Electrical cables
2.1 Cables and electromagnetic fields
2.2 Fire protection
2.3 Electrical cable types
2.3.1 Basic
2.3.2 Construction
2.3.3 Special
2.3.4 Market Information
3 Application
4 Cable manufacturers
5 Further reading
6 See also
7 References
8 External links



[edit] History
Ropes made of multiple strands of natural fibers such as hemp, sisal, manila, and cotton have been used for millennia for hoisting and hauling. By the 19th century, deepening of mines and construction of large ships increased demand for stronger cables. Invention of improved steelmaking techniques made high quality steel available at lower cost, and so wire ropes became common in mining and other industrial applications. By the middle of the 19th century, manfacture of large submarine telegraph cables was done using machiners similar to that used for manufacture of mechanical cables.

In the 19th century and early 20th century, electrical cable was often insulated using cloth, rubber and paper. Plastic materials are generally used today, except for high reliability power cables.


[edit] Electrical cables
Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be coated with a thin layer of another material: most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidisation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).

Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as by using cable trees with the aid of cable ties or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be secured using strain relief devices or cable ties. Copper corrodes easily and so should be layered with Lacquer.

At high frequencies, current tends to run along the surface of the conductor and avoid the core. This is known as the skin effect. It may change the relative desirability of solid versus stranded wires.


[edit] Cables and electromagnetic fields
Any current-carrying conductor, including a cable, radiates an electromagnetic field. Likewise, any conductor or cable will pick up energy from any existing electromagnetic field around it. These effects are often undesirable, in the first case amounting to unwanted transmission of energy which may adversely affect nearby equipment or other parts of the same piece of equipment; and in the second case, unwanted pickup of noise which may mask the desired signal being carried by the cable, or, if the cable is carrying power-supply or control voltages, pollute them to such an extent as to cause equipment malfunction.


Coaxial cable.
Twisted pair.The first solution to these problems is to keep cable lengths short, since pick up and transmission are essentially proportional to the length of the cable. The second solution is to route cables away from trouble. Beyond this, there are particular cable designs that minimise electromagnetic pickup and transmission. Three of the principal design techniques are shielding, coaxial geometry, and twisted-pair geometry.


Shielding makes use of the electrical principle of the Faraday cage. The cable is encased for its entire length in foil or wire mesh. All wires running inside this shielding layer will be to a large extent decoupled from external electric fields, particularly if the shield is connected to a point of constant voltage, such as ground. Simple shielding of this type is not greatly effective against low-frequency magnetic fields, however – such as magnetic "hum" from a nearby power transformer.

Coaxial design helps to further reduce low-frequency magnetic transmission and pickup. In this design the foil or mesh shield is perfectly tubular – ie., with a circular cross section – and the inner conductor (there can only be one) is situated exactly at its centre. This causes the voltages induced by a magnetic field between the shield and the core conductor to consist of two nearly equal magnitudes which cancel each other.

The twisted pair is a simple expedient where two wires of a cable, rather than running parallel to each other, are twisted around each other, forming a pair of intertwined helices. This can be achieved by putting one end of the pair in a hand drill and turning while maintaining moderate tension on the line. Field cancellation between successive twists of the pair considerably reduces electromagnetic pickup and transmission.

Power-supply cables feeding sensitive electronic devices are sometimes fitted with a series-wired inductor called a choke which blocks high frequencies that may have been picked up by the cable, preventing them from passing into the device.


[edit] Fire protection
In building construction, electrical cable jacket material is a potential source of fuel for fires. To limit the spread of fire along cable jacketing, one may use cable coating materials or one may use cables with jacketing that is inherently fire retardant. The plastic covering on some metal clad cables may be stripped off at installation to reduce the fuel source for accidental fires. In Europe in particular, it is often customary to place inorganic wraps and boxes around cables in order to safeguard the adjacent areas from the potential fire threat associated with unprotected cable jacketing.

To provide fire protection to a cable, there are two methods:

a) Insulation material is deliberately added up with fire retardant materials

b) The copper conductor itself is covered with mineral insulations( MICC cables)


[edit] Electrical cable types
Basic cable types are as follows:


[edit] Basic
Coaxial cable
Multicore cable (consist of more than one wire and is covered by cable jacket)
Ribbon cable
Shielded cable
Single cable (from time to time this name is used for wire)
Twisted pair
Twisting cable

[edit] Construction
Based on construction and cable properties it can be sorted into the following:

Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable
Twinax cable
Flexible cables

[edit] Special
Arresting cable
Bowden cable
Heliax cable
Direct-buried cable
Heavy-lift cable
Elevator cable

[edit] Market Information
Integer Research Ltd
International Cable Makers Federation
Wire Association International

[edit] Application
Wire rope (wire cable)
Audiovisual cable
Bicycle cable
Communications cable
Computer cable
Mechanical cable
Sensing cable [1]
Submersible cable

[edit] Cable manufacturers
Some global producers of electrical wire and cable include (in alphabetical order): Belden, Cables RCT, Cords Cable Industries, Draka, Fujikura, Furukawa Electric, Hitachi Cable, Igus, Leoni, LS Cable, Marmon Group, Nexans, Pirelli, Prysmian, Southwire, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Tyco


[edit] Further reading
R. M. Black, The History of Electric Wires and Cables, Peter Pergrinus, London 1983 ISBN 0 86341 001 4

[edit] See also
Communications cable
Cable dressing
Cable harness
Cable lacing
Cable length
Cable reel
Cable tray
Circuit integrity
Cable management
Cable modem
Cable salad
Cable television
Category 5 cable
Category 6 cable
Category 7 cable
Look up cable in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A 250V-16A electrical wire on a reelCross-linked polyethylene
DOCSIS
Electrical wiring
Extension cable
MF
Polyvinyl chloride
Portable cord
Power cable
Profibus
Submarine communications cable
Submarine power cable
Steel Wire Armoured (SWA) Cable
SY Control Cable
Tensile structure
International Cablemakers Federation



[edit] References
^ http://www.sensornet.co.uk/fil...detection%20-%20What (http://www.sensornet.co.uk/files/article/Pipeline%20leak%20detection%20-%20What)'s%20new%20in%20Process%20Technology%20April%2008.pdf Using fibre optic distributed temperature sensing

[edit] External links
Malaysia Cable Manufacturers Association
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
The European Confederation of National Associations of Manufacturers of Insulated Wire and Cable
Wire Cable Technical Information
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable"
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Prison Break
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This article is about a television series. For the act of escaping prison, see prison escape.
Prison Break

Prison Break season 4 intertitle
Genre Drama
Serial drama
Thriller
Created by Paul Scheuring
Starring Dominic Purcell
Wentworth Miller
Robin Tunney
Peter Stormare
Amaury Nolasco
Marshall Allman
Wade Williams
Paul Adelstein
Robert Knepper
Rockmond Dunbar
Sarah Wayne Callies
William Fichtner
Chris Vance
Robert Wisdom
Danay Garcia
Jodi Lyn O'Keefe
Michael Rapaport
Country of origin United States
Language(s) English
Spanish
No. of seasons 4
No. of episodes 81 (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s) Marty Adelstein (2005-2009)
Neal H. Moritz (2005-2009)
Dawn Parouse (2005-2009)
Brett Ratner (2005-2009)
Paul Scheuring (2005-2009)
Matt Olmstead (2005-2009)
Kevin Hooks (2006-2009)
Michael Pavone (2005)
Location(s) Chicago, Illinois
Joliet, Illinois
Dallas, Texas
Los Angeles, California
Panama City, Panama
Miami, Florida
Maljamar, New Mexico
Running time Approx. 42 min.
Broadcast
Original channel FOX
Picture format 480i (SDTV)
720p (HDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
Audio format Dolby Digital with 5.1 channels
Original run August 29, 2005 – May 15, 2009
External links
Official website
Prison Break is a drama television series created by Paul Scheuring, which premiered on the Fox Broadcasting Company on August 29, 2005. The series revolves around two brothers; one has been sentenced to death for a crime he did not commit, and the other devises an elaborate plan to help his brother escape prison. The series was produced by Adelstein-Parouse Productions, in association with Original Television and 20th Century Fox Television. The current executive producers are head writer Scheuring, co-head writer Matt Olmstead, Kevin Hooks, Marty Adelstein, Dawn Parouse, Neal H. Moritz, and Brett Ratner.[1] The series' theme music, composed by Ramin Djawadi, was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in 2006.[2]

The series was originally turned down by Fox in 2003, which was concerned about the long-term prospects of such a series. Following the popularity of serialized prime time television series Lost and 24, Fox decided to back production in 2004. The first season received generally positive reviews,[3] and performed well in the ratings. The first season was originally planned for a 13-episode run, but was extended to include an extra nine episodes due to its popularity. Prison Break has been nominated for several industry awards, and won the 2006 People's Choice Award for Favorite New TV Drama. All four seasons have been released on DVD, while the first and third seasons have also been released on Blu-ray Disc. The series has been aired internationally, including in several non-English speaking countries.

The success of the series has inspired short videos for mobile phones, several official tie-ins in print and on the Internet, as well as a video game currently in development. A spin-off series, Prison Break: Proof of Innocence, has been produced exclusively for mobile phones. The series has spawned an official magazine and a book written in an in-universe perspective. The fourth season of Prison Break returned from its mid-season break in a new timeslot on April 17, 2009 for the series' last six episodes.[4] Two additional episodes, titled "The Old Ball and Chain" and "Free" were produced, and were later transformed into a standalone feature, titled The Final Break. The events of this feature take place before the last scene of the series finale, and are intended to wrap up "loose ends". The feature was released on DVD and Blu-ray July 21, 2009.[5]

Contents [hide]
1 Season synopsis
1.1 Season 1
1.2 Season 2
1.3 Season 3
1.4 Season 4
2 Cast and characters
3 Production
3.1 Conception
3.2 Filming
3.3 Music
3.4 Format
4 Response
4.1 Ratings and critical reception
4.2 Classification
4.3 Awards and nominations
4.4 Alleged copyright infringement
5 Distribution
5.1 Television
5.2 Home media
5.3 Online distribution
6 Other media
7 References
8 External links



[edit] Season synopsis
Main article: List of Prison Break episodes

[edit] Season 1
Main article: Prison Break (season 1)
The first season follows the rescue of Lincoln Burrows (Dominic Purcell), who is accused of murdering Terrence Steadman (Jeff Perry), the brother of the Vice President of the United States. Lincoln is sentenced to death and is incarcerated in Fox River State Penitentiary where he awaits his execution. Lincoln's brother, brilliant structural engineer Michael Scofield (Wentworth Miller), is convinced of Lincoln's innocence and formulates an escape plan. In order to gain access to Fox River, Michael commits armed robbery. Michael befriends the prison doctor Sara Tancredi (Sarah Wayne Callies) when he pretends to suffer from Type 1 diabetes, in order to gain daily access to the prison's infirmary. The brothers' fight to ward off the execution is aided by their lifelong friend Veronica Donovan (Robin Tunney), who begins to investigate the conspiracy that put Lincoln in jail. However, they are hindered by covert agents, members of an organization known as The Company. The Company was responsible for framing Lincoln, and they did so because of Lincoln's father, Aldo Burrows, and his former connections to the company. The brothers, along with six other inmates, Fernando Sucre (Amaury Nolasco), Theodore "T-Bag" Bagwell (Robert Knepper), Benjamin Miles "C-Note" Franklin (Rockmond Dunbar), David "Tweener" Apolskis (Lane Garrison), John Abruzzi (Peter Stormare), and Charles "Haywire" Patoshik (Silas Weir Mitchell), who come to be known as the Fox River Eight, escape in the season finale.


[edit] Season 2
Main article: Prison Break (season 2)
The second season begins eight hours after the escape, focusing mainly on the escapees. Series creator Paul Scheuring describes the second season as "The Fugitive times eight" and likens it to the "second half of The Great Escape".[6] The fugitives split up and journey to locations across the country with the authorities close behind them as they each pursue their individual goals. Brad Bellick (Wade Williams) gets fired from the prison where he worked as a guard and chases after the inmates himself for the reward money. Several of the escapees reunite in search of a large cache of money buried long ago by another prisoner. Federal agent Alexander Mahone (William Fichtner) is assigned to track down and capture the eight fugitives, but is revealed to be working for The Company, which wants all eight men dead. When Sara discovers her dead father, Governor Frank Tancredi, she meets with Michael, remaining with him as the brothers try to bring down the current President, a Company member. To ensure the brothers' safety, Sara allows herself to be arrested and faces trial. During the trial, the testimony of former Secret Service agent Paul Kellerman, who used to work for the Company-controlled President, exonerates Lincoln and Sara. Several of the escapees are killed or recaptured, but the brothers make it to Panama. Michael, T-Bag, Mahone, and Bellick are arrested by the Panamanian authorities and imprisoned at the Penitenciaría Federal de Sona.


[edit] Season 3
Main article: Prison Break (season 3)
The third season follows both Michael inside Sona and Lincoln on the outside in Panama. Sona is a prison that has been run by the inmates and guarded only from the outside since a riot the year before. Burrows is quickly contacted by Gretchen Morgan (a Company operative who was in charge of operations in Panama) who kidnapped his son LJ (Marshall Allman) and Sara Tancredi (Sarah Wayne Callies), the woman Michael loves. He is told that The Company wants Scofield to break James Whistler (Chris Vance) out of Sona. The season follows Michael and Whistler's trials in formulating an escape plan, as Michael has to deal with extreme tension and as Lincoln deals with the Company's operative Gretchen Morgan (Jodi Lyn O'Keefe). Sucre gets a job at the prison to aid Michael in his escape plan. When Lincoln attempts to rescue Sara and LJ following a clue provided by Sara, Gretchen claims to have beheaded Sara and sends Lincoln a head in a box as a warning. As the season ends, the pair manage to escape along with Mahone, and another inmate McGrady leaving behind several accomplices including T-Bag and Bellick. Sucre's identity is discovered by a prison guard and is thrown into Sona just after the escape. LJ and Sofia (who was captured for a guarantee that Whistler would go with her) are traded for Whistler, and Michael seeks revenge against Gretchen for Sara's death.


[edit] Season 4
Main article: Prison Break (season 4)
The major storyline for the fourth season concerns a team recruited by Homeland Security agent Don Self (Michael Rapaport) to obtain Scylla. Although the team initially believes it to be the Company's "black book", it is later revealed to contain information on an advanced renewable power cell. Over the course of the first half of the season, the team obtain cards to access Scylla, and break into Company headquarters to steal. In the first half, Sara is discovered to be alive, Bellick is killed, and Self is revealed to be a double agent and sell Scylla to the highest bidder. Reluctantly, Lincoln decides to join the Company to get it back, while Michael suffers from a brain aneurysm. He is treated and operated on by the Company. He later learns that his mother, Christina is still alive and was an agent of the Company, who is revealed to acquire Scylla to sell to the highest bidder. Eventually, the series ends in Miami, where Scylla is recovered by Michael and the team, the General and the Company are taken down, and Christina is killed. In Prison Break: The Final Break, a story is told explaining what happened following the events of the last episode (before the four-year flash-forward) and the strange scar on Sara's shoulder. This story involves the incarceration of Sara in Miami-Dade county penitientiary due to budgetary cutbacks; there are cots installed there acting as the county jail. With the General and T-Bag in the adjacent Men's facility, the General wants Sara dead and offers a $100,000 bounty. Largely echoing season one, Sara is involved in common prison fare before Micheal hears of the bounty and plans are devised for her escape.


[edit] Cast and characters

Cast members Amaury Nolasco, Robert Knepper, Wade Williams, Sarah Wayne Callies, Wentworth Miller with executive producer Matt Olmstead.Main article: List of Prison Break characters
Prison Break maintains an ensemble cast for each season along with many recurring guest stars. The first season features a cast of ten actors who receive star billing, who were based in Chicago or at Fox River State Penitentiary.[7] The second season features a cast of nine actors who receive billing; three characters are downgraded from series regular to recurring status, another is upgraded, and a new character is introduced.[8] The third season introduces four new characters; two of whom are prisoners at Penitenciaría Federal de Sona.[9]

Most of the changes in the cast have been due to character deaths. Series creator, Paul Scheuring, explains that killing off major characters "makes the audience that much more fearful for our protagonists" and that "it actually does help us in terms of reducing story lines".[10] The two protagonists of the series, Lincoln Burrows and Michael Scofield, are the only characters to have appeared in every episode of the series.

Wentworth Miller as Michael Scofield (Season 1–4): Michael is Lincoln's brother and worked as a structural engineer before devoting full-time to his brother's case. In order to save his brother's life, Michael creates an elaborate plan to help his brother escape from prison. In an interview, Paul Scheuring recalled that most of the actors who tested for the role "would come in playing mysterious, but it was so cheesy and false."[11] A week before the start of production, Miller auditioned for the role and impressed Scheuring with his performance; he was cast the following day.[12]
Dominic Purcell as Lincoln Burrows (Season 1–4): Lincoln is a high school drop-out and a convicted felon, who is wrongfully accused of and charged with the murder of Terence Steadman, the brother of the Vice President of the United States. Purcell was cast three days before the start of production and consequently, he was the last actor to join the original cast.[12] He auditioned for the role while he had a recurring role as Tommy Ravetto on North Shore. Since working on John Doe, Purcell has had an amiable relationship with Fox. Hence, he was sent the pilot script of Prison Break.[13] Scheuring's first impression of Purcell did not convince him as a fit for the role since the actor went to the audition with his hair styled and a tan. However, Purcell's acting won the role. He arrived on the set on the first day of filming with a shaved head, which amazed Scheuring with the physical likeness of the series' two leading actors.[11]
Robin Tunney as Veronica Donovan (Season 1–2): Veronica is Michael and Lincoln's childhood friend who decides to review Lincoln's case at Michael's insistence. She becomes Lincoln's lawyer and appears as a major character in the first season.
Marshall Allman as Lincoln "L. J." Burrows Jr. (Season 1–4): L. J. is the teenage son of Lincoln Burrows and is greatly affected by his father's death sentence. He is forced into hiding after he becomes the target of the people who want Lincoln dead.
Amaury Nolasco as Fernando Sucre (Season 1–4): Sucre develops a friendship with Michael during time at Fox River State Penitentiary, where he was his cell-mate. He becomes Michael and Lincoln's ally, and provides comic relief to the show. His character's story focuses mainly on his wish to reunite with his girlfriend. Upon receiving the pilot script, Nolasco's first thought was that it was "one of those failed pilots that the network did not really want" since most of the series pilots would have started production by that time. Admitting that he does not like to read, Nolasco was amazed that the script was a "huge page-turner". Prior to his last audition for the role, Nolasco recalled his nervousness, which grew when Paul Scheuring told him that he was their favourite choice. Subsequently, he was cast in the role.[14]
Robert Knepper as Theodore "T-Bag" Bagwell (Season 1–4): T-Bag appears in all four seasons of the series as a cunning, violent, and manipulative psychopath, consistently underestimated by those around him. T-Bag will stop at nothing to get what he wants and lets nothing stand in his way.
Peter Stormare as John Abruzzi (Season 1-2): Due to his role as the leader of a Chicago mafia, Abruzzi became a prominent figure at Fox River State Penitentiary. He agrees to provide an escape plane for Michael in exchange for the location of the eyewitness to his crimes, Otto Fibonacci. He appears regularly in the first half of the first season and makes selected appearances towards the end of the first season and the beginning of the second season.
Rockmond Dunbar as Benjamin Miles "C-Note" Franklin (Season 1–2, 4): Desperate for his family, C-Note blackmails Michael at Fox River to join his escape team. He appears in the series as a major character in the first and second seasons.
Wade Williams as Brad Bellick (Season 1–4): Appearing in all four seasons, Bellick was introduced as the captain of Fox River's correctional officers. After reading the pilot script, Williams initially did not want to portray the role of Bellick because the character was "horrible and despicable". His reluctance stemmed from being the father of a four-year-old daughter. However, his manager persuaded him to audition for the role and Williams landed the role of Bellick.[14]
Sarah Wayne Callies as Sara Tancredi (Season 1–2, 4): Sara is the prison doctor at Fox River and the daughter of Governor Frank Tancredi, who is linked into the plot that brings Lincoln to Fox River. She takes a liking to Michael and eventually aids his escape. She ultimately joins them on the run. Callies was the first actress the producers saw at the audition for the role of Sara Tancredi and was also the first to become a principal cast member.[12][15]
Paul Adelstein as Paul Kellerman (Season 1–2, 4): Kellerman was introduced as a Secret Service agent working for the Vice President to make sure that the execution of Lincoln Burrows goes smoothly. Eventually, his character changes from that of a villain to an ally to Michael and Lincoln. He appears as a major character in the first and second seasons.
William Fichtner as Alexander Mahone (Season 2–4): Introduced as an FBI agent in the second season, Mahone's assignment was to locate the fugitives. Mahone is intellectually matched with Michael and his background unfolds as the series progresses. In the third season he finds himself incarcerated with Michael in Sona and is eventually forced to become his ally through the final season.
Chris Vance as James Whistler (Season 3-4): Whistler is incarcerated in Sona for the murder of the Mayor's son and appears as a major character in the third season. He also stars in the first episode of the fourth season.
Robert Wisdom as Norman "Lechero" St. John (Season 3): Appearing as a major character in the third season, Lechero is a prisoner at Sona who rules the prison as a dictator and a Panamanian drug kingpin.
Danay Garcia as Sofia Lugo (Season 3-4): Sofia was introduced in the third season as Whistler's girlfriend, at the beginning of the fourth season it is revealed she has started to date Lincoln Burrows.
Jodi Lyn O'Keefe as Gretchen Morgan (Season 3–4): Introduced as "Susan B. Anthony", Gretchen is an operative for the company who is in charge of ensuring the escape of James Whistler.
Michael Rapaport as Donald Self (Season 4): Introduced in the fourth season, Self is a Department of Homeland Security special agent who teams up with the gang to take down The Company.

[edit] Production

[edit] Conception

The concept of the series was suggested to series creator Paul Scheuring by producer Dawn Parouse, who wanted to produce an action-oriented series.The original concept of Prison Break—a man deliberately getting himself sent to prison in order to help his brother escape—was suggested to Paul Scheuring by producer Dawn Parouse, who wanted to produce an action-oriented series. Although Scheuring thought it was a good idea, he was initially stumped as to why someone would embark on such a mission or how he could develop it into a viable television show. He came up with the story of the wrongfully accused brother, and began working on the plot outline and devising the characters. In 2003, he pitched the idea to the Fox Broadcasting Company but was turned down as Fox felt nervous about the long-term possibilities of such a series. He subsequently showed the concept to other channels but was also turned down as it was thought to be more suited for a film project than a television series.[13] Prison Break was later considered as a possible 14-part miniseries, which drew the interest of Steven Spielberg before his departure due to his involvement with War of the Worlds. Thus, the miniseries never materialized. Following the huge popularity of serialized prime time television series such as Lost and 24, Fox decided to back the production in 2004. The pilot episode was filmed a year after Scheuring wrote the script.[16]


[edit] Filming
The first three seasons of Prison Break were primarily filmed outside of Hollywood. The majority of the first season of the series was filmed on location in and around Chicago.[17] After it was closed down in 2002, Joliet Prison became the set of Prison Break in 2005, standing in as Fox River State Penitentiary on screen.[18] Scenes set in Lincoln's cell, the infirmary, and the prison yard were all shot on location at the prison.[19] Lincoln's cell was the same one in which serial killer John Wayne Gacy was incarcerated, which at least one member of the production crew refused to enter, because it was alleged to be haunted.[17][20] Other sets were built at the prison, including the cell blocks that housed the general prison population; these blocks had three tiers of cells (as opposed to the real cell block's two) and had cells much larger than real cells to allow more space for the actors and cameras.[19] Exterior scenes were filmed in areas around Chicago, Woodstock, and Joliet in Illinois. Other locations included O'Hare International Airport in Chicago and Toronto, Ontario in Canada. Prison Break spent $2 million per episode in the state of Illinois, which cost them a total of $24 million in 2005.[17]

Renewed for a second season, Prison Break resumed filming on June 15, 2006 in Dallas, Texas due to the close proximity of rural and urban settings.[21] Locations within a 30-minute radius of Dallas were chosen which included Little Elm, Decatur, and Mineral Wells.[22] Many of these locations were used to represent various American towns.[23] The show was expected to spend in excess of $50 million in Texas over the course of the second season.[6] For the final three episodes of the second season, filming took place in Pensacola, Florida to represent Panama.[24] Each episode took eight days to film and approximately $1.4 million went to the local economy per episode.[25] The third season was shot in Dallas and had a budget of $3 million per episode.[26] Several of the exterior scenes with Lincoln and Gretchen negotiating the escape from the Panama jail were shot in the Casco Viejo quarter of Panama City.[27] The principal photography for the fourth season was relocated to Los Angeles, California.[28]


[edit] Music
The theme music of Prison Break and the incidental music of each episode was composed by Ramin Djawadi. The score for the first two seasons is featured in the Prison Break: Original Television Soundtrack, which was released on August 28, 2007.[29] Djawadi and Ferry Corsten produced a remix of the theme music entitled "Prison Break Theme (Ferry Corsten Breakout Mix)" as a single, which was released by Fox Music in 2006. In Europe, rapper Faf Larage's song "Pas le temps" is used by television network M6 in France to replace the show's original theme music in the title sequence, which generated publicity and helped to localize the show.[30] Similarly, "Ich glaub' an Dich (Prison Break Anthem)" (performed by Azad and Adel Tawil) and "Over the Rainbow" (performed by Leki) are used in the title sequence in Germany and Belgium respectively. After the ending of the fourth season of the show, on June 2, 2009 a separate soundtrack disc was released for the third and fourth seasons.


[edit] Format
Prison Break features a serialized story structure, similar to that of its first season companion show 24. In November 2008, The Hollywood Reporter revealed that Fox had ordered two extra episodes of the current fourth season, which may serve as a two-hour series finale in 2009. There was some speculation that a pre-determined end-date had been set for Prison Break, similar to Lost.[31] At the 2009 TV Critics Press Tour, Kevin Reilly told reporters that the series would end with the fourth season. Despite decreasing ratings, Reilly attributed the cancellation to creativity: "The show has just played out. You get to a point creatively where you feel all the stories have been told, and you want to end strong and not gimp out in the end of the season."[32] Regarding the finale, Reilly stated, "They have a really cool ending, actually. I know where they end, and it's a hell of an idea."[32]

On October 24, 2007, The Hollywood Reporter reported that a spin off was under development, tentatively titled Prison Break: Cherry Hill. The series was to revolve around an upper-middle-class housewife, Molly, and her stint in a women's prison.[33] However, the producers' original idea to introduce Molly in the third season of Prison Break was later dropped due to the writers' strike. The new series would instead begin under the Prison Break brand similar to CSI: Miami and CSI: NY.[34]


[edit] Response

[edit] Ratings and critical reception
The following seasonal rankings are based on a weighted average total viewers per episode as recorded by Nielsen Media Research. The recording period begins in late September (the start of the U.S. network television season) and ends in late May.

Season Broadcast period Timeslot Ranking Average viewers (in millions)
1 2005–2006 Monday 9:00 pm ET
(8:00 pm ET midseason) #55 9.2[35]
2 2006–2007 Monday 8:00 pm ET #51 9.3[36]
3 2007–2008 Monday 8:00 pm ET #73 8.2[37]
4 2008–2009 Monday 9:00 pm ET
Friday 8:00 pm ET (mid-season) #86 5.3[38]

The show debuted on August 29, 2005 to an estimated audience of 10.5 million viewers. Fox had not seen such success for summertime Monday numbers since Melrose Place and Ally McBeal aired in September 1998. The two-hour premiere was credited as two episodes by the network.[39] The premiere was ranked first in both the 18-49 and 18-34 demographics.[40] The strong debut performance was also matched by various positive reviews. According to The New York Times, Prison Break was "more intriguing than most of the new network series, and it certainly is one of the most original", complimenting its ability to create a "suspenseful thriller" and its "authentic look".[41] Gillian Flynn of Entertainment Weekly dubbed it as one of the best new shows of 2005.[42] On the other hand, The Washington Post criticized the show for its "somber pretentiousness" and "uniformly overwrought" performances.[43] Due to its ratings success, Fox decided to extend Prison Break by an extra nine episodes, making it the first new series in the 2005-2006 television season to receive a full season order of 22 episodes.[44] The series averaged 9.2 million viewers per week in its first season.[35]

The premiere of the second season of Prison Break obtained an average of 9.4 million viewers.[45] The decline was steeper among young-adult viewers with a decrease of 20% in the 18-49 demographic compared to its series premiere, but its household rating grew from 3.6% to 3.9% during the last half hour.[46] Robert Bianco of USA Today commented on the "harebrained absurdities that have swamped this show", and blamed the writers for being "incredibly lazy" for the continuous use of the tattoo as an "all-purpose plot fix".[47] Contrastingly, Detroit Free Press commended the second season premiere on matching the standard set by the first season, which delivered a "rocking good entertainment" due to its "motley crew of cellblock characters" and the "taut, ingenious storytelling of series creator Paul T. Scheuring and his staff."[48] The second season obtained its largest audience on the original airdate of the episode, "Chicago" with an average of 10.1 million viewers.[49] Overall, the second season averaged 9.3 million viewers per week.[36]


[edit] Classification
Due to its storyline and setting, Prison Break's target audience is the 18–34 age group. The show contains adult content including violence, coarse language, as well as sexual and drug references. Concerns were raised by the Parents Television Council in the United States about the time slot in which Prison Break was broadcasted (8:00 pm ET) since the show features some scenes which contain graphic content.[50] The series is given a TV-14 rating in both the United States and Canada. A similar rating is also used in other countries. Prison Break is rated MA15+ in Australia and New Zealand, A+18 in Chile, PG in Hong Kong, 18PL in Malaysia, 12 in The Netherlands, PG13V in South Africa, 15 in the United Kingdom for the DVD release, and a PS rating in the Republic of Ireland. In France, the broadcasting watchdog, Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel (CSA), also complained that the violence in some episodes exceeded the amount allowed for its rating, which is "not for under 10s". Under France's regulations, any higher ratings would move the show away from its current primetime timeslot to a later timeslot. However, their decision to change the rating will only affect the first season, which has already been broadcast, and not the second season.[51] To keep the original timeslot, French broadcasters M6 used censorship on the most violent scenes for the second season and also produced a disclaimer before airing each episode in primetime. In Greece, the first season of the show was broadcast with the rating "Necessary Parental Advice", while the second season is broadcast with the rating "Optional Parental Advice", concerning the official classification of television programs in Greece for the protection of viewers.


[edit] Awards and nominations
Main article: List of Prison Break awards and nominations
Following a successful airing of the series' first thirteen episodes, Prison Break was nominated for its first award, the 2005 People's Choice Award for Favorite New TV Drama. The series won the award in January 2006, beating other nominees in the same category, Commander in Chief and Criminal Minds.[52] In January 2006, the show had two nominations at the 63rd Golden Globe Awards, which were Best Drama Television Series and Best Actor in a Drama Television Series for Wentworth Miller's performance.[53] The show's lead actor, Wentworth Miller, received another nomination for his performance in the first season at the 2005 Saturn Awards for Best Actor on Television. Likewise, the series was nominated for 2005 Saturn Award for Best Network Television Series.[54] At the 2006 Television Critics Association Awards, the show was nominated for Best New Drama Series.[55] Nominations for technical awards include the 2006 Eddie Award for Best Edited One-Hour Series for Commercial Television (Mark Helfrich for the pilot episode),[56] and the 2006 Primetime Emmy award for Outstanding Main Title Theme Music (Ramin Djawadi).[57] In December 2006, Robert Knepper was nominated for the 2006 Satellite Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role in a Series, Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television.[58]


[edit] Alleged copyright infringement
On October 24, 2006, the Associated Press reported that Donald and Robert Hughes filed a lawsuit against Fox Broadcasting Company and the show's executive producer and creator, Paul Scheuring, for copyright infringement, seeking unspecified damages and other costs. They claimed that in 2001, they had sent Fox their manuscript which was based on their own experiences of a prison break at a juvenile facility. In the 1960s, Donald Hughes planned and successfully executed a prison escape for his brother, Robert Hughes, who was wrongfully incarcerated.[59][60]


[edit] Distribution

[edit] Television
In Canada, Prison Break is broadcast on Global one hour before it airs on Fox, except in the Maritimes where it airs two hours before Fox's airing. Prison Break was the only new television series to be positioned in the top twenty television shows of 2005-2006 in Canada, achieving an average of 876,000 viewers in the key demographic of 18–49 and 1.4 million viewers nationally for its first season.[61] Prison Break premiered on Australian television network Seven on February 1, 2006 to an average audience of 1.94 million.[62] The first season attracted an overall average of 1.353 million viewers.[63] In New Zealand, Prison Break won the People's Choice Award for Favourite New Television Drama.[64] After decreasing ratings throughout the second season, Seven decided to fast-track the airing of the third season episodes;[65] however, ratings continued to decrease.[66]

The first and second seasons premiered in the UK on Five for the first season, then subsequently replayed on UKTV Gold before the second season debuted on Five. Prior to the start of the third season, Sky One acquired the rights to broadcast Prison Break, paying £500,000 per episode.[67] The series premiered in France on August 31, 2006 with an average of 5.5 million viewers.[68] The second season premiered on September 13, 2007 to 5.3 million viewers.[69] The first season's broadcast in Hong Kong on TVB Pearl received the largest audience in the country for a foreign drama. The series premiere obtained an average of 260,000 viewers while the first season finale obtained an average of 470,000 viewers.[70] The second season's premiere received an average of 270,000 viewers.[71]


[edit] Home media
DVDs Episodes[72] Discs Release dates
Region 1 Region 2 Region 4
Season One 22 6 August 8, 2006[73] September 18, 2006[74] September 13, 2006[75]
Season Two 22 6 September 4, 2007[76] August 20, 2007[77] September 17, 2007[78]
Season Three 13 4 August 12, 2008[79] May 19, 2008[80] December 3, 2008[81]
Season Four 24 6/7 June 2, 2009 July 6, 2009[82] July 15, 2009[83]

The DVD and Blu-ray Disc sets of each season are released after their television broadcast and are available in various regions. At the 2006 International Consumer Electronics Show, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment announced that the complete first season of Prison Break was to be released on Blu-ray in early 2007.[84] The release date was later announced to be November 13, 2007 and Prison Break became the first television show to be released on Blu-ray Disc by Fox. The Blu-ray box set contains six discs and includes all the DVD box set's special features.[85] A DVD set containing the first three seasons was released on May 19, 2008 in Region 2.[86] In Australia, and possibly all other regions, Prison Break Season 4 will be released, along with Prison Break: The Final Break, and is being promoted as a seven-disc set which includes the television movie finale.[87]


[edit] Online distribution
In addition to the television broadcast of the show, episodes of Prison Break have also been released on the Internet. Towards the end of the first season, episodes of Prison Break were made available for purchase online at the iTunes Store, which began on May 9, 2006. After the premiere of the second season of Prison Break, Fox began allowing online streaming of the current episode for free via more than 50 websites including AOL, Google, and Yahoo!, as well as its own extensive network. However, this was restricted to the United States only. The first three episodes of the second season were broadcast commercial free, available for a week after their television broadcast date.[88] Online streaming of episodes was postponed after the third episode. However, due to the show's three-week broadcast hiatus prompted by Fox's broadcast of the Major League Baseball playoff games in October, a strategy was developed by News Corporation (the parent company of Fox Broadcasting Company and MySpace) in an attempt to maintain their viewers' interest in the show. Starting from October, Fox began to stream past episodes of the second season on the social networking site MySpace and websites of the network's owned and operated stations (the stations are part of the Fox Television Stations Group). Although commercials were aired throughout the broadcast, the episodes were free of charge.[89]


[edit] Other media
A spin-off series, Prison Break: Proof of Innocence, was produced exclusively for mobile phones and was broadcast first to Sprint customers in April 2006 via on SprintTV's Fox station. The first episode of Proof of Innocence became available on the Internet for viewing on May 8, 2006. This was an exclusive deal made between Toyota Motor and News Corporation's Fox network, allowing Toyota to sponsor exclusive content of the show and to obtain advertising exclusivity.[90] During the show's third season, a series of six online shorts, collectively known as Prison Break: Visitations, were made exclusively for Fox. They feature the characters Lechero, Sammy, McGrady, T-Bag, and Bellick. They were distributed on the Internet and are available for free from iTunes.

In printed media, the show's tie-in products include an official magazine and a book written in an in-universe perspective. The official magazine, published by Titan Publishing, was launched on November 21, 2006. Each issue contains interviews with selected cast and crew members with other feature stories. The tie-in novel, Prison Break: The Classified FBI Files (ISBN 1-4165-3845-3), contains details of the show's characters pertaining to the second season's storyline. Written by Paul Ruditis, the book is published by Simon & Schuster and was released on May 8, 2007.[91] There is also a live feature called "Prison Break LIVE!", created by The Sudden Impact! Entertainment Company, which is an interactive experience aimed at bringing to life the atmosphere from the television series. The attraction toured the US, Australia, UK, China, Germany and Mexico from 2006 to 2008.[92] A video game based on Prison Break was in development for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 for release in February 2009, but was canceled when the company shut down.[93][94] Development restarted when the game's developer, Zootfly, found a new publisher for a fall release date.[95]According to some sources, the game has a tentative release date of September 30th, 2009, however this seems highly unlikely as there has yet to be any promotional ads shown or any details released.


[edit] References
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^ Fernandez, Maria Elena (14 January 2009). "Fox's Kevin Reilly says it's ready to set 'Prison Break' free". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/20...nment/et-presstour14 (http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jan/14/entertainment/et-presstour14). Retrieved on 16 January 2009.
^ "Prison Break Post-Finale on the Way to Blu-ray". Los Angeles Times. 14 January 2009. http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=2576. Retrieved on 16 January 2009.
^ a b Dallas Film Commission (15 May 2006). "Dallas Welcomes Hit Television Series". Press release. http://www.dallascvb.com/media...id=127&category=5374 (http://www.dallascvb.com/media/press_releases.php?id=127&category=5374). Retrieved on 17 January 2007.
^ "Prison Break: Season 1". IGN. http://tv.ign.com/objects/825/825147.html. Retrieved on December 22, 2008.
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^ "Prison Break: Season 3". IGN. http://tv.ign.com/objects/895/895366.html. Retrieved on December 22, 2008.
^ Wyatt, Edward (20 August 2006). "In Prison Break, an Actor's Job Is Never Safe". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08...c=rss&pagewanted=all (http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/20/arts/television/20wyat.html?ei=5088&en=6e08162b93261691&ex=1313726400&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=all). Retrieved on 13 September 2007.
^ a b "Prison Break success shocks creator". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. 27 January 2006. http://www.smh.com.au/news/tv-...ullpage#contentSwap2 (http://www.smh.com.au/news/tv--radio/prison-break-success-shocks-creator/2006/01/27/1138319425109.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap2). Retrieved on 19 May 2007.
^ a b c Mitovich, Matt Webb (8 August 2006). "Prison Break DVD News, Season 2 Preview!". TV Guide. http://www.tvguide.com/news/Pr...Break-DVD-38536.aspx (http://www.tvguide.com/news/Prison-Break-DVD-38536.aspx). Retrieved on 17 January 2009.
^ a b Goldman, Eric (13 March 2007). "Paley Fest: Prison Break". IGN. http://tv.ign.com/articles/772/772555p1.html. Retrieved on 23 March 2007.
^ a b "Prison Break Scoop Direct from the 2007 Paley Festival". TheTVAddict.com. 10 March 2007. http://thetvaddict.com/2007/03...2007-paley-festival/ (http://thetvaddict.com/2007/03/10/prison-break-scoop-direct-from-the-2007-paley-festival/). Retrieved on 19 May 2007.
^ Prison Break Season 1 DVD, (2006), audio commentary from episode "Riots, Drills and the Devil (Part 1)".
^ "Into the heart of darkness". The Age. January 26, 2006. http://www.theage.com.au/news/...4/1138066797049.html (http://www.theage.com.au/news/tv--radio/into-the-heart-of-darkness/2006/01/24/1138066797049.html). Retrieved on 19 July 2009.
^ a b c Ryan, Maureen (24 August 2005). "Joliet prison is a 'Break'-out star". The Chicago Tribune. http://featuresblogs.chicagotr...joliet_prison_i.html (http://featuresblogs.chicagotribune.com/entertainment_tv/2005/08/joliet_prison_i.html). Retrieved on 5 December 2005.
^ Idato, Michael (1 February 2006). "Inside Prison Break: Chain male". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/tv-...ullpage#contentSwap1 (http://www.smh.com.au/news/tv--radio/inside-prison-break-chain-male/2006/01/28/1138319488697.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1). Retrieved on 10 October 2006.
^ a b Zoromski, Brian (17 March 2006). "Set Visit: Prison Break". IGN. http://filmforce.ign.com/articles/696/696707p1.html. Retrieved on 16 January 2009.
^ Downie, Stephen (7 February 2007). "Making a run for it". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.news.com.au/dailyte...5974-5006014,00.html (http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,21185974-5006014,00.html). Retrieved on 15 January 2009.
^ "New 'Prison Break' to be filmed in Dallas". MSN. The Associated Press. 15 May 2006. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/200...cle.aspx?news=223366 (http://web.archive.org/web/20071102131545rn_1/tv.msn.com/tv/article.aspx?news=223366). Retrieved on 17 January 2009.
^ Morrison, Lacie (14 September 2006). "A major production". Mineral Wells Index. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/200...ord=leadpicturestory (http://web.archive.org/web/20061101143331/http://www.mineralwellsindex.com/homepage/local_story_257103654.html?keyword=leadpicturestory). Retrieved on 17 January 2009.
^ Ryan, Maureen (18 August 2006). "Getting out was the easy part: Season 2 of 'Prison Break'". The Chicago Tribune. http://featuresblogs.chicagotr...getting_out_was.html (http://featuresblogs.chicagotribune.com/entertainment_tv/2006/08/getting_out_was.html). Retrieved on 15 September 2006.
^ Moon, T. (11 March 2007). "'Prison Break' hits beach". Pensacola News Journal. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/200...0311/NEWS01/70311006 (http://web.archive.org/web/20070914082540/http://www.pnj.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070311/NEWS01/70311006). Retrieved on 17 January 2009.
^ Sayres, Scott (12 February 2007). "Incentives Would Draw More Film, TV Productions". FOX 4 News. http://www.myfoxdfw.com/myfox/...de=TSTY&pageId=3.2.1 (http://www.myfoxdfw.com/myfox/pages/News/Detail?contentId=2360275&version=3&locale=EN-US&layoutCode=TSTY&pageId=3.2.1). Retrieved on 16 January 2009.
^ Weatherford, Angela (13 December 2007). "A little bit of Hollywood". Athens Review. http://www.athensreview.com/lo...story_347090054.html (http://www.athensreview.com/local/local_story_347090054.html). Retrieved on 14 December 2007.
^ "Panama 'shaken, not stirred' by shooting of Bond flick". Screen. 9 February 2008. http://www.screenindia.com/old...php?content_id=18890 (http://www.screenindia.com/old/fullstory.php?content_id=18890). Retrieved on 10 December 2008.
^ Pergament, Alan (29 July 2008). "Television series is a working vacation for actor from Cheektowaga". The Buffalo News. http://www.buffalonews.com/ent...tv/story/402310.html (http://www.buffalonews.com/entertainment/moviestv/story/402310.html). Retrieved on 7 December 2008.
^ "Prison Break (Original Television Soundtrack)". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B000UAEB8W. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
^ McDowell, Jeanne (17 October 2006). "Helping TV Hits Translate Overseas". Time. http://www.time.com/time/arts/...8599,1547027,00.html (http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1547027,00.html). Retrieved on 12 November 2006.
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^ a b Dos Santos, Kristin (January 14, 2008). "Prison Break Is Ending". E!. http://www.eonline.com/uberblo...on_break_ending.html (http://www.eonline.com/uberblog/watch_with_kristin/b78824_prison_break_ending.html). Retrieved on 14 January 2009.
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Lizard
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation).
Lizards
Fossil range: 199–0 Ma Pre??OSDCPTJKPgNJurassic- Present


Central bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Superclass: Tetrapoda

Class: Reptilia

Order: Squamata

Suborder: Lacertilia*
Günther, 1867

Families
Many, see text.

Lizards are a very large and widespread group of squamate reptiles, with nearly 5,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica as well as most oceanic island chains. The group, traditionally recognized as the suborder Lacertilia, is defined as all extant members of the Lepidosauria (reptiles with overlapping scales) which are neither sphenodonts (i.e., Tuatara) nor snakes. While the snakes are recognized as falling phylogenetically within the anguimorph lizards from which they evolved, the sphenodonts are the sister group to the squamates, the larger monophyletic group which includes both the lizards and the snakes.

Lizards typically have limbs and external ears, while snakes lack both these characteristics. However, because they are defined negatively as excluding snakes, lizards have no unique distinguishing characteristic as a group. Lizards and snakes share a movable quadrate bone, distinguishing them from the sphenodonts which have a more primitive and solid diapsid skull. Many lizards can detach their tails in order to escape from predators, an act called autotomy, but this trait is not universal. Vision, including color vision, is particularly well developed in most lizards, and most communicate with body language or bright colors on their bodies as well as with pheromones. The adult length of species within the suborder ranges from a few centimeters for some chameleons and geckos to nearly three meters (9 feet, 6 inches) in the case of the largest living varanid lizard, the Komodo Dragon. Some extinct varanids reached great size. The extinct aquatic mosasaurs reached 17.5 meters, and the giant monitor Megalania prisca is estimated to have reached perhaps seven meters.

Contents [hide]
1 Physiology
2 Evolution and relationships
2.1 Lizard diversification
2.1.1 Iguania
2.1.2 Gekkota
3 Relationship with humans
4 Classification
5 References



[edit] Physiology

A feral Jackson's Chameleon from a population introduced to Hawaii in the 1970s.Sight is quite important for most lizards, both for locating prey and for communication, and as such, many lizards have highly acute color vision. Most lizards rely heavily on body language, using specific postures, gestures and movements to define territory, resolve disputes, and entice mates. Some species of lizard also utilize bright colors, such as the iridescent patches on the belly of Sceloporus. These colors would be highly visible to predators, so are often hidden on the underside or between scales and only revealed when necessary.

A particular innovation in this respect is the dewlap, a brightly colored patch of skin on the throat, usually hidden between scales. When a display is needed, the lizards erect the hyoid bone of their throat, resulting in a large vertical flap of brightly colored skin beneath the head which can be then used for communication. Anoles are particularly famous for this display, with each species having specific colors, including patterns only visible under ultraviolet light, as lizards can often see UV.



[edit] Evolution and relationships

The fossil mosasaur Prognathodon, a varanid.The retention of the basic 'reptilian' amniote body form by lizards makes it tempting to assume any similar animal, alive or extinct, is also a lizard. However, this is not the case, and lizards as squamates are part of a well-defined group.

The earliest "lizard" was superficially lizard-like, but had a solid, box-like skull, with openings only for eyes, nostrils, etc (termed Anapsid). Turtles retain this skull form. Early anapsids later gave rise to two new groups with additional holes in the skull to make room for and anchor larger jaw muscles. Those with a single hole, the Synapsids, gave rise to the superficially lizard-like Pelycosaurs which include Dimetrodon and the Therapsids, including the Cynodonts, from which would evolve the modern mammals.

The Diapsids, possessing one temporal fenestra before the eye and one behind it, continued to diversify. One branch, the Archosaurs, retained the basic Diapsid skull, and gave rise to a bewildering array of animals, most famous being the crocodilians, the pterosaurs, the dinosaurs and their descendants, birds. The Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs radiated from the same basal Diapsid group.

The smaller Lepidosaurs which would give rise to the lizards began to reduce the skull bones, making the skull lighter and more flexible. The modern Tuatara retains the basic Lepidosaur skull, distinguishing it from true lizards in spite of superficial similarities. Squamates, including snakes and all true lizards, further lightened the skull by eliminating the lower margin of the lower skull opening.


[edit] Lizard diversification
Within the Lacertilia are found four generally recognized suborders, Iguania, Gekkota, Amphisbaenia and Autarchoglossa, with the "blind skinks" in the family Dibamidae having an uncertain position. While traditionally excluded from the lizards, the snakes are usually classified as a clade with a similar subordinal rank.[1]


[edit] Iguania

Anoles mating, Gainesville, FLThe suborder Iguania, found in Africa, south Asia, Australia, the New World, and with iguanas colonizing the islands of the west Pacific, form the sister group to the remainder of the squamata. They are largely arboreal, and have primitively fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, but this condition is obviously highly modified in the chameleons. This clade includes the following families:

Family Agamidae – Agamid Lizards, Old World Arboreal Lizards
Family Chamaeleonidae – Chameleons
Family Corytophanidae – Helmet Lizards
Family Crotaphytidae – Collared Lizards, Leopard Lizards
Family Hoplocercidae – Dwarf and Spiny Tail Iguanas
Family Iguanidae – American Arboreal Lizards, Chuckwallas, Iguanas, Iguanids
Family Opluridae – Malagasy Iguanas
Family Phrynosomatidae – North American Spiny Lizards
Family Polychrotidae – Anoles and kin
Family Tropiduridae – Tropidurid Lizards

[edit] Gekkota
Active hunters, the Gekkota includes three families comprising the distinctive cosmopolitan geckos and the legless flap-footed lizards of Australia and New Zealand. Like snakes, the geckos and the flap-footed lizards lack eyelids. Unlike snakes, they use their tongue